Disaster profile & Disaster management procedure in India
VI th sem ,JNA&FAU
PLANNING & MANAGEMENT FOR DISASTERS
2. Over view
• Definitions for disaster and floods
• Types of floods
• Causes of floods
• Floods impacts
• Flood forecasting
• Flood management
• Flood zoning
• Case study(Vijayawada)
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• Disaster is a natural or human , caused
phenomenon, which causes serious
disruption of the functioning of a
community or a society causing
widespread human, material, economic
and environmental losses which elicited
the ability of the affected community,
society to cope using its resources.
• Floods are a common feature in the
country that occur every year in many
parts including South India.
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4. FLOODS ARE NATURAL PHENOMENA.
FLOODS ARE WATER RELATED DISASTER
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5. OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
• To identify the causes of floods
• To describe the overall impact of flooding
• To formulate a strategy for the flood affected
areas in Vijayawada, with reference to
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A flood occurs when the Geomorphic
Equilibrium in the river system is disturbed
because of intrinsic or extrinsic factors or
when a system crosses the geomorphic
(a) Flooding in a river due to aggradation of
river bed (intrinsic threshold);
(b) Flooding in a river due to heavy rainfall
Floods in major cities especially
during rainy season are proving to
disastrous not only to the
environment but also have serious
implications for human life and
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Source: FLOOD DISASTERS AND
7. TYPES OF FLOODS
• Types of floods
• According to their duration flood can be divided into different categories:
•Slow-Onset Floods: Slow Onset Floods usually last for a relatively longer period, it may last for
one or more peeks, or even months.
•Rapid-Onset Floods: Rapid1Onset Floods last for a relatively shorter period, they usually last for
one or two days only.
•Flash Floods: Flash Floods may occur within minutes or a fe1w hours after heavy
rainfall, tropical storm, failure of dams or levees or releases of ice dams. And it causes the
greatest damages to society.
8. The soil becomes
overland flow and
through flow reach
the river and
Overland flow arrives
The time from peak rainfall to peak
discharge is the LAG TIME.
The discharge starts to
fall slowly as water is
added from through
flow and groundwater
flows which are much
The base flow supplies
the river with water
between storms and
keeps it flowing in
summer.Rainfall is intercepted
or infiltrated into the
soil moisture store
Start of the storm there is a
slow rise in discharge, as only a
small amount of water falls
into the channel
Tsunami, Glacial Melt,
Estuarine & Marine Flood
Eg: bursting of landslide
blockades in the catchment
areaof the Bhagirathi River in
August 1978 (Gupta and Dave,
Release from Reservoir,
Eg: In the year 2009,Almatti
and Naryanpur dams on the
Krishna River in Karnataka.
This water along with rain
water reached Andhra Pradesh
near the Srisailam dam. It
causes a hevy floods in
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This varies seasonally. The type and
amount will affect interception and
stemflow/throughfall. Overland flow is
reduced. Lag time will be increased.
Impermeable rocks prevent groundwater
flow and encourage through flow and
overland flow. These rocks will decrease
lag time. Permeable rock will have the
LAKES & RESERVOIRS
These will store floodwater and
thus reduce lag time and control
river response to heavy rainfall.
SOIL TYPE & DEPTH
Deep soils store more
water, pipes in the soil
encourage through flow.
Soils with small pore
spaces will reduce
infiltration and increase
created by urbanisation will
reduce infiltration and
encourage overland flow.
Different types of crops
affect interception rates e.g.
RAINFALL INTENSITY & DURATION
Intense rain will increase overland
flow and reduce lag times. Gentle
rain over a longer time will allow
Steep slopes will encourage
overland flow and gentle
slope will slow run off down.
The distribution of rainfall over the
year and the temperatures will
affect the lag times.
