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كتاب خزن حاصلات بستنية

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كتاب خزن وعناية حاصلات بستنية , تأليف الدتور غالب ناصر الشمري,
كلية الزراعة - جامعة ديالى , سنة 2014م

Veröffentlicht in: Lebensmittel
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كتاب خزن حاصلات بستنية

  1. 1. 0
  2. 2. 1 ‫ع‬٠ُ‫ك٣ب‬ ‫بٓؼخ‬ ‫اُيهاػخ‬ ‫ًِ٤خ‬ ‫اُجَز٘٤خ‬ ‫اُؾبصالد‬ ٕ‫في‬ ‫رو٘بد‬ ‫ر‬‫أ‬‫ُ٤ق‬ ‫اُلًزٞه‬ ١‫أُْو‬ ‫ٗبصو‬ ‫ؿبُت‬ ‫َٓبػ‬ ‫اٍزبم‬‫اُؾلائن‬ ‫ٝٛ٘لٍخ‬ ٚ٘‫اُجَز‬ َْ‫ه‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫ل‬ ٠ُ‫ك٣ب‬ ‫عبٓؼخ‬ 5341ٛ4153ّ
  3. 3. 2
  4. 4. 3 ٕ‫في‬ ‫رو٘بد‬‫اُجَز٘٤خ‬ ‫اُؾبصالد‬: : ‫أُولٓخ‬ ‫ط‬ َ٤ٛ‫حُٔلخ‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫حُلٜخى‬ ‫رؼي‬ ‫ٓخ‬ ‫ُظٌِ٘ٞؿ٤خ‬ ‫حَُث٤ٔ٤ش‬ ‫حالٛيحف‬ ٕ‫ح‬ّٞ‫و‬ ‫رخُللخظ‬‫حُلٜخى‬ ‫رؼي‬ َ٤ٛ‫حُٔلخ‬ ‫ؿٞىس‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬٠‫كظ‬ٖٓ ‫حُٔٔظِٜي‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ‫ُٜٝٛٞخ‬ َٜ‫حُٔظ‬ ‫ك٤غ‬،‫ٝحُو٤ٔش‬ ّ‫ٝحُوٞح‬‫ٝكٔخ٣ش‬ ‫حُـٌحث٤ش‬‫ٝٓالٓظٜخ‬ ‫حالؿٌ٣ش‬َ٤ِ‫ٝطو‬‫ٗٔزش‬ ‫حُٔلوٞى‬َ٤ٛ‫حُٔلخ‬ ٖٓ،َ٤ِ‫ُظو‬ ‫حُٔيٍرش‬ ‫ٝحالىحٍس‬ ‫حُزٔ٤طش‬ ‫حُظٌِ٘ٞؿ٤خ‬ ‫ٝطؼظٔي‬ ‫حٌُِلش‬ً‫ح‬‫حُـٌحث٤ش‬ ‫حُٔوِٝٗخص‬ ٖٓ َ٤‫حُٜـ‬ ْ‫ُِلـ‬ ‫ٓ٘خٓزش‬ ٌٕٞ‫ط‬ٌُٝ‫حص‬ ٝ ‫حُٔليٝىس‬ ‫حالٌٓخٗ٤خص‬ُِٖ٤‫ِٔحٍػ‬‫حِٓٞد‬ ٕٝ‫٣ؼظٔي‬ ٖ٣ٌُ‫ح‬َٗ‫حُٔزخ‬ ‫حُظٔٞ٣ن‬ ‫حُ٘خٓ٤ش‬ ٍٝ‫حُي‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫حٌُِلش‬ ‫ػخُ٤ش‬ ‫حُٔؼويس‬ ‫حُظٌِ٘ٞؿ٤خ‬ ٖٓ َ‫حًؼ‬،ٝ‫حُظٌِ٘ٞؿ٤خ‬ ٕ‫ح‬ َٓ‫ٓظٌخ‬ ٍٜٞ‫ٓل‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫ٝطلخكع‬ ‫حٌُِٔلش‬ ‫حُؼخِٓش‬ ١‫حال٣ي‬ ّ‫حٓظويح‬ َِ‫طو‬ ‫حُٔظويٓش‬ ‫حُٔظَٜ٣ش‬ ‫حُ٘خك٤ش‬ ٖٓ،‫ٝطـ٘ذ‬٢‫ك‬ ‫ٝحُلَ٘٣ش‬ ‫حُلطَ٣ش‬ ‫حُٔز٤يحص‬ ّ‫حٓظويح‬ ِٕ‫حُو‬،٢‫حُظ‬‫حُظِق‬ ‫ٗٔزش‬ َِ‫طو‬ ‫هي‬،ٝ ‫ٝحُز٤ج٤ش‬ ‫حُٜل٤ش‬ ‫طخػ٤َحطٜخ‬ ‫ُٜخ‬ ٌُٖ‫ىٍحٓش‬ ُِٔ َ‫حُزيحث‬ ‫حهظَحكخص‬‫ؼخٓالص‬‫ِِٓٔش‬ ‫ٝٛ٘خى‬ ‫حٌُ٤ٔ٤خٝ٣ش‬٢‫ك‬ ‫حُوطٞحص‬ ٖٓ ‫حُلٜخ‬ ‫رؼي‬ ٍٝ‫حُظيح‬ ‫حٗظٔش‬‫ى‬‫حطزخػٜخ‬ ْ‫٣ظ‬٢‫ك‬ َ‫طظٔؼ‬‫حُلٜخى‬ ‫ٓٔخٍٓخص‬،‫ٝ١َم‬ ِ٤ٜ‫حُظـ‬،‫حُظـل٤ل‬ ‫ٝحُؼالؽ‬٢ٍ‫ٝحالرٜخ‬ ‫ٝحُيٍٗخص‬ ‫حُـٌٍ٣ش‬ َ٤ٛ‫حُٔلخ‬ ٢‫ك‬، ‫حُظؼزجش‬ ‫ر٤ٞص‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫حٓظويحٜٓخ‬ ٌٖٔ٣،ُ‫ح‬ ‫حُظـِ٤ق‬ ‫ٝ١َم‬‫ظ‬٢‫ؿٞىس‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫طلخكع‬ ِ‫ٝطو‬ ٍٜٞ‫حُٔل‬ٍ‫حالَٟح‬ َ. ٕ‫ح‬‫كلع‬‫ٓ٘ول‬ ‫كَحٍس‬ ‫ىٍؿخص‬ ٢‫ك‬ َ٤ٛ‫حُٔلخ‬ٓ ‫٠ش‬ْ‫الث‬ٍٜٞ‫ٓل‬ ٌَُ ٞٛٝ٠ٔٔ٣‫ٓخ‬(‫حُللع‬‫رخُظزَ٣ي‬)‫الٓ٤ٔخ‬‫ك٤ٜخ‬ ٠‫ٓؼ‬ ٢‫حُظ‬ ‫حُلخٍس‬ ‫حُٔ٘خ١ن‬ ٢‫ك‬ ّ‫حُوي‬ ٌ٘ٓ ٕ‫حالٗٔخ‬.‫ٓخثيس‬ ٌٕٞ‫ط‬ ٢‫حُظ‬ ‫حُزخٍىس‬ ‫حُطز٤ؼ٤ش‬ ‫حُٔ٘خ١ن‬ ٖٓ ‫حٓظلخى‬ ‫كوي‬ ‫حُـزِ٤ش‬ ‫حَُٔطلؼخص‬ ٢‫ك‬ّ‫حٓظوي‬ ً‫ح‬ ،٢‫ك‬ ‫حُظزَ٣ي‬ ‫١ز٤ؼ٤ش‬ ُٕ‫ًٔوخ‬ ‫حٌُٜٞف‬ ُٞٔ‫ح‬‫حُلخٍس‬ ْٓ‫ح‬،‫أ‬‫ح‬ ‫حُٔخء‬ ٍ‫حرخ‬ ُٝ‫٣للع‬ ٢‫ظ‬‫ك٤ٜخ‬ِٚ٤ٛ‫ٓلخ‬‫حُؼِٞؽ‬ ‫كلع‬ ٠‫كظ‬ ‫حُلَحٍس‬ ‫ىٍؿخص‬ ‫ك٤ٜخ‬ ‫طَطلغ‬ ٢‫حُظ‬ َٜٗ‫حال‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫ٜٓ٘خ‬ ‫ُالٓظلخىس‬. ٍٞ‫ؿ‬ ُْ‫حُؼخ‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ‫حُلي٣غ‬ ‫حُظزَ٣ي‬ ‫طو٘٤خص‬ ٍٞ‫طط‬ ‫٣ؼٞى‬1853ّٚٗٞٗ‫ٝهخ‬ ٍُٜٞ٘ٔ‫ح‬(ٍٞ‫ؿ‬ ٕٞٗ‫هخ‬)‫هل‬ ٌٖٔ٣ ٚ٤‫ٝك‬ٞ٢‫ٛ٘خػ‬ ٌَ٘‫ر‬ ‫حُلَحٍس‬ ‫ىٍؿش‬، ‫ٝرؼي‬‫ٓض‬‫ػَ٘س‬١‫حال٣َُ٘ي‬ ُْ‫حُؼخ‬ َٛٞ‫ط‬ ‫ٓ٘ش‬Tomas Androseٕ‫ح‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ٞ‫هل‬١ٌُ‫ح‬ ْ٤‫حَُث‬ َٓ‫حُؼخ‬ ٞٛ ٕٞ‫حٌُخٍر‬ ‫حًٝٔ٤ي‬ ٢ٗ‫ػخ‬ ُ‫ؿخ‬ ‫كَحٍس‬ ‫ىٍؿش‬
  5. 5. 4 َ‫ٓخث‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ِٚ٣ٞ‫طل‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ١‫٣ئى‬،‫كَحٍس‬ ‫ىٍؿش‬ ُ‫ؿخ‬ ٌَُ ٕ‫ح‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ َٛٞ‫ط‬ ‫ًٔخ‬ ‫ػ‬ ‫كَؿش‬َ‫ر‬ ‫كٜخ‬‫ؤ‬٢‫حُ٠ـ‬ ٕ‫ًخ‬ ‫ٜٓٔخ‬ ُ‫حُـخ‬ ‫كٞهٜخ‬ ‫ال٣ظٔ٤غ‬ ٢‫حُظ‬ ‫حُيٍؿش‬ ‫ٜٗخ‬ ٚ٤ِ‫ػ‬ ٢ُِٔٔ‫ح‬‫كخُش‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ٍٞ‫الطظل‬ ‫حُـخُحص‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ‫حُٞهض‬ ‫ًُي‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫ٓخثيح‬ ٕ‫ًٝخ‬ ، ‫حُٔ٤ُٞش‬ٍٞ١ُْٝ‫حُؼخ‬Robert mayer1814-1879ّ‫حُي٣٘خٓ٤ٌ٤ش‬ ‫حُلَحٍ٣ش‬Thermodynamic٢ٛٝ:‫ؿخُحص‬ ّ‫حٓظويح‬ ٢‫ك‬ ْ٤‫حَُث‬ َٓ‫حُؼخ‬ ‫حُظزَ٣ي‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ٍٜٞ‫حُل‬ ‫كٌَس‬ ‫طُٞيص‬ ‫ٜٝٓ٘خ‬ ‫حُظزَ٣ي‬،‫ػِٔ٤خص‬ ٍ‫هال‬ ٖٓ ‫طئى‬ ‫ٓظؼيىس‬ ‫كَحٍ٣ش‬ ‫ى٣٘خٓ٤ٌ٤ش‬ِ٤‫ك‬ ‫ٝطزَ٣ي‬ ‫رخٍى‬ ٢‫ٛٞحث‬ ٍ‫ط٤خ‬ ‫حكيحع‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ١ ‫ٝحٓظـِض‬ ‫ٓؼ٤٘ش‬ ‫ُٓ٘٤ش‬ ‫ٝكيس‬ ٢‫ك‬ ٖ٤‫ٓؼ‬‫حُطَ٣وش‬ ٌٙٛ‫حُـٌحء‬ ‫كلع‬ ٢‫ك‬ٌٕٞ‫ُظ‬ ‫أ‬‫حُظو٘٤ش‬ ٌُٜٙ ‫ٗخؿق‬ ١‫حهظٜخى‬ ‫ططز٤ن‬ ٍٝ،‫رؼي‬‫أ‬َٔ‫طؼ‬ ‫طزَ٣ي‬ ‫حُش‬ ٍٝ‫ح‬ ‫طٜ٘٤غ‬ ْ‫ط‬ ٕ ٢‫ر٠ـ‬ٖ٤‫حُ٘خ٣ظَٝؿ‬َٕ‫ه‬ َٖٓ‫أًؼ‬ َ‫هز‬ُْ‫حُؼخ‬ َ‫هز‬ ٖٓHaborّ‫ػخ‬1864ّ، ّ‫ػخ‬ ٢‫ٝك‬1876ّ٢ِ‫كؼ‬ ٌَ٘‫ر‬ َٗٞ‫ر‬‫ر‬٢٤‫حُٔل‬ َ‫ػز‬ ‫حُٔـٔيس‬ ّٞ‫حُِل‬ َ‫٘و‬ ‫حُظـٔ٤ي‬ ّ‫ر٘ظخ‬ ٖ‫حُٔل‬ ٢‫ك‬ ٢ِٔ١‫حال‬‫طال‬ ،‫حُظزَ٣ي‬ ُٕ‫ٓوخ‬ ٍ‫حرظٌخ‬ ‫ًُي‬،ْ‫ػ‬ ‫رَٔػش‬ ‫حُظزَ٣ي‬ ‫ػِٔ٤خص‬ ‫ططٍٞص‬،٤ُٔ‫ح‬ ‫كٌخٗض‬‫خ‬‫ٍحص‬‫حُٔزَىس‬‫ٝحُطخثَحص‬ ‫حُٔزَىس‬.٢‫ٝك‬1930ّ‫حُٜٞحء‬ ‫طٌ٤٤ق‬ ٍ‫ٓـخ‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ‫حُظزَ٣ي‬ ٚ‫حطـ‬ٝ٢‫ك‬ َ‫حٓظـ‬ ‫حالر٘٤ش‬ ‫طٌ٤٤ق‬‫ٝٛ٘خػ‬‫ش‬‫حُٜٞحء‬ ‫ٌٓ٤لخص‬‫حُؼالؿش‬ ‫ٝظَٜص‬Refrigerator ‫حُٔـٔيس‬ ‫ٝرؼيٛخ‬Freezer. ‫حُل٤خس‬ ‫ٓـخالص‬ ًَ ‫ٝهظ٘خ‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫حُظزَ٣ي‬ َٔٗٝ ‫حُزٔظخٗ٤ش‬ ‫حُلخٛالص‬ ِٕ‫ه‬ ‫١َم‬ ٍٞ‫طط‬ ٖ‫ػ‬ ‫حُٔوظَٜس‬ ‫حُ٘زٌس‬ ٌٙٛ ‫ٝرؼي‬ ِٕ‫رو‬ ٖ٤ٔ‫حُٜٔظ‬ ‫حٌُظخد‬ ‫ٌٛح‬ ‫ٟٓٞٞػخص‬ ٖٓ ‫٣ٔظل٤ي‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ‫حُٔئُق‬ َٓ‫٣خ‬ ‫١الد‬ ٖٓ ‫حُزٔظ٘٤ش‬ ‫حُلخٛالص‬‫حُؼِ٤خ‬ ‫حُيٍحٓخص‬ ‫ٝ١الد‬ ‫حالُٝ٤ش‬ ‫حُيٍحٓخص‬ ُ‫ح‬ ‫ٌٛح‬ ٢‫ك‬ ٕٞ‫ٝحُزخكؼ‬ٍ‫ٔـخ‬ٖ٤ٔ‫ٝحُٜٔظ‬ ‫حالٓخطٌس‬ ٖٓ‫حُزٔظ٘٤ش‬ ‫حُلخٛالص‬ ِٕ‫رو‬ ٢ِٔ‫حُؼ‬ ّٞ‫حُٔو‬ ٖٓ ٌَُ ٕ‫ٝحالٓظ٘خ‬ ٌَُ٘‫رخ‬ ‫حُٔئُق‬ ‫٣ظٞؿش‬ ّ‫حُوظخ‬ ٢‫ٝك‬.‫أ.ى‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫ٓخػي‬ ٖٓ ًَٝ ٢ٗ‫حُلٔيح‬ ‫ٛزخ‬ .‫ى‬ ١ٞ‫حُِـ‬ ّٞ‫ٝحُٔو‬ ‫حُٞٛخد‬ ‫ػزي‬ ‫ٛز٤ق‬ ‫حٌُظخد‬ ‫ٌٛح‬ ‫حهَحؽ‬‫حٍُٜٞس‬ ٌٜٙ‫ر‬. ‫أُؤُق‬ ١‫أُْو‬ ‫ٗبصو‬ ‫ؿبُت‬ .‫ك‬
