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Examples of ideas for the training

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Examples of ideas for the training

  1. 1. Examples of ideas for the training 2008 - AS022 Repelling sharks through the magnetic stimulation of the ampullae of lorenzini Brooks Daniel Ruder Keystone Upper School, San Antonio, TX People have long searched for safe, reliable ways to repel sharks from beaches and commercial fisheries. Repellants are often harmful or fatal to sharks. This project’s goal was to move towards creating diving and fishing gear with magnetic properties that repel sharks by utilizing their ampullae of Lorenzini. This project examined the reaction of Whitespotted Bamboo Sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) to high strength neodymium iron boron magnets (NIBMs) in both territorial and feeding situations. Because these sharks hide in tubes, two types of tubes (magnetic and non-magnetic) were placed in the shark pools. The number of times the shark swam into each tube was recorded. To simulate a feeding situation, dishes with or without magnets were placed in a feeding apparatus with four pieces of food. It was hypothesized that in both situations, the NIBMs would slow, if not completely stop, feeding or territorial behavior. In both tests, one shark was never tested with magnets as a control. The sharks swam into the non- magnetic tubes 286 times, and the magnetic tubes 31 times. The probability of this happening by chance is less than 0.0001%. The feeding test data appears inconclusive, although there may be a small deterrent effect. In conclusion, NIBMs strongly repel sharks in territorial, although not in feeding, situations. If strong magnetic fields can repel sharks, the goal is to eventually incorporate magnets into aquatic activity gear as a repellent, which could provide a cheap and strong barrier to recreational divers, sport fishermen, and tribal fishermen alike. Awards won at the 2008 ISEF Fourth Award of $500 - Animal Sciences - Presented by Third Award of $1,000 - United States Coast Guard  2010 - AS304 How beach sediment composition and tide level affect the size and age distribution of butter clams (saxidomus giganteus) Auriel Catherine Clark, Lindsay Clark, Juneau-Douglas High School, Juneau, AK Beach elevations between 2.0 feet and -4.0 feet at Middle Point, near Juneau, Alaska were sampled to determine how beach sediment composition and tide levels affect the size and age distribution of butter clams. Butter clams found in each sampling quadrate were counted and saved for later measurements of size, weight, and age. Sediment samples were also collected to determine substrate size composition by sieving through graduated screens. Statistical analysis showed that there are significant differences in age composition and sizes of butter clams from different tide levels, but no significant difference in age or size composition by sediment composition. However, there are small though statistically insignificant decreases in average age and increases in abundance with increasing percent of sediment less than 500 microns. The results also indicated that butter clams are most abundant between -3 and 0 feet in tidal elevation with the highest abundance at -1.0 feet. The oldest clams were found at 0 feet tide level with an average age of 25.3 years. The youngest clams were found at tide levels -3 and + 2 feet. The survey method developed for this study
  2. 2. and the suite of data selected for collection and analysis could be used to determine age and size structures, year class strengths as indicators of recruitment events, relative abundance, and habitat requirements for other species of clams. These data are essential for development of strategies for sustainable harvest and culture of this resource. One surprising finding of our study was that many butter clams are far older than maximum ages previously reported in the literature. This may result in more conservative harvest guidelines in the future for this species than would otherwise have been prescribed. 2005 - BO014 The use of seaweed compost as an organic fertilizer Augusto Raul Perez Colegio San Jose, San Juan, Puerto Rico ABSTRACT:<br><br>In this research seaweeds were used as organic fertilizer. A total of six cubic feet of dry seaweeds were collected from Pinones Beach in Carolina, Puerto Rico. To produce the seaweed compost, a process of microbiological decomposition was used. They were washed with water, exposed to the sun until dried, and shredded in small pieces. Three plants were used in the experiment: Kidney Beans (A) (Phaseolus Vulgaris), Coriander (B) (Coriandrum Sativum) and Basil(C) (Ocimum Basilicum). Three soil types were used. First, Common backyard soil, was used as control. Second, the control soil was mixed with a commercial fertilizer whose chemical composition is known and finally the control soil mixed with the seaweed manure. Twenty seven plants were used. The plants were placed on a backyard. Twelve of the twenty seven plants germinated. In groups 1(A), 1(B) and 1(C), plantations using clay soil (control), did not sprout. Also, the Kidney beans did not germinated in any of the three soils. First, with a minimum time and effort (eighty days of composting), the seaweeds released enough nutrients which promoted the growth of basil and coriander plants. Second, it was scientifically demonstrated that the only cause for the plant growth in groups 3(B) and 3(C) was the nutrients released from the seaweed compost. Results encourage future investigations, which could lead to proving scientifically the utility of using seaweed compost, and thus the opportunity of converting a nuisance to public beaches into a solution to the need of an ecological use of farmlands.