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Integrated approaches to restore degraded multifunctional landscapes in Ethiopia

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What are the drivers of land degradation?
Why restoration?
How to restore?
How to evaluate and monitor change?
What knowledge gap?

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Integrated approaches to restore degraded multifunctional landscapes in Ethiopia

  1. 1. Integrated approaches to restore degraded multifunctional landscapes in Ethiopia Ermias Betemariam, Leigh Winowiecki, Tor-Gunnar Vagen Sant’Anna Pisa , 22 Jan 2019
  2. 2. • What are the drivers of land degradation? • Why restoration? • How to restore? • How to evaluate and monitor change? • What knowledge gap? 1 Outline
  3. 3. • How can drivers of degradation can be reversed, • What function is to be restored for whom (objectives), • Who has rights, obligations (responsibilities) and stakes? (including restoration after planned destruction in the case of mining contracts), • What means are appropriate (do nothing, support natural processes, or plant and manage), • What incentives and investment is needed and how can this be sourced, • How all of the above can be managed in a multi-stake-holder process, supported by monitoring and evaluation 2 Key questions in land degradation
  4. 4. 3 Uncertainty in land degradation Gibbs & Salmon, 2015 Ermias Betemariam, ICRAF, 22 Jan 2019, Santa’Anna Uncertainty about defining and assessing land degradation have played a major role in lack of policy action
  5. 5. Risk framework 4Ermias Betemariam, ICRAF, 22 Jan 2019, Santa’Anna
  6. 6. “Yield gaps as poverty traps” Tittonell and Giller (2013) Shifting cultivation as driver for forest loss in Africa Classifying drivers of global forest loss (Curtis et al. 2018) Poor soil fertility and nutrient availability are the major biophysical limitations 5Ermias Betemariam, ICRAF, 22 Jan 2019, Santa’Anna
  7. 7. • Maintain or improve the sustainable delivery of ecosystem services; • Maintain or improve productivity, in order to enhance food security; • Increase resilience of the land and populations dependent on the land; • Seek synergies with other social, economic and environmental objectives; and • Reinforce responsible and inclusive governance of land 6Ermias Betemariam, ICRAF, 22 Jan 2019, Santa’Anna Why restoration?
  8. 8. 7Ermias Betemariam, ICRAF, 22 Jan 2019, Santa’Anna Why restoration? Global Land Restoration Agenda
  9. 9. The LDN Logic Model 8Ermias Betemariam, ICRAF, 22 Jan 2019, Santa’Anna How? Restoration approach Avoiding degradation of non-degraded Lands - enhancing the productivity of cropland and pastoral land per unit area, time and input rather than expanding the area of land in production
  10. 10. • Start with the big picture • Consider all available information, including expert knowledge, in making a causal decision model • Project ranges (probability distributions) of decision outcomes that acknowledge our uncertainties • Quantify which knowledge gains would be most valuable for decision-makers • Fill these gaps to improve decisions • Focus monitoring on “sensitive” variables & model updating as a learning process 9Ermias Betemariam, ICRAF, 22 Jan 2019, Santa’Anna Decision focused restoration
  11. 11. The use of land resources, including soils, water, animals and plants, for the production of goods to meet changing human needs, while simultaneously ensuring the long-term productive potential of these resources and the maintenance of their environmental functions. Source: WOCAT 10Ermias Betemariam, ICRAF, 22 Jan 2019, Santa’Anna Sustainable Land Management
  12. 12. 11 Evidence: effects of SLM on the environment Holistic valuation of SLM impacts on ecosystem services is important Understanding the local context Increase in NDVI (proxy to land productivity) could mean land degradation - bush encroached grazing lands in Boraran area Ermias Betemariam, ICRAF, 22 Jan 2019, Santa’Anna