  6. 6. 5 ٍٝ‫اال‬ َ‫اُلص‬ ‫اُؾصبك‬ ‫ثؼل‬ َ‫اُؾبص‬ ٕ‫كولا‬ ‫أٍجبة‬: ‫٣زيأ‬‫حُزٔظ٘٤ش‬ ‫حُلخٛالص‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫حُلوي‬ٌَ٘ٓ‫ٗو‬ ‫ٝحػ٘خء‬ ٍٜٞ‫حُٔل‬ ٢٘‫ؿ‬ ‫ريح٣ش‬ ‫حُظؼزجش‬ ٢ٗ‫حٝح‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ٍٜٞ‫حُٔل‬،ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٖ٤‫ر‬ ‫حالكظٌخى‬ ‫ٗظ٤ـش‬،‫حُظؼزجش‬ ‫ٝحػ٘خء‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ‫ُللع‬ ‫حُٔوٜٜش‬ ُٕ‫حُٔوخ‬ ٝ‫ح‬ ‫حالٓٞحم‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ َ‫ٝحُ٘و‬،ٖٓ ‫ٗوِٜخ‬ ‫ٝرؼي‬ ‫حالٓظٜالى‬ ‫حٓٞحم‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ُٕ‫حُٔوخ‬،‫حُٔٔظِٜي‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٍٞٛٝ ٠‫ٝكظ‬. َ‫ٝ٣ظ‬ُ‫ح‬ ‫رخُلخٛالص‬ ‫حُلوي‬ ٍ‫ٓويح‬ ‫حٝف‬‫زٔظ‬٢‫ك‬ ‫هخٛش‬ ‫حُ٘خٓ٤ش‬ ٕ‫حُزِيح‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫٘٤ش‬ ٖ٤‫ر‬ ‫حُلخٍس‬ ‫حُٔ٘خ١ن‬(25-75%)‫حال‬ ٖٓ‫ٝرليٝى‬ ‫ٗظخؽ‬(10%)ٍٝ‫حُي‬ ٢‫ك‬ ٝ‫أ‬ ‫حُٔ٤ٌخٗ٤ٌ٤ش‬ ٍ‫ٝح٧َٟح‬ ُُٕٞ‫ح‬ ٕ‫كويح‬ ٝ ‫حُظلٔن‬ َ‫ٗؼظز‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ٌٖٔ٣ٝ ‫حُٔظويٓش‬ ‫ٌٛح‬ ‫ٓٔززخص‬ ٖٓ ‫حُ٘٠ؾ‬ ‫َٓكِش‬ ٍٞ‫ػز‬ ٝ‫أ‬ ‫ٝحُـٌحث٤ش‬ ‫حُ٘ٞػ٤ش‬ ‫حُٜلخص‬ ٍٞٛ‫طي‬ ٣ٝ .‫حُلوي‬٢‫ك‬ ‫حُلوي‬ ‫ٗٔزش‬ ٍ‫ٓويح‬ ‫ٓالكظش‬ ٌٖٖٔٓ ‫ٍث٤ٔ٤ش‬ ‫حٗٞحع‬ ‫ػالػش‬ َ٤ٛ‫ٓلخ‬ َ٠‫حُو‬( ٍٝ‫ؿي‬ ٢‫ك‬1):- ( ٍٝ‫ؿي‬1‫حُٔوِٗش‬ َ٤ٛ‫حُٔلخ‬ ٞ‫رؼ‬ ‫ُظِق‬ ٟٜٞ‫حُو‬ ‫حُليٝى‬ ) ٍٜٞ‫حُٔل‬ّ‫أ٣خ‬ ‫ػيى‬ ِٕ‫حُو‬ ‫حُظلٔن‬ٍَٟ ٢ٌ٤ٗ‫ٓ٤ٌخ‬ ُٕٝ ‫كوي‬َٓ‫ػٞح‬ َٟ‫حه‬ ‫ٓـٔٞع‬ % ‫حُلوي‬ ٞ٤‫ح٧ر‬ َٜ‫حُز‬15015-257-81015-3047-73 ‫حُ٤طخ١خ‬3005-152-351022-33 ْ١‫حُطٔخ‬41-124-62-415-2022-42 ِٕ‫حُو‬ ‫حػ٘خء‬ ‫حُظ٘ز٤ض‬ ‫حُظِق‬ ‫ٓزذ‬sprouting in storage ‫أ‬-‫اُزلَـ‬decay ٣‫ٝحُزٌظ٤َ٣ش‬ ‫حُلطَ٣ش‬ ٝ‫رخ٧َٓح‬ ‫حالٛخرش‬ ٖٓ ‫حُظلٔن‬ ‫٘ظؾ‬،َ‫ٓؼ‬‫ا‬‫ٛخرش‬ َ‫ٓؼ‬ ‫حُٔـَٜ٣ش‬ ‫رخالك٤خء‬ ‫حُزٔظ٘٤ش‬ َ٤ٛ‫حُٔلخ‬BotritisٝPenciallium (ٍُٜٞ‫ح‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫ًٔخ‬1( ٝ )2( ٝ )3(ٝ )4)،٩‫ح‬ َ٘‫ٝط٘ظ‬٢‫ك‬ ‫حالك٤خء‬ ٌٜٙ‫ر‬ ‫ٛخرش‬ ‫ىٍؿ‬َٔ‫ر‬ ‫حَُٔطلؼش‬ ‫حُلَحٍس‬ ‫خص‬‫ك‬ ‫ٌُُي‬ ‫ػش‬‫ب‬ٕ‫حُلَحٍس‬ ‫ريٍؿخص‬ ِٕ‫حُو‬ ٗ‫ح‬ ٖٓ َِ‫٣و‬ ‫حُٔ٘ول٠ش‬‫ظ‬‫حُـَػٞٓ٤ش‬ ‫حالك٤خء‬ ٌٙٛ ٍ‫٘خ‬،‫حُلَحٍس‬ ‫ىٍؿخص‬ ٌُٖ
  7. 7. 6 ‫حُزَٝىس‬ ٍ‫أَٟح‬ ‫طٔزذ‬ َ٤ٛ‫حُٔلخ‬ َٔ‫طل‬ ‫ىٍؿش‬ ٖٓ َ‫حًؼ‬ ‫حُٔ٘ول٠ش‬ Chilling injury،‫ٓٔخ‬٩‫ح‬ َ٤ٜٔ‫ٝط‬ ‫حُوال٣خ‬ ّ‫ٛي‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ١‫٣ئى‬‫حُلطَ٣ش‬ ‫ٛخرش‬ ‫ٝحُزٌظ٤َ٣ش‬،‫حُظل‬ ‫ٓؼخُـش‬ ٌٖٔ٣ٝ‫ٝح‬ ‫ٓ٘خٓزش‬ ‫كَحٍس‬ ‫ريٍؿخص‬ ِٕ‫رخُو‬ ‫ٔن‬ّ‫ٓظويح‬ ِٕ‫حُو‬ ‫أػ٘خء‬ ‫رٜخ‬ ‫حُٔٔٔٞف‬ ‫ٝحُزٌظ٤َ٣ش‬ ‫حُلطَ٣ش‬ ‫حُٔز٤يحص‬‫ٝا‬ ،‫ػِٔ٤خص‬ ‫ؿَحء‬ .‫حُٔظ٠ٍَس‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٍِ‫ُؼ‬ ‫ٝحُظيٍ٣ؾ‬ َُ‫حُل‬ ٖٔ‫ٝك‬ ١َُٔ٘‫ح‬ ًًَ(2009)‫ا‬ٍٕ‫ػٔخ‬ ٢‫ك‬ ٢ٓٞ‫حُـَػ‬ ‫حُظِق‬ ‫ٗٔزش‬ ِ‫حُٔو‬ ُٖٔ٘ٔ‫ح‬‫طلض‬ ‫ٗش‬4°٠ُ‫ح‬ ‫حٍطلؼض‬ ّ5.6٢‫حُظ‬ ِٕ‫حُو‬ ‫ٓيس‬ ‫ٜٗخ٣ش‬ ٢‫ك‬ % ٖ٤‫حٓزٞػ‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ‫حٓظيص‬.ً‫ح‬ ‫حُٜ٘ق‬ ‫كٔذ‬ ‫حُلوي‬ ‫ٗٔزش‬ ‫ٝطوظِق‬ّ‫حٗخٗخ‬ ‫رط٤ن‬ ‫كوي‬ 9.78‫ٝرط٤ن‬ %Golden beauty10.84‫كوي‬ ٖ٤‫ك‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫ُٜٝٗخ‬ ٖٓ % ٢ُ‫كٞح‬ ١ٝ‫ه٠َح‬ ‫ٛ٘ق‬19.21ٚٔ‫ٗل‬ ‫هخ١غ‬ ‫ٝٛ٘ق‬ %18.24ٖٓ % ‫ُٔيس‬ ِٕ‫حُو‬ ‫رؼي‬ ‫ُٜٝٗخ‬َ٘‫ػ‬ ‫هٔٔش‬ٓٞ٣‫آ‬. ‫ٍٛٞس‬(1)ُ‫ح‬ ‫حالٛخرخص‬‫لطَ٣ش‬٢‫ك‬.ٍ‫حُو٤خ‬ ٍ‫ػٔخ‬‫ٍٛٞس‬(2‫حالٛخرخص‬ ) ‫حُٔوِٗش‬ ْ١‫حُطٔخ‬ ٍ‫ػٔخ‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫حالك٤خث٤ش‬. ‫ة‬-‫أُ٤ٌبٗ٤ٌ٤خ‬ ‫األظواه‬Mechanical injury ٖ‫ٝحُ٘ل‬ ٍٝ‫ٝحُظيح‬ ‫حُلٜخى‬ ‫ػِٔ٤خص‬ ‫أػ٘خء‬ ‫حُٔ٤ٌخٗ٤ٌ٤ش‬ ٍ‫ح٧َٟح‬ ‫طليع‬ ‫ٝؿَٝف‬ ‫ٓطل٤ش‬ ‫ٝطٌَٔحص‬ ٍٟٝٞ ‫كيٝع‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ١‫طئى‬ ٢‫حُظ‬ ‫ٝحُظؼزجش‬،َ‫ٓؼ‬ ‫ح‬ ٖٓ ‫ٓوٞ١ٜخ‬ ‫حػ٘خء‬ ٍ‫ُِؼٔخ‬ ‫طليع‬ ٢‫حُظ‬ َُٟٝٞ‫ح‬ٍ‫٧ٗـخ‬،٢‫حُظ‬ ‫ٝحُـَٝف‬ ‫ُِزطخ١خ‬ ‫طليع‬ٛ‫كٜخى‬ ‫أػ٘خء‬ َٜ‫ٝحُز‬،‫ٔخ‬ٝ‫حكظٌخى‬ ‫ٗظ٤ـش‬ ٍٟٝٞ ‫طليع‬
  8. 8. 7 ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬،‫أ‬‫ٝٓوٞ١ٜخ‬،‫أ‬ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ َ‫هز‬ ٖٓ ‫رؼ٘ق‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٢٘‫ؿ‬ ‫ٝػ٘ي‬،٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫٣ٔخػي‬ ‫ٓٔخ‬ . ‫حالك٤خث٤ش‬ ‫حالٛخرخص‬ ٍ‫حٗظ٘خ‬ ٣٢‫٣ؤط‬ ‫ٓخ‬ ‫رخطزخع‬ ‫حُٔ٤ٌخٗ٤ٌ٤ش‬ ٍ‫ح٧َٟح‬ َ٤ِ‫طو‬ ٌٖٔ:- 1-٢‫ك‬ ‫حُٔ٘خٓزش‬ ‫حُطَم‬ ‫حطزخع‬.‫حُلٜخى‬ 2-ُ‫ح‬ ‫حُٔٞػي‬ ٢‫ك‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ‫كٜخى‬ٌُ‫ٝح‬ ‫ٔ٘خٓذ‬‫حُظ‬ ٝ َ‫حُ٘و‬ ٚ٤‫ك‬ َٔ‫طظل‬ ١ٍٝ‫يح‬ ٝ.ٖ٣ِ‫حُظو‬ 3-ٝ َُٟٝٞ‫ٝح‬ ‫حالكظٌخى‬ ٖٓ َِ‫طو‬ ‫ػزٞحص‬ ّ‫حٓظويح‬٢‫ك‬ ٕٝ‫حُوي‬ .ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ‫ط‬-ٕ‫اُٞى‬ ٕ‫كولا‬:- ‫حُلٜخى‬ ‫رؼي‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٖٓ ‫حُٔخء‬ ‫كوي‬ ٞٛ،‫ٌِٓ٘ش‬ ‫٣ٔزذ‬ ‫ٌٝٛح‬ٌّٖٔ‫ط‬ ّ‫ُؼي‬ ، ‫حُؼَٔس‬ٖٓ‫حُوطق‬ ‫رؼي‬ ‫ٜٓ٘خ‬ ‫حُٔلوٞى‬ ‫حُٔخء‬ ٞ٣ٞ‫طؼ‬،ٕ‫كويح‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ١‫٣ئى‬ ‫ٓٔخ‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫ًَٝٓ٘ش‬ ٍٞ‫ًر‬ ‫ٝكيٝع‬ ُُٕٞ‫ح‬،‫ٓٔخ‬‫طلوي‬‫هٔٔآ‬ ‫ٛخ‬‫ه٤ٔظٜخ‬ ٖٓ ٖ٤ٓ‫ٝك٤ظخ‬ ‫ٝحُ٘ٞػ٤ش‬ ‫حُـٌحث٤ش‬(‫ؽ‬)‫حُظٔٞ٣و٤ش‬ ‫ه٤ٔظٜخ‬ ‫ٝطلوي‬.‫ٝؿي‬ ‫ٝهي‬‫ا‬ٍّٕ‫ػٔخ‬ ‫طلوي‬ ُٖٔ٘ٔ‫ح‬6.04‫حُٔزَى‬ ِٕ‫حُو‬ ٖٓ ٖ٤‫حٓزٞػ‬ ‫رؼي‬ ‫ُٜٝٗخ‬ ٖٓ %،ٝ‫طَطلغ‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ‫حُظِق‬ ‫ٗٔزش‬8.66ٓ ‫حٓخر٤غ‬ ‫ػالع‬ ‫رؼي‬ %( ‫حُٔزَى‬ ِٕ‫حُو‬ ٖٕ‫ػِٞح‬، 2010) ّ،ّٝ٤‫ر‬( ١َُٔ٘‫ح‬ ٖ1986ّ)‫ح‬١ٞ٘‫ٓؼ‬ ٞ‫هل‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ‫حىص‬ ِٕ‫حُو‬ ‫ٓيس‬ ٕ ‫ك‬٧‫ح‬ ٍ‫ػٔخ‬ ُٕٝ ٍ‫ٓؼي‬ ٢ّ‫ؿ‬ِٝ‫حُٔو‬ ٙ‫خ‬ِٗ‫ه‬ ‫ٗش‬‫آ‬‫ٓزَى‬‫آ‬‫ُٔيس‬َ٘‫ػ‬ ‫هٔٔش‬ٝ‫ح‬ ٖ٤‫ػالػ‬‫٣ٞٓخ‬،ٝ‫ا‬ّٕ‫كخكظض‬ ١ٞ‫حُٔج‬ َ‫حُٜل‬ ‫كَحٍس‬ ‫ىٍؿش‬٢‫ك‬ ٍ‫ٓؼي‬ ٠ِ‫حػ‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ُٕٝ،ُ‫ح‬ ‫طِظٜخ‬‫ىٍؿش‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫حُٔوِٝٗش‬ ٍ‫ؼٔخ‬‫كَحٍس‬5°‫حُلوي‬ ‫حُىحى‬ ‫ر٤٘ٔخ‬ ، ّ ٢ٛٝ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ِٕ‫ه‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫حُٔٔظويٓش‬ ‫حُلَحٍس‬ ‫ىٍؿخص‬ ‫حٍطلخع‬ ‫ٓغ‬ ُُٕٞ‫ح‬ ٢‫ك‬(0° ،5°،10°،20) °ّ. °‫ٝهي‬ّ٤‫ر‬(١ٍٝ‫ٝحُي‬ َٟ‫كخ‬ ٖ2007)ٚٗ‫ا‬ِٕ‫ه‬ ‫ػ٘ي‬ ٌُّٔ‫ح‬ ٍ‫ػٔخ‬َٟ‫ؼ‬٢‫ك‬( ِٕ‫ه‬ ‫كَحٍس‬ ٢‫ىٍؿظ‬0°ٝ5) °( ‫ُٔيس‬ ّ20ٝ40ٝ 60ٓٞ٣ )‫آ‬‫ح‬ ،‫ُى٣خى‬‫حُلوي‬ ‫ٗٔزش‬٠ِ‫ػ‬ ُُٕٞ‫ح‬ ٢‫ك‬‫س‬ّ‫ي‬ٓ ٟ‫ٓي‬ِٕ‫حُو‬،ٝ‫أ‬‫ٗٔزش‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫ُٔيس‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٖ٣ِ‫طو‬ ‫ػ٘ي‬ ‫ًخٗض‬ ‫كوي‬60. ‫٣ٞٓخ‬