<br><br> Awards won at the 2005 ISEF Second Award of $500 - American Society for Horticultural Science 2004 - EA052 Driving on the beach: a comparison of total petroleum hydrocarbon levels Cristina Theresa White Spruce Creek High School, Port Orange, FL, USA The purpose of this experiment was to determine if the sand from beaches with vehicular traffic have more total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) than sand from beaches without traffic. Fifty-one samples of beach sand were analyzed from the high tide zone on contiguous beaches that either allow driving or do not allow driving. Samples were obtained from the surface, 5cm below the surface, and 12cm below the surface. TPH was extracted from 10 grams of beach sand per sample with 10 mL of methanol. The resulting solution was filtered and evaluated using a field UF Fluorometer calibrated to EPA standards. The total average TPH on the areas with cars was 2.58 parts per million (ppm) while the total average on the areas without cars was 0.636 ppm. There are 303% more TPH on the areas with cars. The average TPH at the surface with cars was 5.31 ppm where the surface without cars was 0.692 ppm. There are 667% more TPH on the surface where cars are
  3. 3. allowed. The differences were statistically different using the t-statistic evaluated at p< 0.05. Organic compounds and phosphates were also tested, and there were higher concentrations of both where cars were allowed. The amount of hydrocarbons found on both beaches is very small. What is significant is that there is a detectable difference between the two beaches. Driving on the beach appears to have a significant effect on the total TPH, organic compounds, and phosphates found in the sand and washing out into the ocean. Awards won at the 2004 ISEF Third Award of $1,000 - Earth and Space Sciences - Presented by Intel Foundation Award of Merit of $250 - Society of Exploration Geophysicists 2003 - EA301 The wave machine: an assay determining how bottom composition and contour affect wave height and wave period and its correlation to beach erosion Joshua William Schadow, Brady Robert Bigalke Edgewater High School, Orlando, Florida, United States of America There are no two waves that are exactly comparable. Waves consist of many elements and have been examined by Marine Scientists and Geophysists. Our investigations tested which ocean bottom compositions and ocean bottom contours would create the least benign wave for coastal shorelines. This information will be used to make correlations to effects of the waves that are created to beach erosion.<br><br> <br><br> An 8- foot x 2-foot x 1-foot tank was constructed out of plexi glass, steel, and wood. The reservoir was constructed from the same materials and also included a plastic sink and cement. The reservoir was 2-feet x 2-feet x 1 1/2 –feet. After it was built, we sealed and filled it with water. The reservoir was used to create waves by releasing the water and then letting the water accelerate through opening in the reservoir. When first tested a wave was created with success and experimentations began.<br><br> The diverse bottom compositions tested; included sand, debris and rocks. After 30 trials of experimentation with different compositions, the results concluded debris created the largest wave with an average of 5.7”. It is believed that the debris created the largest wave because debris had the densest materials when compared with rocks and sand.<br><br> The bottom contours tested included different sandbar locations and a beach. After 40 trials in the tank using different contours, the largest wave was created with the sandbar placed towards the front of the tank at a height of 4.65”.<br><br> <br><br> 2008 - EE052 Can a smaller mechanism be developed to sift sandy areas? Kyla Elizabeth DeWees Westside High School, Macon, GA On beaches all around the world people are in danger of stepping on harmful debris when they are walking to the shore on small sandy paths. The debris left on these paths and other areas, such as children's playgrounds, can be harmful to the public. I have had personal experience with stepping on dangerous debris so I wanted to address the problem of not having a smaller sand cleaning mechanism on the market. I have developed a sifting mechanism that will clean up debris in the small areas that large machines cannot reach. This mechanism uses a timing belt with a series of 1/4" hardware cloth scoops that are 6 inches wide. These scoops can pick up a large variety of debris that present potential health and safety hazards to the public. The timing belt system includes a hand crank that is mounted on a stationary frame made of 3/4" PVC pipe. The sifting mechanism has 6 inches of working space and can fit into small areas that cannot be reached by larger machines. The mechanism I have developed is stationary but I hope to one day develop it into a moving product in order to make small sandy areas cleaner and safer for the public.