  13. 13. 12 Restore land for multi-functionality
  14. 14. Learn from restoration successes – Tanzania, Shinyanga: Ngitili as a local practice of enclosing degraded areas as a collective property boosting the supply of wood and non-wood products to the agropastoral community – Ethiopia and Kenya: grazing land restoration by exclosures Top-down Bottom-up Closing the gap between topdown and bottomup perspectives on ‘restoratation’ 13Ermias Betemariam, ICRAF, 22 Jan 2019, Santa’Anna
  15. 15. Spectroscopy  Rapid  Low cost  Reproducible  Predicts many soil functional properties 14 Precision Soil and Plant Health Measurement: Driving Agricultural Transformation Capacity development is a priority in Africa (15 countries have soil spectral labs) • Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) • EthioSIS, GhaSIS, NiSIS, TanSIS Ermias Betemariam, ICRAF, 22 Jan 2019, Santa’Anna Land health evaluation and monitoring
  16. 16. 15 Improving small-holder Agricultural statistics through the integration of soil health data into the household socio- economic panel surveys Ermias Betemariam, ICRAF, 22 Jan 2019, Santa’Anna
  17. 17. Africa Soil Information Service Consistent field protocol Soil spectroscopy Coupling with remote sensingPrevalence, Risk factors, Digital mapping Sentinel sites Randomized sampling schemes 16Ermias Betemariam, ICRAF, 22 Jan 2019, Santa’Anna
  18. 18. http://landscapeportal.org/blog/2015/03/25/the- land-degradation-surveillance-framework-ldsf/17
  19. 19. 18Ermias Betemariam, ICRAF, 22 Jan 2019, Santa’Anna
  20. 20. National Soil Organic Carbon Stock Estimates Winowiecki, L., Vågen, T.-G., & Huising, J. (2014). Effects of land cover on ecosystem services in Tanzania: A spatial assessment of soil organic carbon. Geoderma, 263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2015.03.010 19Ermias Betemariam, ICRAF, 22 Jan 2019, Santa’Anna
  21. 21. Mapping SOC stocks at 30 m resolutions and assessing the impact of land degradation Vågen&and&Winowiecki,&2013.&Mapping&of&SOC&stocks& for&spa>ally&explicit&assessments&of&climate&change& mi>ga>on&poten>al.&Environmental&Research&LeHers.&8& Lower SOC stocks in highly eroded especially in grasslands 20Ermias Betemariam, ICRAF, 22 Jan 2019, Santa’Anna
  22. 22. 21 Using a time series improved accuracy of land cover classification and tree cover prediction in comparison to the single images
  23. 23. Demand for science • UNCCD – LDN at the nexus of SGDs: Extending LDN Indicators to address synergies trade-offs – Soil Carbon Gap analysis for targeting interventions – Tools/Methods for monitoring LDN • Lack of accurate baselines for LDN & estimates of soil carbon changes are associated with large uncertainties – Counterbalancing future land degradation • More attention to address past land degradation • But we rarely anticipate (forecast, model, project) likely NEW degradation • GEF • How to use restoration for multiple-benefits: climate, land and biodiversity? • How to monitor change? • AFR100 • Understanding drivers of land degradation • Monitoring progress & learning for adaptive management 22Ermias Betemariam, ICRAF, 22 Jan 2019, Santa’Anna
  24. 24. CGIAR • The “How” of Restoration- Practices, Tools, Methods • Economics and political ecology of restoration – Benefit-cost ratio for grazing land (75) > tropical forest (37) [International Institute for Sustainability) • Policies and Governance of Restoration Demand for science 23Ermias Betemariam, ICRAF, 22 Jan 2019, Santa’Anna
  25. 25. Too many oxpeckers?, Not enough herbivores? Not enough grass? Oxpecker Egret Feeding on ticks, two-way benefits Feeding on insects stirred up; mostly one-way benefits… Embrace complexity as an opportunity for success! 23Ermias Betemariam, ICRAF, 22 Jan 2019, Santa’Anna
  26. 26. Grazie Ermias Betemariam (e.betemariam@cgiar.org) Leigh Winowiecki (L.A.WINOWIECKI@CGIAR.ORG) Tor-Gunnar Vagen (T.VAGEN@CGIAR.ORG)

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