  9. 9. 8 ( ‫ٍٛٞس‬3. ‫حُزط٤ن‬ ٍ‫ػٔخ‬ ‫طِق‬ ). ‫ٍٛٞس‬(4)ِٕ‫حُو‬ ‫حػ٘خء‬ ‫حُِ٘٤ي‬ ٍ‫ػٔخ‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫حُلطَ٣ش‬ ‫حالٛخرخص‬ ‫ى‬-: َٟ‫حه‬ َٓ‫ػٞح‬-‫ٜٓ٘خ‬ ًٌَٗ ، ٍ‫ٝحُؼٔخ‬ َ٤ٛ‫حُٔلخ‬ ‫ُلوي‬ َٟ‫حه‬ َٓ‫ػٞح‬ ‫طٞؿي‬ :َٜ‫حُل‬ ‫ال‬ ٍ‫حُٔؼخ‬ َ٤‫ٓز‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬- ‫أ‬-: ‫حُظٍِ٣غ‬-ٞٛٝ‫ٓخ‬ّٞ‫ٝحُؼ‬ َٜ‫ٝحُز‬ ‫ُِزطخ١خ‬ ‫٣ليع‬‫حُٔخء‬ ‫٣ٔظِٜي‬ ‫ٝحُظٍِ٣غ‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫حُٔوِٝٗش‬ ‫حُـٌحث٤ش‬ ‫ٝحُٔٞحى‬،ْ‫حُظ٘ل‬ ‫َٓػش‬ ‫ُِ٣خىس‬‫حُٔٞحى‬ ّ‫ٝٛي‬ ، ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫ُ٣خىس‬ ‫حُـٌحث٤ش‬‫أ‬ّٕ‫٣ٔخػي‬ ‫حُظٍِ٣غ‬ْ‫طٜخؿ‬ ٢‫حُظ‬ ٝ‫رخالَٓح‬ ‫حالٛخرخص‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ . ‫حُ٘خٓ٤ش‬ ‫حُـ٠ش‬ ‫حالؿِحء‬ ‫ة‬-‫اُلَِغ٤خ‬ ‫االظواه‬:-ٍٛٝ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ‫طٜ٤ذ‬ ٢‫حُظ‬ ٍ‫حالَٟح‬ ٢‫الطٔززٜخ‬ ‫حُٔـَٜ٣ش‬ ‫حالك٤خء‬،‫حٓزخر‬ ْٛ‫ٝح‬‫حُٔ٘خٓذ‬ ‫رخُٔٞػي‬ ‫حُلٜخى‬ ّ‫ػي‬ ‫ٜخ‬،‫ٝظ‬‫َٝف‬ ‫حُ٘٠ؾ‬ ‫َٓكِش‬ ٍٞ‫ٝػز‬ ‫حُٔ٘خٓزش‬ َ٤‫ؿ‬ ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬over ripeningِٕ‫ٝحُو‬ ‫حُزَٝىس‬ ٍ‫ٝحَٟح‬ ‫ٓ٘خٓزش‬ َ٤‫ؿ‬ ‫كَحٍ٣ش‬ ‫ريٍؿخص‬chilling injury‫ٝحُوِذ‬
  10. 10. 9 ٢٘‫حُز‬Brown heartٝ ،‫حػ٘خء‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫ػخىس‬ ‫حُلِٔـ٤ش‬ ٍ‫حالَٟح‬ ‫طليع‬ َٓ‫ػٞح‬ ‫ٗظ٤ـش‬ ‫حُلٜخى‬ ‫ٓخرؼي‬ ‫ػِٔ٤خص‬‫حُلَحٍس‬ ‫ىٍؿخص‬ ٝ‫حٗولخ‬ ٝ‫ح‬ ‫حٍطلخع‬ ‫حَُ١ٞرش‬ ‫هِش‬ ‫رٔزذ‬ ٝ‫ح‬ ‫ٓلخؿت‬ ٌَ٘‫ر‬ ٝ‫ح‬ ‫رٜخ‬ ٠ُٛٞٔ‫ح‬ ‫حُليٝى‬ ٖ‫ػ‬ٝ‫ح‬ ، ‫أكٔخٗ٤٘خ‬ ( ) ‫ٓ٤ٌخٗ٤ٌ٤ش‬ ٍ‫حَٟح‬ ( ‫حُٔزخَٗس‬ ‫حالٛخرخص‬2000١‫حُٜخى‬ ‫ػزي‬ ٝ ،1989ٚٗ‫ح‬ ‫ٝ٣الكع‬ ،)‫حُلِٔـ٤ش‬ ٍ‫حالَٟح‬َ‫طو‬‫حُٔيس‬ ٖٟٔ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ِٕ‫ه‬ ‫ػ٘ي‬ ِٕ‫ُِو‬ ‫رٜخ‬ ٠ُٛٞٔ‫ح‬ّ‫ي‬‫ٝطؼ‬ .‫حُظوِ٣٘٤ش‬ ‫هيٍحطٜخ‬ ‫كٔذ‬ ٝ‫حُ٘ٞحس‬ ‫ًحص‬ ‫حُلخًٜش‬ ‫حُٔ٤ٌخٗ٤ٌ٤ش‬ ٍ‫ُالَٟح‬ ‫كٔخٓش‬ ‫حُلـَ٣ش‬٧ ،ّٕ‫حُؼَٔس‬ ْ‫ُل‬‫ٝؿيحٍٛخ‬ ٞ‫ؿ‬ َ‫حَُٔحك‬ ‫ؿٔ٤غ‬ ٢‫ٝك‬ ‫رِطق‬ ٍٝ‫حُظيح‬ ‫َٓحػخس‬ ‫٣ـذ‬ ‫ٌُُي‬ ، ‫ٍه٤ن‬ ٢‫حُوخٍؿ‬ ، ٞٓ‫حُلخ‬ ( ‫حالٓظٜالى‬ ٠‫ٝكظ‬ ٢٘‫حُـ‬ ٖٓ ‫حرظيحء‬2001)
  11. 11. 10 ‫ٍٛٞس‬(5)‫حالٛخرخص‬ ٍ‫حٗظ٘خ‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫حَُٔطلؼش‬ ِٕ‫حُو‬ ‫كَحٍس‬ ‫ىٍؿخص‬ َ٤‫طخػ‬ ٍ‫ػٔخ‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫حُلطَ٣ش‬ . ِٕ‫حُو‬ ‫حػ٘خء‬ ‫ٝحُظلخف‬ ‫حُِ٘٤ي‬ ‫طِي‬ ٍٖٓٝ‫ح٧َٟح‬‫ٓخ‬‫حَُٔطلؼش‬ ‫حُلَحٍس‬ ‫ريٍؿخص‬ ِٕ‫حُو‬ ‫ػ٘ي‬ ‫ُِظلخف‬ ‫٣ليع‬ ِ٤ًَ‫ط‬ ‫ُٝ٣خىس‬ًّ‫ا‬‫حُؼَٔس‬ ‫هِذ‬ ٢‫ك‬ ٢٘‫حُز‬ ُِٕٞ‫ح‬ َٜ‫٣ظ‬( ‫ٍٛٞس‬5)،ًًَٝ ٖٔ‫ٝك‬ ١َُٔ٘‫ح‬(2009)ّٕ‫ا‬‫حُٔوِٗش‬ ُٖٔ٘ٔ‫ح‬ ٍ‫ػٔخ‬ ٢‫ك‬ ٢‫حُلِٔـ‬ ‫حُظِق‬ ‫ٗٔزش‬ ‫طلض‬4°٠ُ‫ح‬ ‫حٍطلؼض‬ ّ12.2‫ح‬ ٢‫حُظ‬ ِٕ‫حُو‬ ‫ٓيس‬ ‫ٜٗخ٣ش‬ ٢‫ك‬ %‫ٓظَٔص‬ ٖ٤‫حٓزٞػ‬.‫ٝحٍُٜٞس‬(6)ُ‫ح‬ ٍ‫حَٟح‬ ٖ٤‫طز‬‫زَٝىس‬٢‫ك‬: ٢ِ‫حُٔل‬ ٍ‫حُزَطوخ‬ ٍ‫ػٔخ‬- ‫ٍٛٞس‬(6‫حُزَٝىس‬ ٍ‫حَٟح‬ )٢‫ك‬ٍ‫حُزَطوخ‬ ٍ‫ػٔخ‬ ‫هَ٘س‬.
  12. 12. 11 :‫اُضٔبه‬ ‫رِق‬ َ‫ٓواؽ‬- 1-: ‫حُلٜخى‬ ‫ٝهض‬ ‫حُظِق‬-‫حُ٘خطـش‬ ‫حُٔ٤ٌخٗ٤ٌ٤ش‬ ٍ‫ُ٨َٟح‬ ‫ٗظ٤ـش‬ ‫٣ليع‬ٖ‫ػ‬ ‫حُلٜخى‬،‫طلض‬ ٍٜٞ‫حُٔل‬ ‫روخء‬ ٝ‫أ‬َ٤‫طؤػ‬ٝ‫أ‬ ‫حُٜو٤غ‬ َ٤‫طؤػ‬ ‫طلض‬ ٝ‫أ‬ ُْٔ٘‫ح‬ . ‫حُٔوظِلش‬ ‫حُؼزٞحص‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫ٝحُظؼزجش‬ ٢٘‫حُـ‬ ‫أػ٘خء‬ ‫حُؼخُ٤ش‬ ‫حَُ١ٞرش‬ 2-: ‫ٝحُظؼزجش‬ ‫ٝحُظيٍ٣ؾ‬ َُ‫حُل‬ ‫أػ٘خء‬ ‫حُظِق‬-ّٕ‫ا‬‫ر٤ٞص‬ ٢‫ك‬ ٍٜٞ‫حُٔل‬ َ٤‫طؤه‬ ‫حُظؼزجش‬ٍٞ‫حُلو‬ ٢‫ك‬ ٝ‫أ‬ ،٧‫حُ٘٠ؾ‬ ‫َٓكِش‬ ‫كٔذ‬ ‫ٝحُظيٍ٣ؾ‬ َُ‫حُل‬ ‫ػِٔ٤ش‬ ٍ‫ٗظظخ‬، ‫ح‬ ‫٣ٔزذ‬ ‫هي‬ ْ‫حُلـ‬ ٝ‫أ‬‫ح٧ك٤خء‬ ٍ‫ٗظ٘خ‬.‫حَُٟٔ٤ش‬ 3-ُ‫ح‬ ‫أػ٘خء‬ ‫حُظِق‬: ‫ظٜ٘٤غ‬-ٍ‫ُِؼٔخ‬ َ٤‫ًز‬ ‫طِق‬ ‫٣ليع‬٧ٍ‫ٗظظخ‬‫ػِٔ٤خص‬‫حُظٜ٘٤غ‬، ٝ‫أ‬ٍ‫هال‬‫هخٛش‬ ٍٜٞ‫ُِٔل‬ ‫حُظٜ٘٤غ‬ ‫ػِٔ٤خص‬. ‫حُظوط٤غ‬ ٝ‫أ‬ َ٤٘‫حُظو‬ ‫ػِٔ٤خص‬ 4-:ِٕ‫حُو‬ ‫أػ٘خء‬ ‫حُظِق‬-ِٕ‫حُو‬ ّ‫حٗظظخ‬ ّ‫ػي‬ ‫ٗظ٤ـش‬ ‫٣ليع‬‫أ‬ ،ِٕ‫حُو‬ ٝ٢‫ك‬‫ىٍؿش‬ ‫ٓ٘خٓزش‬ َ٤‫ؿ‬ ‫كَحٍس‬،‫حٌَُٜرخ‬ ٍ‫حُظ٤خ‬ ‫حٗوطخع‬ ٝ‫أ‬‫حُظزَ٣ي‬ ُٕ‫ٓوخ‬ ٖ‫ػ‬ ٢‫ث‬،ٝ‫أ‬ ‫حٗظ٘خ‬‫حال‬ ٍ‫حُزٌظ٤َ٣ش‬ ٝ‫أ‬ ‫حُلطَ٣ش‬ ‫ٛخرخص‬،‫ٝٛ٘خُي‬‫حُظِق‬ ‫َٓ٣ؼش‬ ٍ‫ػٔخ‬َٔ‫الطظل‬ ‫١ٞ٣ِش‬ ‫ُٔيس‬ ِٕ‫حُو‬،ُٖٔ٘ٔ‫ح‬ ٍ‫ًؼٔخ‬،ٗ‫ًخ‬ ٢‫حُظ‬‫ض‬‫حُظِق‬ ‫ٗٔزش‬‫ك٤ٜخ‬٢ُ‫كٞح‬ 17.8٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫حُٔزَى‬ ِٕ‫حُو‬ ٖٓ ٖ٤‫حٓزٞػ‬ ‫رؼي‬ %4،ٖٔ‫ٝك‬ ١َُٔ٘‫(ح‬ ّ 2009). 5-: ٖ‫حُ٘ل‬ ‫أػ٘خء‬ ‫حُظِق‬-‫٣ليع‬‫حُظِق‬٠ُ‫ح‬ َ‫حُلو‬ ٖٓ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٖ‫ٗل‬ ‫ػ٘ي‬ ‫حُٔٞم‬،ُٕ‫حُٔوخ‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ٝ‫أ‬،‫حُٔٞم‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ُٕ‫حُٔوخ‬ ٖٓ ٝ‫أ‬،٠ُ‫ح‬ َ٣‫حُظٜي‬ ‫ػ٘ي‬ ٝ‫أ‬ ‫حُزؼ٤يس‬ ‫ح٧ٓٞحم‬ ٝ‫أ‬ ‫حُوخٍؽ‬،ٞ٣َ‫طؼ‬ ٝ‫أ‬ ‫ٓ٘خٓزش‬ َ٤‫ؿ‬ ‫ػزٞحص‬ ّ‫حٓظويح‬ ٝ‫أ‬ . ٖ‫حُ٘ل‬ ‫حػ٘خء‬ ‫ٝح١جش‬ ٝ‫أ‬ ‫ػخُ٤ش‬ ‫كَحٍس‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬
  13. 13. 12 ٢ٗ‫اُضب‬ َ‫اُلص‬ ٖ٣ٌٞ‫ر‬ َ‫(ٓواؽ‬ ‫اُضٔبه‬ ‫ٝٗعظ‬ ٞٔٗ) ‫اُضٔبه‬ ‫حُؼَٔس‬ ٌٕٞ‫طظ‬‫ٓز‬ ٖٜٓ‫ِٓلوخط‬ ٝ َُِٙٛ‫ح‬ ٞ٤ٖ‫حُؼَٔس‬ ‫ٝط٘ظؾ‬‫حهٜخد‬ ٖٓ َُِٛ‫ح‬‫س‬ٝ ،‫َٓكِش‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ َٜ‫ط‬ ٠‫كظ‬ َ‫رَٔحك‬ َٔ‫ط‬: ‫حُ٘٠ؾ‬- 1-‫َٓكِش‬: ٍ‫حالُٛخ‬Flowring stage ‫حَُٔكِش‬ ٌٙٛ ‫طزيأ‬ُِٛ‫ح‬ ْ‫حُزَحػ‬ ٖ٣ٌٞ‫ط‬ ٖٓ٢ٜ‫ٝط٘ظ‬ ‫َ٣ش‬‫ر‬٢‫ٝطٔخه‬ ‫خالهٜخد‬ ‫حال‬ٍَٝ‫حَُٔحك‬ ٖٓ ٢ٛٝ ،‫حُظٞ٣ـ٤ش‬ ‫حم‬‫ك٤ٜخ‬ ‫ٝطليع‬ ،‫حُؼَٔس‬ ٖ٣ٌٞ‫ط‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫حُٜٔٔش‬ ‫ػِٔ٤ش‬‫حُظِو٤ق‬pollination‫كيٝع‬ ّ‫ػي‬ ‫ػ٘ي‬ ‫حَُِٛس‬ ٞٔٗ ‫ٝ٣ظٞهق‬ ، ‫حالهٜخد‬‫حٗولخ‬ ‫رٔزذ‬ً‫ا‬ ٞ٣‫حُٔزخ‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫حَُٜٓٞٗخص‬ ٟٞ‫ٓٔظ‬ ِٝ٤ًَ‫ط‬ َ‫٣و‬ ‫ٝحالًٝٔ٤٘خص‬ ‫حُـزَُ٤٘خص‬٠ٗ‫حالى‬ ‫حُلي‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ٍ‫حالُٛخ‬ ‫طلظق‬ ‫ػ٘ي‬،ّ‫ػي‬ ‫ٝػ٘ي‬ ‫كيٝع‬ٍ‫حالُٛخ‬ ٢‫طظٔخه‬ ‫حُظِو٤ق‬ُ‫ح‬ ٕ‫ٝا‬ ،‫حٟخكش‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ١‫٣ئى‬ ‫ظِو٤ق‬‫حَُٜٓٞٗخص‬ ٌٙٛ ‫طٌٞ٣ٜ٘خ‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ٞ٤‫حُٔز‬ ‫ٗٔ٤ؾ‬ ‫ط٘ـ٤غ‬ ٝ‫ح‬. 2-‫َٓكِش‬٩‫ح‬: ‫هٜخد‬fertilization ‫حُظِو٤ق‬ ‫ػِٔ٤ش‬ ّ‫حطٔخ‬ ‫رؼي‬ ‫حَُٔكِش‬ ٌٙٛ ‫طزيأ‬،‫ٝػِٔ٤ش‬ٔ‫ط‬ ‫حالهٜخد‬٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫خػي‬ ‫حُ٘خطـش‬ ‫حُؼِٔ٤خص‬ ٍ‫حٓظَٔح‬‫حُِوخف‬ ‫كزٞد‬ ٕ‫أ‬ ٝ ‫حُظِو٤ق‬ ‫حؿَحء‬ َُٖٓ‫طل‬‫َٛٓٞٗخ‬ ٢‫ك‬ٞ٣‫حُٔزخ‬‫ًخٗض‬ ٕ‫ٝا‬ٓ‫ػٞح‬ ٝ ‫حِٗ٣ٔخص‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ١ٞ‫طلظ‬ ‫حٜٗخ‬ ‫٣ؼظوي‬ ٝ ِٚ٤ِ‫ه‬َ ‫ٓٔخػيس‬‫ؿي٣يس‬ ‫َٛٓٞٗخص‬ ٖ٣ٌٞ‫ط‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬ ‫طٔزذ‬. 