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A.Levenchuk -- Systems Engineering Thinking

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Anatoly Levenchuk keynote "Systems Engineering Thinking" at SkoltechOn conference, 23-oct-15

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A.Levenchuk -- Systems Engineering Thinking

  1. 1. Systems Engineering Thinking Anatoly Levenchuk SkoltechOn 23-oct-2015
  2. 2. Systems Engineering: dealing with complexity. 2 Systems Engineering (SE) is an interdisciplinary approach and means to enable the realization of successful systems. It focuses on holistically and concurrently understanding stakeholder needs; exploring opportunities; documenting requirements; and synthesizing, verifying, validating, and evolving solutions while considering the complete problem, from system concept exploration through system disposal. http://sebokwiki.org/wiki/Systems_Engineering_%28glossary%29 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program Apollo landings (1969-1972) Apollo Program • 24 astronauts orbited Moon • 12 astronauts walked on Moon • 382kg of lunar soil and rocks returned to Earth
  3. 3. How to make such people? Hunting and gathering Settled farming
  4. 4. Notion of a System • Holarchy (hierarchy with wholeness and emergence) • Definition (modeling) vs realization (4D Individ) • Functional vs constructional perspectives, and plurality of other perspectives • System subjectivity (System Approach 2.0): – Stakeholders/roles and performers/actors. – Enable system perspectives: life cycle vs project/process/case perspectives, and plurality of other perspectives – System of Systems notion on the base of system ownership 4
  5. 5. System approach in systems engineering standards and public documents • BKCASE, Body of Knowledge and Curriculum to Advance Systems Engineering (2015), http://www.bkcase.org/ • IEC 81346 (2009), Industrial systems, installations and equipment and industrial products -- Structuring principles and reference designations -- Part 1: Basic rules • ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288 (2015) Systems and software engineering - System life cycle processes, • ISO 15926-2 (2003), Industrial automation systems and integration -- Integration of life-cycle data for process plants including oil and gas production facilities -- Part 2: Data model. • ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010 (2011), Systems and software engineering - Architecture description, • OMG Essence (2014) – Kernel and Language for Software Engineering Methods, specification http://www.omg.org/spec/Essence/Current 5
  6. 6. System in the eyes of the beholders (stakeholders). Theatre metaphor Stakeholder is role vs. actor/performer, office/position, rank System approach 2.0, based on human action
  7. 7. Holon part-whole relationship 7 System of interest (using system) (system in operation environment) (subsystem) Subsystem (System of interest) (Using system) (system in operation environment) Using system (system-of-interest) (system in operation environment) (subsystem) Enable system
  8. 8. System of Systems conditional part-whole relationship Enable system
  9. 9. Holarhy zoom – select Leidraadse (2008), Guideline Systems Engineering for Public Works and Water Management, 2nd edition, http://www.leidraadse.nl/
  10. 10. There are 4 systems here: System of interest Requirements System of interest Constraints (Architecture) Using system Stakeholder needs 10 1 2 4 Enabling system System in operation environment 3
  11. 11. Interdisciplinary Plurality (on one system level, even without holarchy) On base of Fig.3 ISO 81346-1 -Module =Component +Location All specialties • Mechanics • Cinematics • Electrics • Electronics • Control software • Fluid dynamics • Strength • Temperature • Noise • Vibration • … All life cycle stages • Inception • Design • Construction, manufacturing • Operation • Maintenance • Modernization • Retirement PLM/ALM, ERP, EAM • Product model • Project model 11
  12. 12. System definition and system description ISO 42010 + OMG Essence 12
  13. 13. Basic system structures ISO 81346 • =Components • -Modules • +Locations • Multiple variants of representations of each system aspect. • This is only basic system aspects, there are multiple other system structure types! • Rare completely separated. Usually presented in hybrid form. 13