12. FLOODS IMPACTS
• Human Loss
• Property Loss
• Affects the Major Roads
• Disruption of Air / Train / Bus services
• Spread of Water-borne Communicable Diseases
• Communication Breakdown
• Electricity Supply Cut off
• Economic and Social Disruption
• Increase in Air / Water Pollution
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13. Flood forecasting
• Anticipating floods before they occur allows for precautions to be taken and
people to be warned so that they can be prepared in advance for flooding
• For example,
– Farmers can remove animals from low-lying areas and utility services can put in place
emergency provisions to re-route services if needed. Emergency services can also make
provisions to have enough resources available ahead of time to respond to emergencies as
• In order to make the most accurate flood forecasts for waterways, it is best to
have a long time-series of historical data that relates stream flows to
measured past rainfall events
• Radar estimates of rainfall and general weather forecasting techniques are
also important components of good flood forecasting.
14. Flood Control
• In many countries around the world, waterways prone to floods are often carefully
managed. Defences such as levees, bunds, reservoirs, and weirs are used to prevent
waterways from overflowing their banks.
• In the riparian zone near rivers and streams, erosion control measures can be taken
to try and slow down or reverse the natural forces that cause many waterways
to meander over long periods of time.
• Flood controls, such as dams, can be built and maintained over time to try and
reduce the occurrence and severity of floods as well.
15. Flood benefits
• Floods (in particular more frequent or smaller floods) can also bring many
benefits, such as
– Recharging ground water,
– Making soil more fertile and increasing nutrients in some soils.
• Flood waters provide much needed water resources in arid and semi-arid regions
where precipitation can be very unevenly distributed throughout the year.
• Freshwater floods particularly play an important role in maintaining ecosystems in
river corridors and are a key factor in maintaining floodplain biodiversity.
• Flooding can spread nutrients to lakes and rivers, which can lead to
increased biomass and improved fisheries for a few years.
• For some fish species, an inundated floodplain may form a highly suitable location
for spawning with few predators and enhanced levels of nutrients or food.
• Fish, such as the weather fish, make use of floods in order to reach new habitats.
Bird populations may also profit from the boost in food production caused by
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• Urban regions with more than 5 million population
• Mumbai, Assam, Jammu and Kashmir and Bihar.
• Brief review of floods with the help of secondary sources of data
• Urban Regions with more than 3 million population.
• Visakhapatnam and Vijayawada(case study area) urban region.
• Brief review of floods with the help of secondary sources of data.
• Hyderabad(Musi river)
• .Brief review of floods with the help of secondary sources of data
17. Floods in India
Floods cause damage to houses, industries, public utilities and property
resulting in huge economic losses, apart from loss of lives.
Though it is not possible to control the flood disaster totally, by adopting
suitable structural and non-structural measures the flood damages can be
Parameters Area liable to Floods
Total Damage Rs.13,400 million
Area Affected 8.11 million hectare
Crop Area Affected 3.57 million hectare
Human Lives Lost 1579 Nos.
Cattle Lost 95,000 Nos.
24. Total flood damage state wise and for
the union territory of Delhi
The macro-flood zones of
India may be broadly grouped
into the following zones:
(a) Brahmaputra River Basin,
(b) Ganga River Basin,
(c) North-West Rivers Basin,
(d) Central India and Deccan
25. 2012 Brahmaputra floods
This was another sorrow caused to Assam in recent years.
In July 2012, Brahmaputra and its tributaries showed its
wrath and since it was natural but it grabs a spot at number
2 and eye-catching event because the main area which was
affected included Kaziranga National Park, a park which is
the natural habitat of Rhinos. It cause a death of 540
animals including 13 Rhinos. The main reasons behind this
calamity is the deforestation in the area of passing by of
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26. 2010 Ladakh Floods.
It was 6th August 2010, when the series of
natural disasters started to take place in
Ladakh, a regional part of J&K (Jammu and
Kashmir). It was accompanied with
cloudburst, debris flows and Flash floods from
Himalayan. Causality was less than 300 but
a great loss of property was reported. Areas
of Leh were also affected and it caused a loss
of total Rs. 133 crores INR.