3-‫َٓكِش‬: ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ‫ػوي‬fruit sit ‫حَُِٛس‬ ٞ٤‫ُٔز‬ ‫حَُٔ٣غ‬ ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬ ‫حَُٔكِش‬ ٌٙٛ َ‫طٔؼ‬‫حُظِو٤ق‬ ٢‫ػِٔ٤ظ‬ ‫رؼي‬ ‫ٝحالهٜخد‬ً‫ا‬‫٣ِىحى‬‫حُظٜخم‬‫حَُِٛس‬‫حُٜـ٤َس‬‫رخُ٘زخص‬‫حُؼِٔ٤ش‬ ٌٙٛٝ ،‫طلظخؽ‬ ‫ٜٓ٘خ‬ ٢َٗٞٓٛ ١‫ٗ٘خ‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬‫حالًٝٔ٤٘خص‬‫ٝحُـزَُ٤٘خص‬‫ٝحُٔخ٣ظًٞخ٣٘٤٘خص‬.ٞ‫ٝرؼ‬ ‫ُالًٝٔ٤٘خص‬ ٞ٤‫حُٔز‬ ٍ‫ؿيح‬ ‫طِٝ٣ي‬ ‫رٔزذ‬ ‫ػٌٍ٣خ‬ ‫طؼوي‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬،‫َٓكِش‬ ‫ٝطؼَف‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ‫ػوي‬ُ‫ح‬ ‫كزؼي‬ ‫ػَٔس‬ ٠ُ‫ا‬ ‫حَُِٛس‬ ٍٞ‫طل‬ ‫ػِٔ٤ش‬ ‫رخٜٗخ‬‫طزيأ‬ ‫ح٩هٜخد‬ ٝ ‫ظِو٤ق‬ ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٌٕٞ‫ط‬ ‫َٓكِش‬ٍ‫٣ليع‬ ‫حَُٔكِش‬ ‫طِي‬ ‫ريح٣ش‬ ٠‫ك‬ ٌٍٝ‫حُز‬ ٝ‫أ‬ ‫حُزٌٍس‬ ‫ٝريحهِٜخ‬
  14. 14. 13 ‫أٛخرٜخ‬ ْٓ‫ٓ٤خ‬ ٖٓ ‫طلِٜٔخ‬ ‫رٔخ‬ ّ‫ح٧هال‬ ٢‫طٔخه‬ ْ‫ػ‬ ‫ٝطٔخهطٜخ‬ ‫ُِزظالص‬ ٍٞ‫ًر‬ . ‫ىٍٝٛخ‬ ‫أىص‬ ٕ‫أ‬ ‫رؼي‬ ‫حُـلخف‬ )‫حُؼوي‬ ( ‫حُؼَٔس‬ ٠ُ‫ا‬ ‫حَُِٛس‬ ‫كخُش‬ ٖٓ ٍٞ‫حُظل‬ ْ‫ٝ٣ظ‬‫طظَحٝف‬ ‫ُٓ٘٤ش‬ ‫ٓيس‬ ٢‫ك‬ٖ٤‫ر‬ ‫ٓخػخص‬ ‫ػيس‬،ٞ‫حُٔخٗـ‬ ٍ‫أُٛخ‬ ٠‫ك‬ ‫ًٔخ‬ٖ٤‫ٝر‬ ،ْ١‫حُطٔخ‬ ٍ‫أُٛخ‬ ٠‫ك‬ ‫ًٔخ‬ ّ‫أ٣خ‬ ‫ػيس‬ ٞ٤‫حُٔز‬ ٍ‫ؿيح‬ ‫هال٣خ‬ ّ‫حٗؤخ‬ ٠ُ‫ا‬ ‫ُظٌٞ٣ٜ٘خ‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ‫ٝطلظخؽ‬،٠ُ‫ح‬ ‫٣لظخؽ‬ ‫ٌٝٛح‬ ٍ‫رخُـيح‬ ‫ٝحُٔؼَٝكش‬ ‫حُؼالػش‬ ٞ٤‫حُٔز‬ ٍ‫ؿي‬ ٚ٤ِ‫ػ‬ َٜ‫طل‬ ٢َٗٞٓٛ ٢٘٘ٓ ٢‫حُوخٍؿ‬Exocarp٢ٓٝ٧‫ح‬ ٝ ،Mesocarp٢ِ‫ٝحُيحه‬Endocarpٖٓ ‫حُِوخف‬ ‫كزٞد‬،٢٘‫ؿ‬ ٍ‫ٜٓي‬ ٢ٜ‫ك‬‫رز‬ ٝ‫أ‬ ٖ٤ًٔ‫رخال‬‫حال‬ ٖ٣ٌٞ‫ط‬ ‫خىة‬ٖٝ٤ًٔ Auxin precursor‫حُل‬ ٞٛٝ‫خ‬٠ُ‫ح‬ ٍٞ‫٣ظل‬ ١ٌُ‫ٝح‬ ٕ‫حُظَرظٞكخ‬ ٢٘٤ٓ٧‫ح‬ ٞٓ ‫ك‬ ٍٝ‫حٗي‬‫خ‬‫حُوال٣خ‬ ّ‫حٗؤخ‬ ٢٤٘٘‫ُظ‬ ١ٍَٝ٠ُ‫ح‬ ٖ٤ًٔ‫حُل٤ظٞح‬ ٞٛٝ ‫حُوِ٤ي‬ ٞٓ ٧‫ح‬ ‫٣ِؼذ‬ ‫ٝال‬ٙ‫ٝكي‬ ٖ٤ًٖٔٝ٤َُ‫حُـز‬ ٖٓ ًَ ٚ‫ٓؼ‬ ‫٣٘ظَى‬ َ‫ر‬ ٍٝ‫حُي‬ ‫ٌٛح‬ ُٝٔ‫ح‬‫خ‬ًٞ‫٣ظ‬‫خ‬. ٖ٤٘٣ ٓ ‫طٌٞ٣ٜ٘خ‬ ‫كؼ٘ي‬ ‫حُزٌٍس‬ ٍٝ‫ى‬ ٢‫٣ؤط‬ ْ‫ػ‬‫ح٩هٜخد‬ ‫ػِٔ٤ش‬ ّ‫اطٔخ‬ ‫رؼي‬ ‫حُِ٣ـٞص‬ ٖ، ‫حُٞحٍىس‬ ‫حٌَُٔ٣خص‬ ٝ ‫حُؼ٠ٞ٣ش‬ ٝ‫ح٧كٔخ‬ ٝ ‫ح٧ٓ٤٘٤ش‬ ٝ‫ح٧كٔخ‬ َ‫ُظٞك‬ ‫ٝٗظَح‬ َ‫ٓؼ‬ ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬ ‫َٛٓٞٗخص‬ ٖٓ ‫حُِٔ٣ي‬ ٖ٣ٌٞ‫ط‬ ْ‫٣ظ‬ ٚٗ‫كب‬ ‫حُؼخهيس‬ ‫ُِؼَٔس‬ ‫حٍُٞهش‬ ٖٓ ًٔٝ‫أال‬٤ُٔ‫ٝح‬ ٖ٤َُ‫حُـز‬ ٝ ٖ‫خ‬ًٞ‫٣ظ‬‫خ‬٣٤ّ٘‫الٗؤخ‬ ُّ‫حُال‬ ٖٖ٤٘‫حُـ‬ ‫هال٣خ‬ِ٤٤ٔ‫ٝط‬‫ٛخ‬ ‫ٝطوِ٤و‬،‫ٜخ‬‫ٝرٌُي‬ٍ‫ٜٓي‬ ‫حُزٌٍس‬ ‫طٜزق‬‫آ‬٢‫حُظ‬ ‫حَُٜٓٞٗخص‬ ‫ُظِي‬‫طظَٔد‬ Releaseٞ٤‫حُٔز‬ ٍ‫ؿيح‬ ٠ُ‫ا‬،‫ٝ٣ٔخػي‬‫ًُي‬ّ‫حٗؤخ‬ ‫ػِٔ٤ش‬ ّ‫اطٔخ‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬‫هال٣خٛخ‬ ‫ٝحٓظطخُظٜخ‬‫ٝؿي‬ ‫ٝهي‬ ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬ ٍ‫حًظٔخ‬ ‫َٓكِش‬ ٠ُ‫ا‬ ‫ُٜٝٛٞخ‬ ٠‫كظ‬ ‫حُؼَٔس‬ ٍٞ‫طط‬ ْ‫ػ‬ ٢‫حُٜ٘خث‬ ‫حُؼَٔس‬ ْ‫كـ‬ ‫ُحى‬ ٌٍٝ‫حُز‬ ‫ػيى‬ ‫ُحى‬ ‫ًِٔخ‬ ٚٗ‫ح‬.ً‫ا‬ٖ٤‫ر‬ ‫ػالهش‬ ‫ٛ٘خى‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ‫ح‬ ‫طُٞ٣غ‬‫ح٧ٗٞحع‬ ٞ‫رؼ‬ ٠‫ك‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٌَٗٝ ٌٍٝ‫ُز‬. 4-ٞٔٗ ِٚ‫َٓك‬ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬fruit growth ‫ا‬ّٕ‫ػِٔ٤ش‬‫ط‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٞٔٗ‫طؼي‬ ٢‫ٝحُظ‬ ‫حُ٘خٓ٤ش‬ ٌٍٙ‫رخُز‬ ٢‫َطز‬َٓ‫حُؼٞح‬ ٖٓ ُ٘ٔ‫ح‬‫ظٔش‬ُٔ‫ح‬ ٝ‫ح‬‫حُؼَٔس‬ ٞٔٗ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫ٔ٤طَس‬‫ػخُ٤ش‬ ِ٤ً‫طَح‬ ‫ٝؿٞى‬ ‫رٔزذ‬ ،ٖٓ ‫ك٤ٜخ‬ ‫حَُٜٓٞٗخص‬،ٝ‫ا‬ّٕ٘ٛ‫حال‬ ٞ‫رؼ‬ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ‫ٝط٘٠ؾ‬ ٞٔ٘‫ط‬ ‫خف‬ٖٓ ‫ك٤ٜخ‬ٕٝ‫ى‬ ‫حُلخؿش‬ٌٍٝ‫حُز‬ ٖ٣ٌٞ‫ٝط‬ ‫حالهٜخد‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬،‫٣ؼَف‬ ١ٌُ‫ٝح‬‫حُؼوي‬١ٌَ‫حُز‬)١ٌٍ‫(حُؼ‬
  15. 15. 14 parthenocarpyٖ٤‫ٝحُظ‬ ٍ‫حُو٤خ‬ ‫حٛ٘خف‬ ٞ‫ٝرؼ‬ ‫كخُ٘٘٤خ‬ ٍ‫رَطوخ‬ َ‫ٓؼ‬ . ‫ٝحُؼ٘ذ‬ ١ٌٍ‫حُؼ‬ ‫رخُؼوي‬ ‫٣وٜي‬ٕٝ‫ري‬ ٍ‫ػٔخ‬ ٖ٣ٌٞ‫ٝط‬ ٞ٤‫حُٔز‬ ‫اهٜخد‬ ٕٝ‫ري‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ‫ػوي‬ ٌٍٝ‫ر‬‫ٌٝٛح‬٢٘٤٘‫حُـ‬ ْ٤ٌُ‫ح‬ ٠‫ك‬ ‫ػ٤ذ‬ ٠ُ‫ا‬ ‫حُـخُذ‬ ٠‫ك‬ ‫٣َؿغ‬،‫رخُؼوي‬ ‫ك٤ؼَف‬ ١ٌَ‫حُز‬Parthenocarpy‫طٔ٤ِآ‬ ‫؛‬ٖ‫ػ‬ ُٚStemospermocarpyً‫ا‬ ‫؛‬ ٍ‫ؿي‬ ٍ‫حٓظَٔح‬ ‫ٓغ‬ ‫ٝ٣ٔٞص‬ َٔ٠٣ ٖ٤٘‫حُـ‬ ٌُٖٝ ‫ٝح٩هٜخد‬ ‫حُظِو٤ق‬ ْ‫٣ظ‬ ‫ك٤غ‬ ‫ٓالالص‬ ‫ػيس‬ ٠‫ك‬ ‫حُظخَٛس‬ ‫طِي‬ َ٘‫ٝط٘ظ‬ ، ‫حُؼَٔس‬ ٖ٣ٌٞ‫ُظ‬ ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬ ٠‫ك‬ ٞ٤‫حُٔز‬ ‫طِي‬ ‫هخٛش‬ ‫ٗزخط٤ش‬ُُٞٔ‫ح‬ َ‫ٓؼ‬ ‫ػَٔس‬ ٌَُ ‫رٞ٣٠خص‬ ‫ػيس‬ ‫رٞؿٞى‬ ِ٤ٔ‫طظ‬ ٢‫حُظ‬ ١ٌَ‫حُز‬ ‫ُِؼوي‬ ‫كخالص‬ ‫ػيس‬ ‫ٝٛ٘خى‬ ّ‫ٝح٧ٗخٗخ‬ ٖ٤‫ٝحُظ‬٢‫٣ؤط‬ ‫ك٤ٔخ‬ ‫ٜٓ٘خ‬ ًٌَٗ: 1-‫رخُؼوي‬ ٠ٔٔ٣ٝ ‫اهٜخد‬ ٕٝ‫ٝري‬ ٍ‫ح٧ُٛخ‬ ‫طِو٤ق‬ ٕٝ‫ري‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٖ٣ٌٞ‫ط‬ ‫ح‬ ١ٌَ‫حُز‬َ‫ٓؼ‬ ١َ٠‫ُو‬ْ١‫حُطٔخ‬ّ‫ٝح٧ٗخٗخ‬ ُُٞٔ‫ٝح‬ ‫َٓس‬ ٞ‫أر‬ ٍ‫ٝحُزَطوخ‬. 2-ٞ٤‫ُِٔز‬ ‫حُِوخف‬ ‫أٗزٞرش‬ ٍٞٛٝ ٕٝ‫ى‬ ‫حُظِو٤ق‬ ٖٓ ‫رظ٘ـ٤غ‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٖ٣ٌٞ‫ط‬ ٖٓ ٢٤٘٘‫حُظ‬ ٚ٤‫ك‬ ‫٣ليع‬ ‫ٝهي‬ ٢‫حُظ٘٘٤ط‬ ١ٌَ‫حُز‬ ‫حُؼوي‬ ٠ٔٔ٣ٝ ‫حُزط٤ن‬ َ‫ٓؼ‬ ٍ‫حُـزخ‬ ‫ًٍحص‬ َ٤‫رظؤػ‬ ٠‫كظ‬ ٝ‫أ‬ ٍ‫ح٧ُٛخ‬ ‫طـَ٣ق‬ ٖٓ ٝ‫أ‬ ‫َُِِٛس‬ ‫حُلَ٘حص‬ ‫ُ٣خٍس‬ . 3-‫حُز٤ج‬ ‫حُظَٝف‬ ٠‫ك‬ ٌْ‫حُظل‬٤‫ُي‬ ‫حُ٘زخطخص‬ ٞ٣َ‫طؼ‬ َ‫ٓؼ‬ ‫ش‬‫كَحٍس‬ ‫ٍؿخص‬ ‫اٟخءس‬ ‫ٗيس‬ ‫ٓغ‬ ‫ٓ٘ول٠ش‬‫ٓ٘ول‬ ‫حُظِو٤ق‬ ‫ٗٔزش‬ ٌٕٞ‫كظ‬‫حُظَٝف‬ ‫طِي‬ ‫طلض‬ ‫٠ش‬ ْ١‫حُطٔخ‬ ٠‫ك‬ ‫ًٔخ‬ٝ‫أ‬ ‫ُِٜو٤غ‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٞ٣َ‫رظؼ‬ ٖ٤٘‫حُـ‬ ‫حهظلخء‬ ‫ط٘ـ٤غ‬ ٝ‫أ‬ َٟ‫حٌُٔؼ‬ ٝ ‫حُظلخف‬ ٠‫ك‬ ‫ًٔخ‬ ‫حُٔ٘ول٠ش‬ ‫حُلَحٍس‬. 4-‫حُ٘زخطخص‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫ٍٗخ‬ ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬ ‫ٓ٘ظٔخص‬ ّ‫رخٓظويح‬ ١ٌَ‫حُز‬ ‫حُؼوي‬ ‫ط٘ـ٤غ‬ ‫رخال‬٢‫ك‬ ‫ًٔخ‬ ٖ٤ًْٔٝ١‫حُطٔخ‬‫حُؼ٘ذ‬ ٠‫ك‬ ‫ًٔخ‬ ٖ٤َُ‫رخُـز‬ ٝ. ‫رخٍطلخع‬ ‫رؼي‬ ‫ك٤ٔخ‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٝ ٍ‫ح٧ُٛخ‬ ٞ٣‫ٓزخ‬ ِ٤ٔ‫طظ‬ ١ٌَ‫حُز‬ ‫حُؼوي‬ ‫كخالص‬ ٠‫ٝك‬ ٟٞ‫حُٔٔظ‬ ‫ٌٛح‬ ‫ك٤يكؼٜخ‬ ‫حُؼخى٣ش‬ ‫حُزٌٍ٣ش‬ ‫ٓؼ٤الطٜخ‬ ٖ‫ػ‬ ٢َُٜٗٞٓ‫ح‬ ٟٞ‫حُٔٔظ‬ ‫حَُٔطلغ‬ ٢َُٜٗٞٓ‫ح‬‫ح‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬٢‫حُظٔخه‬ ّ‫ٝػي‬ ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬ ٠‫ك‬ ٍ‫الٓظَٔح‬،‫ح٧ٗٞحع‬ ٠‫ك‬ ‫أٓخ‬ ‫حُزٌٍ٣ش‬ٔ‫ػ‬ ٢‫كظٔو‬ٝ ‫حُظِو٤ق‬ َ٘‫ك‬ ‫اًح‬ ‫خٍٛخ‬‫ح٩هٜخد‬،‫اؿ٘ظٜخ‬ ٍٟٞٔ ‫ػ٘ي‬ ٝ‫أ‬