  14. 14. Component diagrams (principal schemas) 14
  15. 15. Module diagram examples (1) 15 FR160B PCB 2-Layer USB Portable Power Module -- - Green (3.5 x 2.6 x 1.5cm) Model FR160B Quantity 1 Color Green Material PCB Features Input: 5V/800mA; Output: 5V/1A; LED lightening; With protection board on COB; Output current limited protection Application Great for DIY project Other ON (Press button) / OFF (Automatically) Packing List 1 x Module
  16. 16. Module diagram examples (2) Intellect stack 1. Application 2. Cognitive architecture 3. Learning algorithm 4. Numerical libraries and frameworks 5. Scientific computing programming language 6. Hardware acceleration of computations 16 http://www.slideshare.net/Techtsunami/cn-prt-iot-v1 http://www.w3.org/2001/12/semweb-fin/w3csw http://ailev.livejournal.com/1210678.html Semantic web stack Networking Layer Comparison
  17. 17. Hybrid diagrams • There are few ontology engineers, you should not expect too much formalism. • Most of system descriptions are hybrid (with components and modules are mixed). • Terminology can differ (e.g. “component” can be “functional element” and even “module”). 17
  18. 18. Logical and physical architectures matching ISO 81346-1 Figure 7 18 Logical architecture (component structure, functional decomposition) iteratively match with physical architecture (module structure, work product decomposition).
  19. 19. Multiscale * beyond life cycle <<< Inception Architecture Non- architecture part of design Manufacturing Operation>>> Using system IT-1 IT-2 IT-3 IT-4 IT-5 Macro IT1 IT2 IT3 IT4 IT5 Meso IT6 IT7 IT8 IT9 IT10 Micro IT11 IT12 IT13 IT14 IT15 Nano IT16 IT17 IT18 IT19 IT20 Specialization/professionalization in each cell, plus expansion to neighbors Integration at a product level: overall table (enabling eco-system!) CAD/CAM/codes/PLM/CAE/ERP/EAM/… need to be/will be integrated! Substance (system) levels * realization (life cycle) levels 19
  20. 20. Practice = discipline + technology Disciplined (competent in domain) performers Supported with needed for a discipline tools and work products. 20 Components/alpha – how it is working Modules/work products – how it makeable
  21. 21. Domain and endeavor • Domain/discipline = thinking (operations with abstract typed objects). Changing every 30 years. Studied in schools and universities. • Technologies/way of working = tools and work products (thinking with an exocortex). Changing in every 5 years. Trained in workplace. • Link between discipline and technology, discipline and real life should be trained with a help of a teacher. 21 There is no one word from a textbook in real life There is no one work from real life in a textbook =Components, functional elements, Alphas =Modules, constructive elements, work products
  22. 22. Project Essence Diagram 22 Engineering management Engineering Technology management Using system Technology management and entrepreneurship System of interest Enabling system
  23. 23. 23 System life cycle practices drive alphas http://arxiv.org/abs/1502.00121 Systems Engineering Essence
  24. 24. V-diagram (OMG Essence for systems engineering) 24http://arxiv.org/abs/1502.00121
  25. 25. Project components/alphas: state changes 25 Systems Engineer CTO Project manager Time, resources, works System definition and realization Practice = discipline + technology System of interest Using system (influence) Enabling system (way of working) Enabling system (endeavor)
  26. 26. System and project life cycle (OMG Essence for systems engineering) 26 satisfied in use represented recognized benefit accrued Solution needed viable identified used for retirement consisted used for operation conceived retired parts demonstrable operational closed prepared under control concluded initiated formed collaborating seeded foundation established in place working well principle established stakeholders opportunity system definition system realization work team way of working inception development deployment испытания manufacturing retiredadjourned ready used for verification involved satisfied for deployment adressed started performingused for production raw materialsIn agreement in usevalue established http://arxiv.org/abs/1502.00121
  27. 27. 27 Thank you! Anatoly Levenchuk, TechInvestLab, president INCOSE Russian chapter, research director http://ailev.ru ailev@asmp.msk.su