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27. 2005 : Maharashtra flood
This was the major and the most devastating
disaster occurred in Maharashtra, mainly
engulfing areas of
Mumbai, Chiplun, Khed, Kalyan, Ratnagiri
and Raigad. The main problem arose with the
people on the road and which caused a traffic
jam and with it came the loss of people. A
total of 5000 people were reported for the
death toll. The date 26 July 2005 has been
marked as one the BLACK DAY in the history
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28. 2004 Bihar Flood
Being considered as a flood prone area, Bihar is again in
the list because of 2004 flood which it suffered. It was
stated that a total of 883 people lost their lives and more
than 3000 animals were killed. One of the most
horrifying disaster caused almost a loss of Rs.
1,03,049.60 Lakh. Rivers, primarily, Gandak, Kosi,
Mahananda, Bagmati, Budhi had already crossed the red
mark while on the other hand Ganga first time in its
history crossed the red mark in Farrakka Barrage.
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29. STATE PERSPECTIVE
• Latest reports said 150
villages in Srikakulam,
Guntur and the east and west
Godavari districts were
submerged. Around 67,000
people had been evacuated.
Crops spread over 2.5 lakh
hectares of farmland were
under water and schools
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32. Local Perspective of Floods
23RD AND 24TH AUGUST, 2000
• 24cm rainfall for 24 hours
• 77 slums washed away
• 35,000 affected
• 142 people killed
• 90 residential areas under water (10 – 15 feet)
• More than 100 colonies submerged in water
28th September, 1908
• 15,000 people killed
• 19,000 houses demolished
• 80,000 dwellings demolished
• Average flood water level 15 – 20 feet
• Construction of Osman Sagar (1914), Himayat Sagar (1927).
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33. Approaches & measure for long , short
term protection from floods in India
• Attempts to modify the floods: involves flood protection by physical
measures such as
• Construction of embankments
• Construction of detention reservoirs
• Channel improvements etc.
• Attempts to modify the susceptibility to flood damage: involves action
designed to reduce the vulnerability of property and other developmental
activities in the flood plains to the flood hazard
• Attempts to modify the loss burden: Consists of actions to modify the
incidence of losses, by spreading them over a large segment of
• Bearing the loss: Bearing the loss means living with floods
35. • FLOODS CAN NOT BE ABSOLUTELY
• FLOODS CAN ONLY BE MANAGED TO
REDUCE FLOOD LOSSES
36. INDISCRIMINATE ENCROACHMENT
INCREASING ECONOMIC AND
DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN FLOOD
LACK OF REGULATIONS
INADEQUATE DRAINAGE SYSTEM
LACK OF DISASTER PREPAREDNESS
37. • MODIFY THE FLOODS
• MODIFY THE SUSCEPTIBILITY TO
• MODIFY THE LOSS BURDEN
• BEAR THE LOSS
38. FLOOD PLAIN ZONING
FLOOD ONCE IN 25 YEARS
FLOOD ONCE IN 100 YEARS
III IIII III I
45. FLOOD FORECASTING AND WARNING
PRESENT SYSTEM - SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
RIVER STAGE &
RIVER STAGE &
FORECASTING STATIONS RAINFALL
F.M. O. OF I.M.DFLOOD FORECASTING
CENTRES & CONTROL ROOMS
P & T
POLICE FLOOD COMMITTEE
F.M.O OF I.M.D
CWC HQ MINISTRY OF WR
46. FLOOD MANAGEMENT
• Use of Remote Sensing and GIS
• Research and Development
• Weather / Rainfall Forecasting
• FF Modelling
• Capacity Building
• International Cooperation
50. FLOOD PLAIN ZONING
• AN IMPORTANT NON-STRUCTURAL MEASURE.
• REGULATES LAND USE IN FLOOD PLAINS TO RESTRICT
DAMAGE BY FLOODS.
• INVOLVES DEMARCATION OF ZONES IN FLOOD PLAINS
COMPATIBLE WITH FLOOD RISKS INVOLVED.