  16. 16. 15 ‫حُوخٍؽ‬ ٖٓ ‫رخَُٜٓٞٗخص‬ ٍ‫ح٧ُٛخ‬ ‫طِي‬ ‫ٝٓؼخىُش‬ ‫حُؼخهيس‬ ٍ‫رخُؼٔخ‬Exogenous ٝٞ‫٣ؼ‬ ‫هي‬‫٣ٔٔق‬ ‫ٓٔخ‬ ٖ٤٘‫حُـ‬ ‫ؿ٤خد‬‫حُؼَٔس‬ ٞ٤‫ُٔز‬َٔ‫٣ٔظ‬ ٕ‫أ‬ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬ ٠‫ك‬. ‫ٓؼخِٓش‬ ّ‫حٓظوي‬ ‫ٝهي‬ٞ‫ٝحُٔخ٣ظ‬ ‫ٝحُـزَُ٤٘خص‬ ‫رخالًٝٔ٤٘خص‬ ٍ‫حالُٛخ‬٘٣‫ًخ‬‫٤٘خص‬ ‫الكيحع‬‫حُؼوي‬١ٌٍ‫حُؼ‬ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬ ٌٕٞ٣ٝ‫حُزيح٣ش‬ ٢‫ك‬ًَِٓ ‫حُؼوي‬ ‫رؼي‬‫آ‬‫حٗؤخ‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ّ ‫حُوال٣خ‬cell divitionٚ‫ٓيط‬ ‫طوظِق‬ ٝ‫ػٔخٗ٤ش‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ّ‫ح٣خ‬ ‫هٔٔش‬ ٖ٤‫ر‬ّ‫ح٣خ‬٢‫ك‬ ‫حُو‬ٝ ‫َع‬‫حٍرؼش‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ّ‫ح٣خ‬ ‫ػالػش‬‫حُظلخف‬ ٢‫ك‬ ّ‫ح٣خ‬. ‫طِ٤ٜخ‬‫حُِ٣خىس‬ ‫َٓكِش‬‫حُوال٣خ‬ ْ‫كـ‬ ٢‫ك‬Cell enlargement‫رؼي‬ ٢‫طؤط‬ ‫َٓكِش‬ّ‫حٗؤخ‬‫هي‬ ٝ‫ح‬ ‫حُوال٣خ‬‫ٓؼٜخ‬ ِٚ‫ٓظيحه‬ ٌٕٞ‫ط‬‫٣ِىحى‬ ً‫ا‬ْ‫كـ‬ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬٤‫ٗظ‬‫ـش‬ ‫حُٔٔظٜش‬ ‫حُـٌحث٤ش‬ ‫حُٔٞحى‬ ٍ‫حٗظوخ‬ ‫ُ٣خىس‬ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ‫حالٍٝحم‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ٌٍٝ‫حُـ‬ ٖٓ ٠ُ‫ح‬ َٜ٣ ‫هي‬ ‫حُوال٣خ‬ ْ‫كـ‬ ٙ‫(ُٝ٣خى‬ ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬ ٍ‫حًظٔخ‬ ٠‫كظ‬6000‫َٓس‬). ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ْٔ‫ط٘و‬ٔ‫ك‬ ٖ٤‫ٓـٔٞػظ‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬‫حُؼَٔس‬ ٞٔٗ ٠٘‫ٓ٘ل‬ ٌَٗٝ‫ح‬ ‫ٗٞع‬ ‫ذ‬:- ‫أ‬-‫ٓغٔٞػخ‬‫اُضٔبه‬‫ماد‬‫كٝهح‬ُٞٔ٘‫ا‬‫اُٞاؽلح‬Single sigmoid ‫ٝحكيس‬ ‫ىٍٝس‬ ًٝ ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬ ٠٘‫ٓ٘ل‬ ‫ك٤ٜخ‬ ٌٕٞ٣‫كَف‬ ٌَٗ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ٌٕٞ٣ٝS (ٌَٗ1)ٝٗ‫ٝحال‬ ‫ٝحُلٔ٠٤خص‬ ‫حُظلخك٤خص‬ َ‫طٔؼ‬١‫ٝحُطٔخ‬ ّ‫خٗخ‬ْ‫ٝحُزِحُ٤خ‬ٍ‫ٝػٔخ‬ ‫حُؼخثِش‬‫ٝٓؼظ‬ ‫حُوَػ٤ش‬َ‫َٓحك‬ ‫ػالع‬ ‫رٞؿٞى‬ ِ٤ٔ‫ٝ٣ظ‬ ‫حُو٠َٝحص‬ ْ،َٓ ٢ٛ‫كِش‬ ‫حُوال٣خ‬ ّ‫حٗؤخ‬‫َٓكِش‬ ْ‫ػ‬ ‫حُوال٣خ‬ ْ‫كـ‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫حُِ٣خىس‬ ‫َٝٓكِش‬‫حُزِٞؽ‬ Maturation ‫َٓكِش‬ ٢‫ك‬‫حُوال٣خ‬ ّ‫حٗؤخ‬Cell division‫ُ٣خىس‬ ٖ‫ػ‬ ‫ٗخطؾ‬ ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬ ٌٕٞ٣‫ػيى‬ ‫ٗٔز٤خ‬ ‫رط٢ء‬ ‫ك٤ٜخ‬ ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬ ٌٕٞ٣ٝ ‫حُوال٣خ‬، ‫َٓكِش‬‫حُِ٣خىس‬‫حُوال٣خ‬ ْ‫كـ‬ ٢‫ك‬Cell enlargement‫ط‬‫رَٔكِش‬ ٠ٔٔ ‫حُ٘خ‬ ‫حَُٔ٣غ‬ ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬‫طؾ‬ٖ‫ػ‬‫ُ٣خىس‬ٔ‫ٝطٔظ‬ ‫حُوال٣خ‬ ْ‫كـ‬٠ُ‫ح‬ َٞٔٗ ٍ‫حًظٔخ‬ ٖ٤‫ك‬ ‫حُل‬ ٢‫ك‬ ٙ‫حُِ٣خى‬ ٌٕٞ٣ٝ ٚ٤‫حُـٌحث‬ ‫حُٔٞحى‬ ‫رـٔغ‬ ‫حَُٔكِش‬ ٌٙٛ ِ٤ٔ‫ٝطظ‬ َٙٔ‫حُؼ‬ْ‫ـ‬ ‫حُِ٣خىس‬ ٖٓ َ‫حًز‬‫حُؼَٔس‬ ُٕٝ ٢‫ك‬‫رٔزذ‬‫ٝحُلَحؿخص‬ ‫حُز٤٘٤ش‬ ‫حُٔٔخكخص‬ ‫ُ٣خىس‬ ‫حُٜٞحث٤ش‬. ‫حُؼَٔس‬ َ‫ىحه‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫حُوال٣خ‬ ٖ٤‫ر‬
  17. 17. 16 ( ٌَٗ1)‫ًحص‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٞٔٗ ٠٘‫ٓ٘ل‬‫حُٞحكيس‬ ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬ ‫ىٍٝس‬. ‫َٓكِش‬ ٢ٜ‫ك‬ ‫حُؼخُؼش‬ ‫حَُٔكِش‬ ‫حٓخ‬‫حًظ‬ ٝ‫ح‬ ‫حُزِٞؽ‬ ٝ‫ح‬ ٢‫حُلِٔـ‬ ‫حُ٘٠ؾ‬ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬ ٍ‫ٔخ‬ ‫حُؼَٔس‬ ْ‫كـ‬ َٔ‫٣ٌظ‬ ‫ٝك٤ٜخ‬‫ح‬ ْ‫حُلـ‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ َٜ‫ٝط‬٢‫ك‬ ‫رط٢ء‬ ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬ ٌٕٞ٣ٝ ٢‫ُٜ٘خث‬ ‫حَُٔكِش‬ ‫ريح٣ش‬‫حُلـ‬ ٍ‫حًظٔخ‬ ‫رؼي‬ ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬ ‫٣ظٞهق‬ ْ‫ػ‬‫حُظلٞالص‬ ٍ‫حٓظَٔح‬ ‫ٓغ‬ ْ ‫حٌُ٤ٔ٤خٝ٣ش‬َٔ‫حُؼ‬ َ‫ٝحُلِٔـ٤شىحه‬. ‫س‬ ‫ة‬-‫اُضبٗ٤خ‬ ‫أُغٔٞػخ‬ٝ‫م‬‫اد‬ُٞٔ٘‫ا‬ ٢‫كٝهر‬ Double-sigmoid curve ‫حُٔـٔٞػش‬ ٌٙٛ َٔ٘‫ط‬‫ٜٝٓ٘خ‬ ٚ٣ُُِٞ‫ح‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ٙ‫ٝحالؿخ‬ ‫ٝحُوٞم‬ ُٖٔ٘ٔ‫ح‬ ٌُ‫ٝح‬‫ٝحُظٞص‬ ‫ٝحُؼ٘ذ‬ ٕٞ‫ٝحُِ٣ظ‬ ٖ٤‫ٝحُظ‬ َُ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٌٙٛ ٞٔٗ ٠٘‫ٝٓ٘ل‬ ‫ٝحُِ٘٤ي‬ٍ ‫ًحص‬ ٌٕٞ٣‫حٍرؼش‬ ٖٓ ٌٕٞ‫ٝ٣ظ‬ ٖ٤‫ىٍٝط‬َ‫َٓحك‬(ٌَٗ2)َٔ٘‫ط‬ٖ٤‫كظَط‬ٖٓ ‫ٓلُٜٞش‬ ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬‫رلظَس‬ٍٞٔ‫حُو‬ ٖٓ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫ُ٣خىس‬ ‫حُ٤ٜخ‬ ‫ط٠خف‬‫َٓكِش‬‫حُزِٞؽ‬ ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬ ٍ‫ٝحًظٔخ‬maturationٝ‫حَُٔكِش‬ ُ‫طٔظخ‬‫ٗخطؾ‬ ‫ٗٔز٤خ‬ ‫رط٢ء‬ ٞٔ٘‫ر‬ ٠ُٝ‫حال‬ ‫حُوال٣خ‬ ّ‫حٗؤخ‬ ٖ‫ػ‬‫َٓكِش‬ ٠ٔٔ‫ط‬ ‫ٌُح‬ ،ٝ ‫حُوال٣خ‬ ّ‫حٗؤخ‬‫٣ٞٓآ‬ ٖ٤‫ػالػ‬ ‫طٔظـَم‬ ٝ ُٖٔ٘ٔ‫ح‬ ٢‫ك‬‫٣ٞٓخ‬ ٖ٤‫أٍرؼ‬‫حُوٞم‬ ٢‫ك‬. ‫ػوي‬ ٖٓ ‫ٝطزيأ‬‫َٓكِش‬ ‫حُؼخٗ٤ش‬ ‫حَُٔكِش‬ ٠‫كظ‬ ٍ‫حالُٛخ‬٢‫حُ٘ٔز‬ ٍٞٔ‫حُو‬ Depressed periodٝ‫َٓكِش‬ ‫ريأ‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ٍ‫٣ٔظي‬٢‫حُ٘ٔز‬ ٍٞٔ‫حُو‬‫ر‬‫ظٞهق‬
  18. 18. 17 ‫حُِ٣خىس‬ْ‫كـ‬ ٢‫ك‬ٝ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ُٗٝ‫ٜخ‬٠ِ‫ػ‬ ٠٘‫حُٔ٘ل‬ ‫ٝ٣ٜزق‬ْ٤‫ٓٔظو‬ ٢‫ه‬ ٌَٗ، ‫حَُٔكِش‬ ٌٙٛ ‫ٝطزيأ‬‫١َف‬ ‫رظِٜذ‬‫حَُٔكِش‬ ٌٙٛ ُ‫ٝطٔظخ‬ ١َُِٛ‫ح‬ ‫حُ٘ٞحس‬ ‫رخ‬ٔٗ ٍ‫ًظٔخ‬ُٔ‫ح‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ٖ٤٘‫حُـ‬ ّٞ‫ػي‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫زذ‬‫حَُٔكِش‬ ٌٙٛ ٢‫ك‬ ‫حُوال٣خ‬ ْ‫كـ‬ ‫ُ٣خىس‬، ‫ُٔلظٞ٣خص‬ ٖ٤٘‫حُـ‬ ٙ‫حٓظٜخ‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ‫٣ؼٞى‬َّ٤‫حالٗيٝٓز‬‫حالًٝٔ٤٘خص‬ ٚ‫ٗو‬ ٝ‫ح‬ ‫حُؼَٔس‬ ٞٔٗ ّ‫حٗؼيح‬ ‫٣ٔزذ‬ ١ٌُ‫ح‬. ‫حُِ٣خىس‬ ٢ٛ ‫حُؼخُؼش‬ ‫حَُٔكِش‬) ‫حُوال٣خ‬ ْ‫حُلـْ(كـ‬ ٢‫ك‬Cell enlargmentٝ ‫حك٤خٗخ‬ ٠ٔٔ‫ط‬final swell.‫حَُٔكِش‬ ٌٙٛ ِ٤ٔ‫ٝطظ‬ْ‫كـ‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫رخُِ٣خىس‬‫حُؼَٔس‬ ُٝٗٝٝ ‫ٜخ‬َ‫هط‬‫ٗظ٤ـش‬ ‫ٛخ‬‫حُ٘زخص‬ ‫حؿِحء‬ ٢‫رخه‬ ٖٓ ‫حُـٌحء‬ ‫طـٔغ‬. ‫خ‬ّٓ‫أ‬‫َٓكِش‬ ٢ٜ‫ك‬ ‫حَُحرؼش‬ ‫حَُٔكِش‬ٞٔٗ ‫٣ظٞهق‬ ‫ٝك٤ٜخ‬ ‫حُزِٞؽ‬ ٝ‫ح‬ ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬ ٍ‫حًظٔخ‬ ‫ح‬‫ُؼَٔس‬،١‫طئى‬ ‫ٝكِٔـ٤ش‬ ‫ً٤ٔ٤خث٤ش‬ ‫طلٞالص‬ ‫ٗظ٤ـش‬ ٢‫حُلِٔـ‬ ‫رخُ٘٠ؾ‬ ‫ٝطزيأ‬ ‫رخُ٘ظ٤ـش‬‫١زوش‬ ٌٕٞ‫طظ‬ ‫ًٔخ‬ ٢‫حُٜ٘خث‬ ‫حُ٘٠ؾ‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬‫ٗٔؼ٤ش‬‫حُؼَٔس‬ ‫ٓطق‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ( ٍٝ‫ٝحُـي‬2‫حُطٔخ١ش‬ ٍ‫ػٔخ‬ ‫ٌٓٞٗخص‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫حُ٘٠ؾ‬ ‫ىٍؿش‬ َ٤‫طخػ‬ ٖ٤‫٣ز‬ ). ( ٌَٗ2)‫ًحص‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٞٔٗ ٠٘‫ٓ٘ل‬ٖ٤‫حُيٍٝط‬.