  4. 4. 2009 - EM010 A hairy situation Sarah Ida Tedesco Bradenton Preparatory Academy, Bradenton, FL The purpose of this project was to discover an affordable, biodegradable material that will efficiently absorb crude motor oil in an oil spill situation. I tested human hair, witch hazel, pine shavings, and organic biodegradable cat litter. I contacted an oil waste company to dispose of my oil. <br><br> I took large, plastic containers and filled the bottom with sand from the beach. I added shells and seaweed to replicate an oceanic habitat. I placed ten quarts of salt water from the gulf. I covered the oceanic habitat with one cup of crude motor oil. I covered the oil with one of the selected biodegradable materials. I conducted three trials for all four of the subjects using two different distillation methods. I used both a skimming method and a funneling system to measure the amount of crude oil that the specified material had absorbed. <br><br> The human hair was the most absorbent material. The hair made the oily oceanic water clear for two of the three trials for each distillation method. I took my results and tried to come up with a plausible way to use my material. That gave me the idea of creating a net made of nylon and human hair to act as a sponge.<br><br> My original hypothesis of human hair absorbing the most oil was correct. The hairy net on a larger scale could be the perfect clean up method for a surface oil spill. Awards won at the 2009 ISEF First Award of $1,000 and a plaque - American Veterinary Medical Association Fourth Award of $500 - Environmental Management - Presented by Intel 2010 - EM310 Determining the best geological makeup of sand for man-made beaches Kaela Renee Stender, Caitlyn Smith, Edward Clark High School, Las Vegas, NV The purpose of this project was to determine which sand would be best to use when constructing man-made beaches. Sand from man-made beaches has been known to run-off, covering nearby coral reefs and ultimately killing them. “Best” in terms of the project is geological substances that produce the least displacement, thereby saving coral reefs. <br><br>A wave generator was designed for this project. Each sample of sand was mixed with water, and weighed for a starting point. Then 15 waves were manually generated with two second intervals. Visual and weight displacements were recorded. Between each trial the mechanism was rinsed and dried. Trials were repeated three times per sand type.<br><br>Visual and weight displacement data was then gathered and averaged for each sand type. The sand from Sunset Beach in California was the best, producing a 0.5 oz average mass displacement and a 4.33 cm average visual displacement, the least amount of each type. The sand from Siesta Key Beach in Florida was the worst, producing a 2.067 oz average mass displacement and a 16 cm average visual displacement, the most of both types of displacement. <br><br>To avoid killing off coral reefs when constructing beaches, it would be helpful to know which type of sand produces the least displacement therefore protecting the marine environment around the beach.
  5. 5. 2010 - EV327 Global information system and global positioning system in reducing endangerment of dermochelys coriacea (leatherback turtles) nesting habitats in st. Croix, vi Mendrell Symphorien, Jaleel Benjamin, Stephanie Rhoden St. Croix Educational Complex, Kingshill, St. Croix, VIRGIN ISLANDS Endangered Dermochelys coriacea (Leatherback Sea Turtles) have been tracked and studied on St. Croix, Virgin Islands for over 26 years. Nesting is prevalent on two beaches on the island. As it is their nesting medium; sand grain size, vegetation and crest were studied as a possible factor affecting Leatherback nesting trends on St. Croix beaches. Leatherback turtles have been classified endangered since 1980 with a decline in the population from approximately 43,000 to 26,000 nesting females annually, compared to 115,000, (Federal Register, 1999).<br><br>This project investigated, using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Global Positioning the nesting habitats of Leatherback Sea Turtles in St. Croix, Virgin Islands. Using sieve analysis, sand samples were studied from vegetation lines, crests and water lines from over 49 beaches on St. Croix with 147 samples. Sand was collected; dried through high voltage heating and sifted using a sieve shaker measured in micro meters. Comparisons were made on sand quality from vegetation line, beach crest and water line on each of the 49 beaches studied. Results of this investigation indicated that Dermochelys coriecea (Leatherback Turtles) prefer certain sand quality for nesting. Determinations were based coarse grain size, color, texture, vegetation and water line. Using the GIS and the GPS systems, nesting areas can be predicted, marked and protected from elements that are commonly associated with nesting disturbances. <br><br>Further studies are needed to determine how area mapping can be used to increase the endangered population of the Leatherbacks (Dermochelys coriecea) 2006 - EA303 Hurricanes forces of nature Daniel O. Caballero, Laura Torres James Pace High School, Brownsville Tx., United States. The purpose of this experiment is to prove how salinity of water might have a direct effect on formation of hurricanes by experimentation, recreating weather conditions during this phenomenon on a hurricane generator box with a control variable known as normal sea water first used on its original form and then diluted with tap water recreating the polar cap melting occurring on the poles, proving that because of the changes in weather, the water composition around the globe has changed therefore, during this year a much higher rate of hurricane formation than previous years generating them at a faster rate, and every time stronger than the previous. The salt water without changes created a mini hurricane at a slower rate than the controlled experiment of sea water diluted with tap water, and besides of taking less time the hurricane cloud was ticker because the evaporation rate was faster during the controlled experiment proving that with a less salty composition of water not only hurricanes can form faster but they also grow stronger causing a season of hurricanes this year incredibly active and dangerous