51. FLOOD PLAIN ZONING
PRIORITY - I
ACTIVITY LIMITED TO WATER LEVELS CORRESPONDING TO
100 YEARS FLOOD FREQUENCY AND DRAINAGE
CONGESTION FOR 50 YEARS RAINFALL.
52. FLOOD PLAIN ZONING
PRIORITY - II
ACTIVITY LIMITED TO LEVELS CORRESPONDING TO
25 YEARS FLOOD FREQUENCY AND DRAINAGE CONGESTION
FOR 10 YEARS RAINFALL FREQUENCY.
54. FLOOD MANAGEMENT
• Focused Approach
• Basin Wise Action Plan
• Flood Plain Zoning
• Role of Central Government
• Funding of Planned Flood Management Works
• Adequacy of Flood Cushion in Reservoirs
55. National Disaster Management Guidelines
• To minimise vulnerability to floods and consequent loss of lives, livelihood systems, property
and damage to infrastructure and public utilities
• Flood damage assessment be made on a realistic and scientific basis and recorded basin-
• Performance evaluation of a large number of FM schemes be carried out and their impact
on the socio economic development of the protected area be assessed.
• The use of flood plains be regulated and a suitable legislation for flood plain zoning be
enacted and enforced.
• Water Resources planning and construction be basin wise and basin organisations be set up.
• Storages in various forms is an important component of the package of measures for FM
and flood space in reservoirs be provided to the extent feasible and flood control not
relegated to a non- priority activity as against competing water requirements for
hydropower and Irrigation purposes.
• International dimensions of problem of floods be kept in mind and the GOI should play an
important role in the matter.
• Requisite funds be made available for construction of new and maintenance of existing
• Emphasis be laid on research, education and training on FM.
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• The city is situated at the foot of a low range
hills on the northern bank of the river
Krishna with its cardinal points as 16° 31’
North latitude and 80° 37’ East
longitude, around 70 km away from the coast.
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60. Topographic Details
• The land lay of Vijayawada is characterized by four canals,
four hills and the holy river Krishna. Vijayawada when
approached from Guntur is welcomed by the historic gates
across the holy river Krishna. The way to Machilipatnam
runs parallel to Budamerru canal and crosses two other
There are four major hills:
a) Indrakiladri hill
c) Gunadaa Hill
d) Moghalrajapuram hill
e) Gollapalem Gattu Hill
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61. Krishna River
• The River Krishna takes of its origin in the western Ghats at an elevation
of (+) 1336 Mts and runs for a length of about 1400 Km and runs
through Vijayawada city and joins at Bay of Bengal The length of Krishna
River up to Prakasam Barrage is about 1310 km and the length from
Prakasam Barrage to Puligadda Aqueduct is 64.00 kms.
• The flow of the river is managed partially by the Nagarjuna Sagar dam
which is located to the west of Krishna District and Prakasam Barrage
which is located at the beginning of the city.
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62. Krishna river flow details and distance of dam to dam
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The Krishna Flood bank Above Prakasam Barrage is about 13KM and
bellow flood bank is 6.40 Km which creates havoc in flood season which starts
from June to December. Water release from barrage with 4,12,734
to 10,94422 Cusecs is been observed over the years.
63. Details of Flood Banks In Krishna District
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64. Index plan of Krishna River Flood Banks
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68. Reasons for Krishna Flood
This region receives maximum rainfall both by southwest and retreating
The primary reason for the flooding is the unauthorized settlements along
the river which had taken place due to lack of planning and enforcement.
Vijayawada is located on the line which separates the delta-irrigated lands
Flood bank below barrage is about 6.40 Km which creates havoc in flood
season from June to December.
High Water release at time from barrage with 4,12,734 to 10,94422
Cusecs of water released in various years.
Developmental activities like sluice connectivity to into the river is causing
back water(3 sluices connected into river)
Bund cutting for public private developmental activities (ex: sluice, storm
water drains) approach roads for bigger vehicles.
Allotting the residential areas officially in flood zone. Ex: Police colony.
• trespassing the river bunds by people
• damage to the river bunds by rodents
• Breach occurrence and damages occurred to the
flood bank with slips and erosion.