  19. 19. 18 ( ٍٝ‫ؿي‬2)‫حُ٘٠ؾ‬ ‫ىٍؿش‬ َ٤‫طخػ‬٢‫ك‬ْ١‫حُطٔخ‬ ٍ‫ػٔخ‬ ‫ٌٓٞٗخص‬. ٢ٗٞٓ‫اُٜو‬ ٕ‫ٝاُزٞاى‬ ‫اُؼول‬٢ِ‫اُلاف‬: ‫اال‬ٝ: ‫ٝاُؼول‬ ٖ٤ًَ ‫٣زيأ‬‫حٗظوخ‬ ‫ريح٣ش‬ ٍٝ‫أ‬ ‫ٓغ‬ ‫حُؼَٔس‬ ٠‫ك‬ ‫حَُٜٓٞٗخص‬ ٖ٣ٌٞ‫ط‬٠ُ‫ا‬ ‫حُِوخف‬ ‫كزش‬ ٍ ً‫ا‬ ‫حَُِٛس‬ ْٔ٤ٓ‫حُو‬ ‫أٗٔـش‬ َ‫ىحه‬ ‫حُِوخف‬ ‫أٗزٞرش‬ ٞٔ٘‫ط‬ٖ٣ٌٞ‫ط‬ ‫ريح٣ش‬ ٢ٛٝ ِْ ١ٞ‫طلظ‬ ،‫حُؼَٔس‬‫حال‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫حُِوخف‬ ‫كزش‬ٝ‫ٝطٜزق‬ ٢٘٘‫ط‬ ٢‫حُظ‬ ٖ٤َُ‫حُـز‬ ٝ ٖ٤ًٔ ‫اٗزخص‬ ‫ػ٘ي‬ ‫كؼخُش‬‫حُِوخف‬ ‫كزش‬،٢‫ك‬ ‫حُِوخف‬ ‫أٗزٞرش‬ ٞٔٗٝ٣ ِْ‫حُو‬ ‫أٗٔـش‬‫ر٘خء‬ ٢٘٘ ‫حال‬ٝ‫رؤٗٔـش‬ ٖ٤ًٔ‫ِٓلٞظش‬ ‫رٍٜٞس‬ ٢٘٤ًٔٝ‫حال‬ ٟٞ‫حُٔٔظ‬ ‫ٝ٣َطلغ‬ ٞ٤‫حُٔز‬ ، ‫حُ٘خٓ٤ش‬ ‫حُِوخف‬ ‫أٗزٞرش‬ ‫رؤش‬ ‫حُٔل٤طش‬ ‫رخ٧ٗٔـش‬ْٔ‫ٝ٣٘و‬ ‫ح٩هٜخد‬ ‫ٝ٣ليع‬ ٞٔ٘٣ٝ ‫َٓ٣ؼخ‬ َّ٤‫حالٗيٝٓز‬٢٘٤ًٔٝ‫حال‬ ٟٞ‫حُٔٔظ‬ ‫ك٤َطلغ‬ ٖ٤٘‫حُـ‬،‫حُ٘خطؾ‬ ‫ُِ٣خىس‬ ‫حالٗيٝٓز‬ ‫ٗٔ٤ؾ‬ ٠‫ك‬ ٚ٘ٓ٤ً‫ا‬ ٖ٤٘‫حُـ‬ ٝ َّٟٞ‫ٓلظ‬ ٢‫ٝ٣َطز‬ ‫َٓٓظ٤ٔ٤ش‬ ‫أٗٔـش‬ ‫اٜٗخ‬ ‫حال‬ ٖٓ ‫حُؼَٔس‬٢‫ك‬ ٌٍٝ‫حُز‬ ٍٞ‫ٝطط‬ ٞٔ٘‫ر‬ ‫حُؼوي‬ ‫رؼي‬ ٖ٤ًٔٝ‫حُزٌٍ٣ش‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬‫حٍطزخ١خ‬ ‫ٝػ٤وخ‬ٍٞ‫ٝحُظط‬ ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬ ٠‫ك‬ ‫حُؼَٔس‬ ٍ‫حٓظَٔح‬ ٟ‫ٓي‬ ‫٣ظٞهق‬ َ‫ر‬٠‫ك‬ ‫كـٜٔخ‬ ‫ُ٣خىس‬ ٝ ‫ىٍٝس‬‫رؼي‬ ٍٝ٧‫ح‬ ‫ٗٔٞٛخ‬.‫رٜخ‬ ٠٘٤ًٔٝ‫حال‬ ٟٞ‫حُٔٔظ‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫حُؼوي‬ٝٝ‫حٗولخ‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ٖ٤ًٔٝ‫حال‬ ٟٞ‫ٓٔظ‬٢‫حُظ‬ ‫حَُِٛس‬ ٢‫طٔخه‬ ‫ٝ٣ؼٞى‬ ‫حُزٌٍ٣ش‬ ‫حُؼَٔس‬ ٢‫طٔخه‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ١‫٣ئى‬ ٖ٤ًٔٝ‫حال‬ ‫ٌٛح‬ ٟٞ‫ٓٔظ‬ ٚ‫ٗو‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ‫حُؼوي‬ ٠‫ك‬ ‫كِ٘ض‬. ‫ح‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ‫ٝؿي‬ ‫ٝهي‬‫ال‬ٝ،ٍ‫ح٧ُٛخ‬ ٢‫طٔخه‬ ٖٓ َ‫٣ئه‬ ٖ٤ًٔ‫ك‬‫ٝهض‬ ٖ٤‫ر‬ ‫حُلظَس‬ ٍٞ‫ظط‬ ‫حَُِٛس‬ ‫حٓظؼيحى‬‫طٔخهطٜخ‬ ‫ٝهض‬ ٖ٤‫ٝر‬ ‫ُِظِو٤ق‬ٖٓ ‫ٝ٣ِ٣ي‬‫كيٝع‬ ٍ‫حكظٔخ‬
  20. 20. 19 ‫ٝحُؼو‬ ‫ح٩هٜخد‬٢‫حُطز٤ؼ‬ ‫ي‬،‫أ‬ ‫كوي‬‫رخال‬ ‫حُٔؼخِٓش‬ ‫ىص‬ٖ٤ًٔٝ٠ُ‫ح‬‫ػوي‬ ٖ٤ٔ‫طل‬ ‫حُزط٤ن‬. ٠ِ‫ػ‬‫ٓؼخِٓش‬ ‫رؼي‬ ١ٌَ‫حُز‬ ‫رخُؼوي‬ ٍ‫ػٔخ‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ٍٜٞ‫حُل‬ ٌٖٓ‫أ‬ ٚٗ‫ح‬ ٖٓ ْ‫حَُؿ‬ ٝ‫رخال‬ ‫ًؼ٤َس‬ ‫٧ٗٞحع‬ ٍ‫ح٧ُٛخ‬ ٞ٤‫ٓز‬ٖٔ‫ك‬ ٚٔ٤ٔ‫طؼ‬ ٌٖٔ٣ ‫ال‬ ‫ًُي‬ ٕ‫أ‬ ‫اال‬ ٖ٤ًٔ ‫ح‬ ‫حُؼخرض‬ٖٓ َ‫حًؼ‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫رٌَ٣ش‬ ٍ‫ػٔخ‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ٍٜٞ‫حُل‬ ٌٖٔ٣ ُْ ٚٗ80‫ح٧ٗٞحع‬ ٖٓ % ‫ري‬ ‫كال‬ ‫حُزٌٍ٣ش‬‫ح‬ ‫حالٓظؼيحى‬ َ‫طٞك‬ ٖٓ‫رٌَ٣ش‬ ٍ‫ػٔخ‬ ٖ٣ٌٞ‫ُظ‬ ‫حٍُٔٞٝع‬ ٢‫ُطز٤ؼ‬ ٞ‫رؼ‬ ‫طؼوي‬ ٢‫حُظ‬ ‫ح٧ٗٞحع‬ ٠‫ك‬ ‫طِىحى‬ ١ٌَ‫حُز‬ ‫حُؼوي‬ ‫كيٝع‬ ‫كَٛش‬ ٕ‫أ‬ ١‫أ‬ ‫حُؼوي‬ ‫الٓ٤ٔخ‬ ‫١ز٤ؼ٤خ‬ ‫رٌَ٣خ‬ ‫ح٧ٛ٘خف‬‫حَُٜٓٞٗ٤ش‬ ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬ ‫رٔ٘ظٔخص‬ ‫ػِٞٓض‬ ‫اًح‬. ٧‫ح‬ ‫٣٘لَى‬ ‫ٝال‬ٍٝٞ‫حُظط‬ ٝ ُِٞٔ٘ ‫حُؼَٔس‬ ‫ىكغ‬ ٠‫ك‬ ٢ٔ٤‫حَُث‬ ٍٝ‫رخُي‬ ٖ٤ًٔ،َ‫ر‬ ٘٣‫ظ‬ٖ٤َُ‫حُـز‬ َ‫ٓؼ‬ َٟ‫أه‬ ‫َٛٓٞٗخص‬ ٚ‫ٓؼ‬ ‫َى‬. ٧‫ح‬ ٟٞ‫ٓٔظ‬ ٕ‫أ‬ ‫ٝؿي‬ ‫ٝهي‬ٝ‫حٍطلخػخ‬ َ‫حًؼ‬ ٌٕٞ٣ ‫حُزٌٍ٣ش‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٠‫ك‬ ٖ٤ًٖٔٓ ٢‫حُ٘زخط‬ ‫حُ٘ٞع‬ ْ‫ُ٘ل‬ ‫حُزٌٍ٣ش‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٢‫ك‬ َٙ٤‫ٗظ‬‫رؼي‬ ّ‫أ٣خ‬ ‫ُٝؼيس‬ ٍ‫ح٧ُٛخ‬ ٍٞ١ ٠‫ك‬ ٝ‫أ‬ ّٞ٤‫ر‬ ‫حُؼوي‬ ‫رؼي‬ ‫حُٔظٔخهطش‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ‫ٗٔزش‬ ‫حٍطلؼض‬ ‫ٝهي‬ ،‫ٓزخَٗس‬ ‫حُؼوي‬ ‫كيٝع‬ ‫حُؼ‬ ٠‫ك‬ ٖ٤ٓٞ٤‫ر‬‫حُزٌٍ٣ش‬ ٍ‫ٔخ‬،٧‫ح‬ ٝ‫الٗولخ‬ ‫ٗظ٤ـش‬٢‫ك‬ ‫رٜخ‬ ٖ٤ًٔٝ‫حُٞهض‬ ‫ٌٛح‬ ٟٚ‫حٗولخ‬ ‫ٓزذ‬ ٖ‫ػ‬ َ‫حُ٘ظ‬ ٞ‫رـ‬. ٣ُٝ ‫حُؼَٔس‬ ٞٔٗ ٠‫ك‬ َ٤‫ًز‬ ٍٝ‫ى‬ ‫حُزٌٍس‬ ًُٞٔ٘ٝ‫ا‬ ‫كـٜٔخ‬ ‫خىس‬‫حُؼَٔس‬ ‫حُزٌٍس‬ ‫طٔي‬ ‫رخال‬ٍٝ‫ُالٗظ٘خ‬ َ‫حُوخر‬ ٖ٤ًٔDiffusible auxinٍ‫ٝٓؼخ‬ ،ُ٘‫ح‬ ‫ػَٔس‬ ‫ًُي‬٤ِ‫ي‬ ‫حُٔظـٔؼش‬،‫حُؼٔ٤َح‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫٣ظٞهق‬ ‫كـٜٔخ‬ ٕ‫كخ‬‫حالً٤٘٤ش‬ ‫ص‬Achenes‫طٔي‬ ٢‫ٝحُظ‬ ‫رخال‬ ٢ٔ‫حُِل‬ ‫حُظوض‬ ‫ٗٔ٤ؾ‬ٞٔ٘‫كظ‬ ٖ٤ًٔٝ‫حٗٔـظٜخ‬ٝ‫ط‬ٜ‫ٓؼ‬ ٞٔ٘‫خ‬‫حُؼَٔس‬،‫ٝؿ٤خد‬ ‫حال‬ ‫ح٩ٓيحى‬ ‫٣ٔ٘غ‬ ‫حالً٤٘٤ش‬ ‫حُؼٔ٤َحص‬ ٟ‫أكي‬٢٘٤ًٔٝ‫حُظوض‬ ‫ُ٘ٔ٤ؾ‬،‫٣ٔ٘غ‬ ٢ُ‫ٝرخُظخ‬ ِ‫حُـ‬ ‫رٌٜح‬ ‫ح٧ٗٔـش‬ ٌَُٞٔٗ٘‫ح‬ ‫ٓ٘ظظٔش‬ َ٤‫ؿ‬ ‫حُؼَٔس‬ ٝ‫ٝطزي‬ ‫ء‬.ٌٖٝٓ‫أ‬ ‫ػـ٤٘ش‬ ‫رٟٞغ‬ ‫حُؼٔ٤َس‬ ٖ‫ػ‬ ‫حالٓظؼخٟش‬٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫حُٔلظٞ٣ش‬ ٖ٤ُٞٗ‫حُال‬2 Naphthoxyacetic acidِ٤ًَ‫رظ‬100‫ًٔخ‬ ‫حُؼَٔس‬ ٞٔ٘‫كظ‬ ٕٞ٤ُِٔ‫ح‬ ٠‫ك‬ ‫ؿِء‬ ‫ٓٞؿٞىس‬ ‫حُؼٔ٤َحص‬ ًَ ‫ًخٗض‬ ُٞ. ّٕ‫ا‬٢‫ك‬ ٌٍٝ‫حُز‬ ‫ػيى‬٧‫ح‬ ٟٞ‫ٓٔظ‬ ‫ُ٣خىس‬ ٠‫ك‬ َ٤‫ًز‬ ٍٝ‫ى‬ ُٚ ‫حُؼَٔس‬ٝ‫رٜخ‬ ٖ٤ًٔ ٌ‫حُز‬ ‫رؼيى‬ ‫حُؼَٔس‬ ْ‫كـ‬ ٢‫٣َطز‬ ْ‫ػ‬ ٖٓٝ‫رٜخ‬ ٍٝ،ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٟٞ‫ٓلظ‬ ٕ‫أ‬ ‫ٝؿي‬ ‫كوي‬ ‫رخُؼٔخٍحُٜـ٤َس‬ ‫ٓخ‬ ‫أٟؼخف‬ ْٔ‫ه‬ ٕ‫ًخ‬ ‫حٌُز٤َس‬ٝ ،‫َٓكِش‬ ٠‫ك‬ ‫ٓوطض‬ ٢‫حُظ‬ ٍٝ٧‫ح‬ ١َٔ‫حُؼ‬ ٢‫حُظٔخه‬،‫حال‬ ٟٞ‫حُٔٔظ‬ ٞ‫حٗول‬ ‫ٝهي‬٢٘٤ًٔٝ‫ػويص‬ ٢‫حُظ‬ ٍ‫رخُؼٔخ‬
  21. 21. 20 ‫طِو‬ ‫رؼي‬ ‫ػويص‬ ٢‫حُظ‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٠‫ك‬ ٚ٘‫ػ‬ ‫طِو٤ق‬ ٕٝ‫ى‬٢‫ك‬ ‫ٓوطض‬ ْ‫ػ‬ ‫اهٜخرٜخ‬ ٝ ‫٤لٜخ‬ ُ‫ح‬ٍٝ٧‫ح‬ ٢‫ظٔخه‬،‫ح‬ ّ‫أٓخ‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫ًُي‬ َٔ‫ٝك‬٧‫ح‬ ‫ًٔ٤خص‬ ٕٝ‫رخُؼَٔس‬ ‫حُٔطِوش‬ ٖ٤ًٔ ٓ‫ػي‬ ٖٓ ٢‫حُظٔخه‬ ٠‫ك‬ ‫حُٔظلٌٔش‬ ٢ٛ ‫ُ٤ٔض‬٢٘٤ًٔٝ‫حال‬ ٟٞ‫حُٔٔظ‬ ٙ‫٣ليى‬ ٌُٖٝ ٚ ‫رخ‬٢٘٤ًٔٝ‫حال‬ ٟٞ‫رخُٔٔظ‬ ٚ‫ٝػالهظ‬ ‫ُؼَٔس‬٢‫ك‬ ‫ُٜخ‬ ‫حُٔظخهٔش‬ ٍ‫رخُؼٔخ‬٠٘‫رٔؼ‬ ‫حُؼ٘وٞى‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ػ٘يٓخ‬ ٚٗ‫ح‬ٝ ‫ِٓولش‬ ٍ‫أُٛخ‬ ٖٓ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٞ‫رؼ‬ ‫٘ظؾ‬َ٘‫ك‬ ٍ‫أُٛخ‬ ٖٓ ٞ‫حُزؼ‬ ٤‫طِو‬ُ‫ح‬ ٕ‫كخ‬ ‫لٜخ‬َ‫ل‬‫أ‬ ٢٘٤ًٔٝ‫حال‬ ٟٞ‫حُٔٔظ‬ ٖ٤‫ر‬ َ٤‫حٌُز‬ ‫م‬٢٘٤ًٔٝ‫حال‬ ‫حُظيٍؽ‬ ١ ُ ‫حَُٔ٣غ‬ ٢‫حُظٔخه‬ ‫٣ٔزذ‬٢٘٤ًٔٝ‫حال‬ ٟٞ‫حُٔلظ‬ ‫ًحص‬ ٍ‫ِؼٔخ‬‫أ‬٧َ‫ه‬،ٕ‫أ‬ ‫ُٞكع‬ ‫ٝهي‬ ٢‫ك‬ ٖ٤٘‫حُـ‬ ٍٞٛ‫طي‬ٓٝ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ْ‫كـ‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ َ‫٣ئػ‬ ِ٣ٌَُ‫ٝح‬ ‫حُوٞم‬‫ٝهي‬ ‫حُ٘٠ؾ‬ ‫ٞػي‬ ‫ٍٟٔٞس‬ ٝ‫أ‬ ٚ‫ٓٞط‬ ‫٣ٔزذ‬،‫ح‬١‫٣ئى‬ ٖ٤‫ك‬ ٠‫ك‬ ‫حُؼَٔس‬ ٢‫ُظٔخه‬ٖ٤٘‫حُـ‬ ٍٟٞٔ٠‫ك‬ ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬ َ‫َٓحك‬ َ‫آه‬(‫حُز٤َ٣ٌخٍد‬‫ا‬ ‫حُؼَٔس‬ ٞٔٗ ٖٓ ‫٣ِ٣ي‬ ‫هي‬ ).َ٤‫طؤػ‬ ُٚ ٌٖ٣ ُْ ٕ ‫األ‬ ‫ٓصله‬ٖٝ٤ًَ٢‫ك‬‫اُضٔوح‬: ‫ُال‬ ‫حُٔخٗق‬ ‫حُ٘ٔ٤ؾ‬ ‫ٗٞع‬ ‫٣وظِق‬ٝ" ‫رخُزٌٍس‬ ٖ٤ًَّٔ٤‫حٗيٝٓز‬ ، ‫ٗ٤ٞٓ٤ِش‬ َٜٙ‫،ه‬ ٖ٤٘‫ؿ‬،‫حُزٌٍس‬ َٔ‫ٝػ‬ ٢‫حُ٘زخط‬ ‫ُِ٘ٞع‬ ‫طزؼخ‬،‫حٌٌٍُٞٗٞى‬ ‫حُؼ٘ذ‬ ٢‫كل‬ ّ‫حٗؤخ‬ ‫حُ٘٤ٞٓ٤ِش‬ ٞٔٗ ٢‫حٍطز‬ ٢ٌ٣َٓ٧‫ح‬‫رؼي‬ ‫أٓزٞع‬ ‫ُٔيس‬ ‫حُوال٣خ‬ ْ‫ٝط٠و‬ ٩‫ح‬٧‫ح‬ ْ‫ٓؼظ‬ ٖ٣ٌٞ‫ط‬ ٠‫ك‬ ‫ر٘٘خ١ٜخ‬ ٍ‫ُٛخ‬ٝ‫رخُزٌٍس‬ ٖ٤ًٔ،َّ٤‫حالٗيٝٓز‬ َٜ‫٣ظ‬ ْ‫ػ‬ ‫ُال‬ َ‫آه‬ ٍ‫ٜٓي‬ ‫٣زيأ‬ ‫ٝرٌُي‬ ‫حُؼوي‬ ‫رؼي‬ ٢ُ‫حُظخ‬ ّٞ٤ُ‫ح‬ ٠‫ك‬ ١ِٞ‫حُو‬ٝ‫رخُزٌٍس‬ ٖ٤ًٔ ٠‫كظ‬ٍ‫حُٜٔي‬ ‫طيٍ٣ـ٤خ‬ َ‫٣و‬ ٖ٤‫ك‬٢ِ٤ٓٞ٤ُ٘‫ح‬ٍ‫حُٜٔي‬ َ‫حُٔوخر‬ ٠‫ك‬ ‫ٝ٣ِ٣ي‬ َّ٤‫حالٗيٝٓز‬ٍ‫ح‬ ‫رؼي‬ ّ‫حالٗؤخ‬ ٠‫ك‬ ٖ٤٘‫حُـ‬ ‫٣زيأ‬ ْ‫ػ‬‫ر‬ٞٔ٘٣ ْ‫ػ‬ ‫حُؼوي‬ ٖٓ ّٞ٣ َ٘‫ػ‬ ‫ؼش‬ ٖ٣َ٘‫ٝػ‬ ‫هٔٔش‬ ٢‫ك‬ ُٚ ٞٔٗ ٠ٜ‫أه‬ َٜ٣ ٠‫كظ‬ ‫رز٢ء‬ٓٞ٣‫آ‬ٝ ‫حُؼوي‬ ٖٓ‫ر‬‫ٌُي‬ ٧‫ح‬ ‫اٗظخؽ‬ ٠‫ك‬ ‫ٓظؤهَح‬ ‫٣٘خٍى‬ٖٝ٤ًٔ،ٍٝ‫ى‬ ‫أ٣٠خ‬ ‫كِٜخ‬ ‫حُزٌٍ٣ش‬ ‫ح٧ؿِلش‬ ‫أٓخ‬ َّ٤‫حالٗيٝٓز‬ ‫رـخٗذ‬،ُ‫اٗظخؽ‬ ًَِٓ ٞٛ َّ٤‫حالٗيٝٓز‬ ٕ‫أ‬ َٟ٣ ‫حػظوخى‬ ‫ٛ٘خى‬ ٌٖ ‫حال‬ٍٝٞ‫طل‬ ‫ػ٘ي‬ ٙ‫٧هٜخ‬ ‫ح٩ٗظخؽ‬ َٜ٣ٝ ٖ٤ًٔ‫حُلَس‬ ‫حُ٘ٞحس‬Free nuclear ٠ُ‫ح‬١ِٞ‫حُو‬ َّ٤‫حالٗيٝٓز‬Cellular endosperm. ٤ٔٛ‫أ‬ ‫٣ظ٠ق‬ ‫ٓزن‬ ‫ٓٔخ‬ٞ‫حُل٤ظ‬ ‫ش‬ٚٓ‫ػي‬ ٖٓ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ‫ػوي‬ ٠‫ك‬ ‫َٛٓٞٗخص‬،ٍٝ‫ٝكخ‬ َ٤‫ًؼ‬‫حالكخىس‬ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬ ‫رٔ٘ظٔخص‬ َُٕ‫ح‬ ٖٓ،ٝ ‫حُِوخف‬ ‫كزش‬ ‫اٗزخص‬ ‫٩َٓحع‬‫آَحع‬ ‫أٗزٞرش‬ ‫حٓظطخُش‬،‫حُِوخف‬٢٘ٗ َ‫ٝرخُلؼ‬IAA،IBA،NAAٖٝ٤َُ‫حُـز‬
  22. 22. 21 ُٝٔ‫ح‬‫خ‬ًٞ‫٣ظ‬‫خ‬٤٘٣‫٘خص‬‫حُظًَ٤ِحص‬ ‫ًٝخٗض‬ ‫حُؼوي‬ ‫ُ٣خىس‬ ٢ُ‫رخُظخ‬ ٝ ‫حُِوخف‬ ‫كزش‬ ٞٔٗ ٖٓ ٖٓ ‫ُِـخ٣ش‬ ‫ٟ٤وش‬ ‫كيٝى‬ ٠‫ك‬ ‫حُٔٔظؼِٔش‬1-50‫ؿِء‬‫آ‬ٕٞ٤ُِٔ‫ح‬ ٠‫ك‬،‫طٔ٘غ‬ ‫ر٤٘ٔخ‬ ٗ‫ا‬ ٖٓ ‫حُؼخُ٤ش‬ ‫حُظًَ٤ِحص‬‫زخص‬٢‫ك‬ ‫ًُي‬ ٖٓ ‫ٝ٣ٔظلخى‬ ‫حُِوخف‬ ‫كزش‬‫ح‬ ‫رَحٓؾ‬‫ُظَر٤ش‬ ُ ٚ٘ٓ َ‫حًؼ‬ ٖ‫ٛـ‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ٍٜٞ‫ُِل‬‫حُؼوي‬ ٖ٤ٔ‫طل‬ َٝ‫ـ‬. : ‫اُؼول‬ ٝ ٖ٤ُ‫اُغجو‬ َ‫رخُـز‬ ‫أ٣٠خ‬ ‫حُؼَٔس‬ ‫حُزٌٍس‬ ‫طٔي‬‫ا‬ ، ‫حُؼَٔس‬ ‫أٗٔـش‬ ُٞٔ٘ ُّ‫حُال‬ ٖ٤ُّٕ ُ‫ح‬ ٍ‫ؿي‬ ‫حكظٞحء‬‫ٔز‬٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫٣ٔخػيٛخ‬ ‫َٛٓٞٗخص‬ ٞ‫حُل٤ظ‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ٞ٤ٍٝ‫ري‬ ّ‫حُو٤خ‬ ٢‫ك‬ َ‫حُٔٔظوز‬‫حُؼالهش‬Sink/Source Relation،١‫طئى‬ ٠‫ٝحُظ‬‫ؿٌد‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ، ‫حُٔظٌٞٗش‬ ‫حُؼَٔس‬ ‫هال٣خ‬ ٠‫ك‬ ِٕ‫ُظو‬ ‫ح٧ٍٝحم‬ ٠‫ك‬ ‫حُٔظٌٞٗش‬ ‫حُـٌحث٤ش‬ ‫حُٔٞحى‬ ‫حال‬ ‫ُٔؼخٓالص‬ ‫حُوَػ٤ش‬ ‫حُؼخثِش‬ ‫ٗزخطخص‬ ‫ٝطٔظـ٤ذ‬ٝ٩ ٖ٤َُ‫ٝحُـز‬ ٖ٤ًٔ‫كيحع‬ َ‫حُظ‬ ِ٤ٔ‫ٝطظ‬ ١ٌَ‫حُز‬ ‫حُؼوي‬‫اًآ‬ ‫ٓيحٛخ‬ ‫رخطٔخع‬ ‫حُٔٔظؼِٔش‬ ‫ً٤ِحص‬٠‫ك‬ َ٤‫حُظؤػ‬ ‫٣وغ‬ ‫كيٝى‬10–200‫ؿِء‬‫آ‬. ١ٌَ‫حُز‬ ‫ُِؼوي‬ ‫حُٔؼخِٓش‬ ٍ‫ح٧ُٛخ‬ ‫ىكغ‬ ٠‫ك‬ ٕٞ٤ُِٔ‫ح‬ ٠‫ك‬ ُ‫ح‬ ٍ‫ٝطي‬‫٘ظخثؾ‬٠ِ‫ػ‬٢‫٣ؼط‬ ٖ٤َُ‫ؿز‬ ٖٓ َ‫حًؼ‬ ٢ِ‫ه‬ ٕ‫أ‬َ٤‫طؤػ‬‫آ‬٠‫ك‬ َ‫حًز‬‫اكيحع‬ ‫حُو‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٠‫ك‬ ١ٌَ‫حُز‬ ‫حُؼوي‬‫َػ٤ش‬. ٝ‫حٓظـخرظٜخ‬ ٠‫ك‬ ‫ح٧ٛ٘خف‬ ‫طوظِق‬‫ك‬‫ػوي‬ ٠‫ك‬ ٖٔ‫طل‬ ١‫أ‬ ‫٣ليع‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ز٤٘ٔخ‬ ٘ٛ ‫حُظلخف‬‫ق‬Golden delicious‫ؿزَ٣ِ٤٘خص‬ ‫رظٔؼش‬ ‫حُٔؼخىُش‬ ‫رؼي‬،ٕ‫أ‬ ‫ٗـي‬ ‫ُحى‬ ‫حُؼوي‬40-80‫د‬ ‫حُٔؼخِٓش‬ ‫رؼي‬ %100–800ppm‫حُٜ٘ق‬ ٠‫ك‬ Lombartacol villa١ٌَ‫ر‬ ‫ػوي‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ٍٜٞ‫حُل‬ ٌٖٓ‫أ‬ ‫ٝهي‬ ،‫ال‬ ِ٣ٌَُِ ٖٓ ١ِٞ‫رٔو‬ ‫حُٔؼخِٓش‬ ‫رؼي‬ ‫حُؼخى٣ش‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٖ‫ػ‬ ‫طوظِق‬D–2,4ٝT-2,4,5ٝ NAAٝGA3ِ٤ًَ‫رظ‬20‫ؿِء‬ٕٞ٤ُِٔ‫ح‬ ٠‫ك‬. ّٕ‫ٝا‬‫ُِظٞه٤ض‬٢‫ك‬ َ٤‫حٌُز‬ َٙ‫أػ‬ ‫ُِٔؼخِٓش‬ ‫حُٜل٤ق‬‫ح‬ ‫ٗـخف‬ٖٓ ١ٌَ‫حُز‬ ‫ُؼوي‬ ٚٓ‫ػي‬،ٌّ‫ر‬ ‫ًِٝٔخ‬٢‫ك‬ ٍَ‫حالٓظؼٔخ‬‫رٌَ٣خ‬ ‫طؼوي‬ ٢‫حُظ‬ ٍ‫ح٧ُٛخ‬ ‫ػيى‬ ‫ُحى‬،‫٣ـذ‬ ‫ٓٔخ‬ ‫ػ٘خ‬ ‫هق‬ ‫اؿَحء‬ ٚ‫ٓؼ‬‫حُلزخص‬ ٝ‫أ‬ ‫ٓؼال‬ ‫حُؼ٘ذ‬ ‫ه٤ي‬،ٕ‫ح‬ ‫ًٔخ‬‫ال‬ ‫حُٔؼخِٓش‬ َ٤‫طؤه‬ ‫حُلزش‬ ْ‫كـ‬ ٠‫ك‬ ‫حَُٔؿٞرش‬ ‫حُِ٣خىس‬ ٚ‫ٓؼ‬ ‫٣ظلون‬‫أ‬ ٕ‫كب‬ ‫ٌُح‬ ،‫ُِٔؼخىُش‬ ‫ٝهض‬ ٖٔ‫ك‬ ‫ٓزخَٗس‬ ‫حُؼوي‬ ٠‫ك‬ ‫كِ٘ض‬ ٠‫حُظ‬ ٍ‫ح٧ُٛخ‬ ٢‫طٔخه‬ ‫رؼي‬ ٌٕٞ٣.