• Negligence and helpless condition making people
to stay at the houses even after passing the
• With little authoritative power over the
settlements along the flood banks, the irrigation
department is unable to attend swiftly in
Mitigation measures are very important phase of disaster management. They will
help to reduce the loss and increase the capacity of people in managing the
The potential forecast outlook can be translated into early warning messages and
initiate preventive/preparedness actions.
• As per the building byelaws 1981, no permission to construct a building on site
shell be granted , if the site is with in 9 meters of the highest water mark of a
• Further the authority may require the floor of the lowest styorey of such building
to be raised above the normal minimum flood level of the adjoining to ground or
to such other level as the authority may prescribe Shift or restrict the people living
in flood banks to safe place by providing all aminities
• Krishna Bund strengthening at Krishna lanka, ranadheevinagar, Bhupesh Gupta
• Krishna bund construction from police colony to yanamala kuduru
• Raising the free board of Krishna flood bunds from 1.5 metre to 2 meters.
• Shift the habitants of the flood zone of Budameru temporary or permanent to safe
shelters after announcing the warning
• Stop plowing / occupying the budameru bund from singh nagar to NSC Bose
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• Providing Road side rain water drains at banadar road
• Providing Road side rain water drains Ayyappanagar Road
• Providing Under ground drainage and sewer lines and
construction of sump cum [Pump house
• Construction of Flood banks for Krishna River and Budameru
• Renovation or construction of safe schools and providing safety
equipment at schools
• Provision of Food to lactating mothers and Infants and children
under 6 years reconstruction of rubbish or spoiled roads in many
points of the city to protect form water stagnation
• Identify the high milkproduction and other animal or bird
production areas, based on that preference should be given to
provide all measures to those cattle and birds safety and
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76. Before the Disaster During the Disaster After the Disaster
• Learn warning signs and community alert
During a flood watch • Don't return home until authorities
express itis safe to do so
• Stockpile emergency building materials
• Install check valves in sewer traps to
prevent flood waters from backing up in
• Plan and practice an evacuation route
• Have disaster supplies on hand
• Develop an emergency communication
in case of separation
• Ask an out-of-state relative to serve as the
• Teach family members how and when to
turn off the gas, electricity, and water and
teach children how and when to call 9-1-1
• Ask your insurance agent about flood
• Turn on battery operated radio to get
latest emergency information
• Get pre-assembled emergency
• If told to leave, do so immediately.
• Climb to high ground and stay there
• Avoid walking through any
• If in a car, turn around and go another
way; if your car stalls, abandon it
immediately and climb to higher
During an evacuation:
• If advised to evacuate, do so
immediately to avoid flooded roads,
being sure to follow recommended
evacuation routes and listen to radio for
• Help neighbors whom may need assistance
• Use extreme caution when entering
• Inspect foundations for cracks or other
damage and examine walls, floors, doors,
windows to make sure that the building is
in danger of collapsing
• Watch out for animals, especially
snakes, that may have come into your home
with flood waters
• Watch for loose plaster and ceilings that
• Take pictures of damage for insurance
• Look for fire hazards
• Throw away all food (including canned)
has come in contact with flood waters
• Pump out flooded basements gradually (~
1/3 amount of water per day) to avoid
• Service damaged septic tanks, cesspools,
pits, and leaching systems ASAP – damaged
sewage systems are health hazards.
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• State of being ready to react promptly and effectively in an
event of emergency (systematic way approach). Being
prepared for severity vulnerability of the disaster .
Preparedness plan ( a holistic integrated approach)
Specific Region , Area, Purpose
Deploying Officers Incharge To Take Care With
Strategy Development For Activities Likely To Be
Undertaken At A Local Situation( Resource Analysis To
Identify Government Bodies Which Can Respond
Establishment Of Emergency Operating Centres
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78. Emergency Operating centre(EOC) /Control room :
• An emergency operations center, or EOC, is a central command and
control facility responsible for carrying out the principles of emergency
preparedness and emergency management, or disaster management
functions at a strategic level in an emergency situation, and ensuring the
continuity of operation of a company, political subdivision or other
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• Dealing with incoming emergency calls and
prioritizing them taking the necessary
information from the caller
• Recording details of incidents on computer
• Providing necessary advice and guidance
• Dispatching an emergency services team to deal
with the incident.
• Maintaining contact with the team at the scene
of the incident to keep up to date with the
situation and ensure staff safety.
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80. Warning Stages
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1st-Warning - When flood level reaches
12ft. at Prakasam
2nd Warning - When flood level reaches
15 ft. at Prakasam
3rd Warning - When flood level reaches
17 ft. at Prakasam
Occurs immediately / during following disaster
Designed to provide emergency assistance to the
victims of the event and reduce the likelihood of
occurrence of secondary damage
5 STAGE PROCESS
2. Immediate public safety
3. Property security
4. Public welfare
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Final phase of disaster management cycle
It is the longest phase out of all until system return to
normalcy / nearly to normalcy
Complete redevelopment of damage
Restoration of vital services like watersupply, social
infrastructure to minimum standards of operation and
Mike announcement of flood discharge and awareness
of people to evacuate the people to be submerged houses.
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84. Water Supply
• Identify the effected areas substitute with good and quality of water.
• Keep the stock of Chlorine.
• Identify and keep ready the list of sources of water in unaffected areas.
• Check and Identification of low lying areas in the ward.
• Check the water samples for residual chlorine, microbial substitutes and treat
Duties of Medical Teams in Rehabilitation Centers
• List out the below 5 years age children’s and supply the milk and food (medicated).
• List out the pregnancy ladies and take sufficient medical treatment.
• List out the old / unhealthy people and take sufficient medical treatment.
• Arrangements for fogging to control the mosquitoes and fly’s.
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85. Shelter Management
• Departments women and Child welfare, Revenue, Civil supplies and Municipal Corporation
must play a major role in Shelter management.
• Adequate numbers of buildings or open space shall be identified where relief camps can be
set up during emergency and updated in the plan.
• The relief camps should provide with adequate provision of drinking water and bathing,
sanitation and essential health-care facilities.
• Adequate securing arrangements shall be made by local police.
• Adequate lighting arrangements shall be made in the camp area including at water points,
toilets and other common areas by the Municipal Engineering Department.
• Explore the possibility of provision of food through community kitchens, provision of
education through the restoration of schools and anganwadis in effected areas.
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86. Duties of Civil Supplies
• Necessary free distribution of food shall be made to those who ever need in
the shelter and effected areas.
• Wherever possible dry rations shall be provided for home cooking.
• Community Kitchen for mass feeding shall be organized only for an affected
people do not have the means to cooks.
• While providing food assistance, local food practices shall be kept in mind
and commodities being provided must be carefully chosen, in consultation
with the affected population.
• Food must be of good quality, safe to consume, and appropriate and
acceptable to recipients.
• Food distributed should be of appropriate quality and fit for human
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87. Duties of Police Department
• City Police officer will make arrangements for providing adequate number of mobile
VHF sets up to sub-division/ward Police stations for meeting the exigencies.
• List out trained persons responsible at sub division and ward level Police stations for
disaster management activities with details of address and phone numbers. Provide
this list to Dist Collector and Municipal Commissioner and concerned line
• Adequate security arrangements shall be made by local police at the shelters and
Duties of Irrigation Department
• Flood preparedness plan for the city is to be prepared.
• Update and inform about the floods at higher reaches.
• Check your stores keep ready Inventory and instruments.
• Keep ready the emergency material which ever required at the out falls at Krishna
lanka river bank.
• A report on activities and work status of Budameru drain should be submitted
immediately and an office of concerned work must be attended to the next meeting.
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88. In Conclusion
While we can never contract with the future or
accurately predict all of the consequences of
our actions and policies, policymakers must
extend their thinking about their impacts and
the impacts of private entities beyond the
local, the near term, the likely, and the recently