  23. 23. 22 ١‫طزي‬ٝ‫أ‬ ‫حُزٌٍ٣ش‬ ‫ح٧ٛ٘خف‬‫رــ‬ ‫ُِٔؼخِٓش‬ ‫حٓظـخرش‬ ‫ؿخُز٤ظٜخ‬GA3‫هي‬ َ‫ر‬ ‫حُلزخص‬ ٍ‫حٗلٜخ‬ َ‫ٓؼ‬ ‫ٍَٟح‬ ‫٣ٔزذ‬ٞٔٗ ‫ٝهِش‬ ٍٜٞ‫حُٔل‬ ‫ٝهِش‬‫ح٧كَع‬ ‫حُو‬‫ح‬ ّ‫حُؼخ‬ ٠‫ك‬ ‫٠َ٣ش‬‫حُو٘ذ‬ ‫ٗ٠ؾ‬ َ٤‫طؤه‬ ٢‫ك‬ َٙ٤‫ُظؤػ‬ ‫ً٘ظ٤ـش‬ ‫ُِٔؼخِٓش‬ ٢ُ‫ُظخ‬ ٓ‫حُٔؼخ‬ ‫ٓ٘ش‬‫ِش‬ِٝ‫ه‬‫ش‬٢ُ‫حُظخ‬ ّ‫حُؼخ‬ ٠‫ك‬ ٍ‫ح٧ُٛخ‬. ٝ ٖ٤٘٤ًٞ‫اَُ٤ز‬:‫اُؼول‬ ُٔ‫ح‬ ‫ٝؿٞى‬ ‫ُٞكع‬‫خ‬ًٞ‫٣ظ‬٢‫ك‬ ٖ٤٘٣‫خ‬‫حُزٌَ٣ش‬ ُُٞٔ‫ح‬ ٍ‫ػٔخ‬،ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ‫حكظٞص‬ ‫ر٤٘ٔخ‬ َ٤‫حُـ‬ُٔ‫ح‬ ٖٓ َ٤ِ‫حُو‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫حُزٌَ٣ش‬‫خ‬ًٞ‫٣ظ‬‫خ‬‫أػطض‬ ‫ٝهي‬ ‫ًِ٤خ‬ ٚ‫ؿ٤خر‬ ٠‫كظ‬ ٝ‫أ‬ ٖ٤٘٣ ٖٓ ١ِٞ‫رٔو‬ ‫حُٔؼخِٓش‬BA + GA3ُُٞٔ‫ح‬ ٠‫ك‬ ١ٌَ‫حُز‬ ‫حُؼوي‬ ‫ُ٣خىس‬. ‫ٝاُؼول‬ ُٞٔ٘‫ا‬ ‫ٓؼ٤وبد‬: ‫حُٔؼخِٓش‬ ‫أىص‬‫رـ‬CCC١ٌٍ‫حُز‬ ‫حُؼ٘ذ‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬‫حٓزٞع‬ ٖ٤‫ر‬ ‫طظَحٝف‬ ‫ُٔيس‬ ‫ٝػالػش‬ ‫ٝحكي‬ِ٤ًَ‫رظ‬ ٍ‫ح٧ُٛخ‬ َ‫هز‬ ‫أٓخر٤غ‬10–100‫ؿِء‬‫آ‬٠ُ‫ح‬ ٕٞ٤ُِٔ‫ح‬ ٠‫ك‬ ‫حُؼخهيس‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ‫ػيى‬ ‫ُ٣خىس‬٢ُ‫رلٞح‬20%،٢‫ك‬ ‫حُِ٣خىس‬ ‫ٝحٍطزطض‬‫حُلزخص‬ ‫ػيى‬ ُٔ‫ح‬ ِ٤ًَ‫ط‬ ٠‫ك‬ ‫رخُِ٣خىس‬ ‫حُؼخهيس‬‫خ‬َٔ‫حُٔٔظؼ‬ َ٤ٌٓٞ٣. . ‫اُ٘عظ‬ ٍ‫اًزٔب‬ ‫ٓصطِؾبد‬ ْ٤٣‫ٓوخ‬ ٍ‫حٓظؼٔخ‬ ٌٖٔ٣indices‫ُلٜخى‬ ‫حُٔ٘خٓذ‬ ‫حُٔٞػي‬ ‫ُظلي٣ي‬ . ‫ٜٓ٘خ‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ 1-‫حُزِٞؽ‬maturation ‫حَُٔكِش‬ ٌٙٛ ٢‫ك‬َٜ٣ْ‫كـ‬‫حُٔ٘خٓذ‬ ْ‫حُلـ‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ‫حُؼَٔس‬‫ُٜ٘ل‬‫ٜخ‬ٍ‫ٝحًظٔخ‬ ‫ريء‬ َ‫ٝهز‬ ْ‫ٝحُلـ‬ ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬‫ٓ٘ظظ‬ ٢‫حُـٌحث‬ َ٤‫حُظٔؼ‬ ‫٣ٜزق‬ ٢‫حُٜ٘خث‬ ‫حُ٘٠ؾ‬ٔ‫آ‬‫ٝحُؼَٔس‬ ‫ٓٔظؼي‬‫َٓكِش‬ ٢‫ك‬ ٍٞ‫ُِيه‬ ‫س‬‫ح‬٢‫حُٜ٘خث‬ ‫ُ٘٠ؾ‬،‫رَٔكِش‬ ٠ٔٔ‫ط‬ ‫ٝحك٤خٗخ‬‫حُ٘٠ؾ‬ ٢‫حُلِٔـ‬maturation physiological،‫ٛلخص‬ ‫ًحص‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٌٕٞ‫ٝط‬ ‫ٗٞػ٤ش‬‫هِٗ٤ش‬ ‫ٝهخرِ٤ش‬ ‫ؿ٤يس‬،‫حَُٔكِش‬ ٢ٛٝ‫ك‬ َٔ‫طٌظ‬ ٢‫حُظ‬‫ؿٔ٤غ‬ ‫ٜٗخ٣ظٜخ‬ ٢ ‫ٝحُلِٔـ٤ش‬ ‫حُل٤ٞ٣ش‬ ‫حُظـ٤٤َحص‬‫حُٔٔ٤ِس‬‫ُِٜ٘ق‬،‫حُ٘٠ؾ‬ ٞ‫ٗل‬ ‫طويٓض‬ ‫ًِٝٔخ‬
  24. 24. 23 ‫حالًِ٤ش‬ ‫ٛلخطٜخ‬ ‫طلٔ٘ض‬‫حُوِٗ٤ش‬ ‫هخرِ٤ظٜخ‬ ‫ٝهِض‬‫حالٓظيال‬ ٌٖٔ٣ٝ .٠ِ‫ػ‬ ٍ ‫َٓػش‬ ‫ػزخص‬ ٖٓ ٢‫حُلِٔـ‬ ‫حُ٘٠ؾ‬‫ٝحًح‬ ْ‫حُظ٘ل‬‫هط‬‫ل‬ِٚ‫حَُٔك‬ ٌٙٛ ٢‫ك‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ك‬ ‫رخُ٘٠ؾ‬ َٔ‫طٔظ‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ‫ك٤ٌٜٔ٘خ‬َٜ‫ط‬ ٠‫ظ‬٠ُ‫ح‬‫َٓكِش‬. ٢‫حُٜ٘خث‬ ‫حُ٘٠ؾ‬ 2-٢‫حُٜ٘خث‬ ‫حُ٘٠ؾ‬Ripening َٔ‫ط‬‫رِِٔٔش‬ ‫حُؼَٔس‬ٖٓ‫ٝحٌُٜ٘ش‬ ْ‫ٝحُطؼ‬ ُِٕٞ‫ح‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫حُظـ٤َحص‬َُ‫ٝح‬‫ح‬‫ثلش‬ ٚ‫ٛخُل‬ ‫ٝطٜزق‬ ‫ٛالرظٜخ‬ َ‫ٝطو‬ ‫حُلٟٔٞش‬ ٝ‫ٝحٗولخ‬ ‫حٌَُٔ٣خص‬ ‫ٗٔزش‬ ‫ُٝ٣خىس‬ ًَ‫ُال‬. 3-‫حُزِٞؽ‬٢ٗ‫حُزٔظخ‬Horticultural maturation ‫حَُٔكِش‬ ٢ٛٝ‫ػ٘ي‬ ًَ‫حال‬ ٝ‫ح‬ ٍ‫ُالٓظؼٔخ‬ ‫ٛخُلش‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ‫ك٤ٜخ‬ ٌٕٞ‫ط‬ ٢‫حُظ‬ ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬ َ‫َٓحك‬ ٖٓ ‫َٓكِش‬ ١‫ح‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫حُوطق‬،‫٣وغ‬ ‫ٝهي‬٢ٗ‫ٝحُزٔظخ‬ ٢‫حُلِٔـ‬ ‫حُ٘٠ؾ‬ ٝ‫٣و‬ ‫ٝٛ٘خ‬ ‫حُٞهض‬ ْ‫ٗل‬ ٢‫ك‬ ٢‫حُٜ٘خث‬٢‫حُٜ٘خث‬ ‫حُ٘٠ؾ‬ ‫طؼَ٣ق‬ ٖٟٔ ‫غ‬Ripening ٢ٗ‫حُزٔظخ‬ ‫حُزِٞؽ‬ ‫ك٤غ‬ ٖٓ ‫ٓـخٓ٤غ‬ ‫ػالع‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ْ٤ٔ‫طو‬ ٌٖٔ٣ٝ: ‫أ‬-‫َٓكِش‬ َ‫هز‬ ‫كٜخىٛخ‬ ْ‫٣ظ‬ ٍ‫ػٔخ‬ٍ‫حُو٤خ‬ َ‫ٓؼ‬ ‫حُزِٞؽ‬ َ‫هز‬ ٝ‫ح‬ ٢‫حُلِٔـ‬ ‫حُ٘٠ؾ‬ َ‫ٝحُلِل‬ ‫ٝحُوَع‬. ‫د‬-ٔ‫ػ‬‫َٓكِش‬ ‫ػ٘ي‬ ‫كٜخىٛخ‬ ْ‫٣ظ‬ ٍ‫خ‬‫ح‬ ٝ‫ح‬ ٢‫حُلِٔـ‬ ‫حُ٘٠ؾ‬‫ٛخُلش‬ ‫ٝطٜزق‬ ‫ُزِٞؽ‬ ‫ٓؼ٤٘ش‬ ‫كظَس‬ ‫رؼي‬ ًَ‫ُال‬ُُٞٔ‫ٝح‬ ‫ٝحُظلخف‬ َٟ‫حٌُٔؼ‬ َ‫ٓؼ‬ ‫حالٗ٠خؽ‬ ٝ‫ح‬ ِٕ‫حُو‬ ٖٓ. ‫ؽ‬-٢‫حُٜ٘خث‬ ‫حُ٘٠ؾ‬ ِٚ‫َٓك‬ ‫رِٞؽ‬ ‫رؼي‬ ‫كٜخىٛخ‬ ْ‫٣ظ‬ ٍ‫ػٔخ‬Ripeningَ‫ٓؼ‬ ١‫ٝحُطٔخ‬ ‫ٝحُؼ٘ذ‬ ‫حُِ٘٤ي‬ْ‫حُلَٔحء‬
  25. 25. 24 ‫اُ٘عظ‬ ٌ٤٣‫ٓوب‬ َ‫رو‬‫اُ٘عظ‬ ٌ٤٣‫ٓوب‬ ْ: ٠ُ‫ا‬- ‫أ‬-‫َٓث٤ش‬ ٝ‫ح‬ ٚ٤ٔ‫ك‬ ْ٤٣‫ٓوخ‬visual indices ‫حُظ‬ ْ٤٣‫حُٔوخ‬ ٢ٛٝ٢‫ًخُ٘ظ‬ ٚ٣َ٘‫حُز‬ ّ‫حُلٞح‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫طؼظٔي‬ُِْٔ‫ٝح‬ ‫ٝحٌُٝم‬ َ : َٔ٘‫ٝط‬- 1-‫حُؼَٔس‬ ‫هَ٘س‬ ُٕٞ ٢‫ك‬ َ٤‫حُظـ‬skin colorَ٠‫حاله‬ ُِٕٞ‫ح‬ ٍ‫حٗلال‬ ٞٛٝ ُِٕٞ‫ح‬ ٍٜٞ‫ٝظ‬ّ‫حالٓخ‬ 2-ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ْ‫ُل‬ ٝ‫ح‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ‫ُذ‬ ُٕٞ ٢‫ك‬ َ٤‫حُظـ‬Flesh color 3-‫ٌٜٗش‬ ٝ‫ح‬ ْ‫١ؼ‬ ٢‫ك‬ َ٤‫حُظـ‬ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ 4-‫ٍحثلش‬ ٢‫ك‬ َ٤‫حُظـ‬ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ 5-‫ح‬‫ٛالرش‬ ٢‫ك‬ َ٤‫ُظـ‬ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ‫ة‬-‫اُل٤ي٣بئ٤خ‬ ٌ٤٣‫أُوب‬: ‫ح‬ ْ٤٣‫حُٔوخ‬ ٢ٛٝ ْ‫حُلـ‬ ٝ ‫حُوٞس‬ ّ‫ٓو٤خ‬ َ‫ٓؼ‬ ‫ك٤ِ٣خث٤ش‬ ‫رؤٓخُ٤ذ‬ ‫ه٤خٜٓخ‬ ٌٖٔ٣ ٢‫ُظ‬ ‫حٌُؼخكش‬َٔ٘‫ط‬ ٝ 1-‫حُ٘ٞػ٤ش‬ ‫حٌُؼخكش‬ٍ‫ُِؼٔخ‬ = ٍ‫ُِؼٔخ‬ ‫حُ٘ٞػ٤ش‬ ‫حٌُؼخكش‬ ‫حُؼَٔس‬ ُٕٝ ‫كـٜٔخ‬ 2-‫حُٔٔ٤ِس‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ْ‫كـ‬‫ُِٜ٘ق‬. 3-ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٌَٗ‫حُٔٔ٤ِس‬‫حُزِٞؽ‬ ‫ػ٘ي‬ ‫ُِٜ٘ق‬. 4-‫ُٜٓٞش‬ٖ‫ػ‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٍ‫حٗلٜخ‬‫حُ٘زخطخص‬. 5-‫ٛالرش‬ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬. ‫ط‬-‫اٌُ٤ٔ٤بٝ٣خ‬ ٌ٤٣‫أُوب‬Chemical indices ُ‫ح‬ ْ٤٣‫حُٔوخ‬‫حٌُ٤ٔ٤خٝ٣ش‬ ‫حُظـ٤َحص‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫طؼظٔي‬ ٢‫ظ‬‫حُ٘٠ؾ‬ ‫ػ٘ي‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٢‫ك‬، ‫ٜٝٓ٘خ‬:- 1-ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫حٌَُٔ٣خص‬ ٚ‫ٗٔز‬. 2-‫ٗٔزش‬٤ٌُِ‫ح‬ ‫حٌُحثزش‬ ‫حُِٜزش‬ ‫حُٔٞحى‬‫ش‬TSS.
  26. 26. 25 3-‫ٗٔزش‬‫حٌُِ٤ش‬ ‫حُلٟٔٞش‬Total acids. 4‫ٛزـش‬ ِ٤ًَ‫ط‬َ٤‫حٌٍُِٞٝك‬chlorophyiiٖ٤‫حٌُخٍٝط‬ ٝ‫ح‬caroteneٝ‫ح‬ ‫حالٗؼ‬ٖٞ٤ٗ‫ٓ٤خ‬Anthocyanine‫هَ٘س‬ ٢‫ك‬ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬َ٤ٜ‫ػ‬ ٝ‫ح‬‫ٛخ‬. 5-‫ٗٔز‬‫ش‬‫حٌُحثزش‬ ‫حُِٜزش‬ ‫حُٔٞحى‬‫ٗٔزش‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬‫حُلٟٔٞش‬TSSacid. 6-‫(هخٛش‬ ‫حُ٘٘ؤ‬ ِ٤ًَ‫ط‬) ٌٞٗ‫حُٔخ‬ ‫ٗ٠ؾ‬ ‫ُظلي٣ي‬. 7٢ُٝ‫حال‬ ٖ٤‫حُزٌظ‬ َِ‫طل‬Proto pectin Hydrolysis 8-‫ٗٔزش‬ ‫ُ٣خىس‬) ٝ‫حالكٌخى‬ ٝ ٕٞ‫(حُِ٣ظ‬ ‫حُِ٣ض‬. 9-‫حُٔٔئُٝش‬ ‫حُٔٞحى‬ ‫ُ٣خىس‬‫ظ‬ ٖ‫ػ‬‫ٌٜٗش‬ ٍٜٞ‫حال‬ ‫ًخُٔٞحى‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬‫٣ٔظَ٣ش‬Esters . ‫ك‬-‫اُلَِغ٤خ‬ ٌ٤٣‫أُوب‬physiological indices ‫حُلِٔـ٤ش‬ ‫حُظـ٤َحص‬ ‫طؼظٔي‬‫ٝحُ٘٠ؾ‬ ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬ ٍ‫هال‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٢‫ك‬ٝ‫ٜٓ٘خ‬:- 1-ْ‫حُظ٘ل‬. 2-‫ُِ٘٠ؾ‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ‫ٓوخٝٓش‬ ٢‫ك‬ ٚ‫حُ٘و‬،َ‫ٓؼ‬:ٖ٤ِ‫ُالػ‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ‫كٔخٓ٤ش‬ ‫ُ٣خىس‬ ‫حُؼَٔس‬ ٢‫ك‬ ٚ‫حٗظخؿ‬ ‫ُٝ٣خىس‬. 3-‫حُل٤ِ٣خٝ٣ش‬ ٙ‫حُوٞح‬ ٢‫ك‬ َ٤‫حُظـ‬‫ُِز‬ُّ‫َٝطٞرال‬٠ُ‫ح‬ ُّ‫حُٔخ٣ظٞرال‬ َٔ‫٣٘ل‬ ٜ‫ؿ‬‫ش‬ِ‫حُو‬ ٍ‫ؿيح‬‫٤ش‬‫حُزالٓظ٤يحص‬ َ‫ٝط٘ل‬ ‫حُوال٣خ‬ َ‫ىحه‬ ‫حُلـٞحس‬ ْ‫كـ‬ ‫ٝ٣ِىحى‬. 4-‫حُظ‬ ٢‫ك‬ ِٕ‫ُِو‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ َٔ‫طل‬ ‫هخرِ٤ش‬ ٚ‫ٗو‬‫ٓالثٔش‬ َ٤‫حُـ‬ ‫َٝف‬Stress. 5-‫اُؾَبث٤خ‬ ٌ٤٣‫أُوب‬: 1-‫حُلٜخى‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ َ٤ِٛ‫حُظ‬ ٍ‫حًظٔخ‬ ٖٓ ّ‫حال٣خ‬ ‫ػيى‬. 2-‫حُٔظـٔؼش‬ ‫حُلَحٍ٣ش‬ ‫حُٞكيحص‬ ‫ػيى‬ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٞٔٗ َٙ‫كظ‬ ٍ‫هال‬. ٟ‫حُٔي‬ ٕ‫ح‬( ١ٞ٤‫حُل‬7-30ّ)˚ٟ‫حُٔي‬ ‫هخٍؽ‬ ‫ىه٤ن‬ َ٤‫ؿ‬ ٌٕٞ٣ ّ‫حُٔو٤خ‬ ‫ٌٛح‬ ٌُٖ ( ١ٞ٤‫حُل‬7-30ّ)˚‫ك٤ٞ٣ظخ‬ ٕ‫َٓكِظخ‬ ‫ٝٛ٘خى‬ْ٤٣‫حُٔوخ‬ ٢‫ك‬ ٕ:- ‫أ‬-‫حُلَؿش‬ ‫حَُٔكِش‬ٍ‫هال‬ ٠ُٝ‫حال‬ٖ٤‫ٓظ‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ٕٞ‫ػالػ‬ٓٞ٣‫آ‬َ٤ِٛ‫حُظ‬ ‫رؼي‬. ٞٔٗ َ‫طئه‬ ‫حُلظَس‬ ٌٙٛ ٍ‫هال‬ ‫حُٔ٘ول٠ش‬ ‫حُلَحٍس‬ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬‫ٝٗ٠ـ‬‫ٜخ‬‫ٝحُلَحٍس‬ ‫حُيحكجش‬ ٝ‫ح‬ ‫حُٔؼظيُش‬ٞٔٗ َ٤ٌ‫طز‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫طٔخػي‬ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬‫ٝٗ٠ـ‬. ‫ٜخ‬ ‫د‬-‫حُؼخٗ٤ش‬ ‫حُلَؿش‬ ‫حَُٔكِش‬ٍ‫هال‬ ٌٕٞ‫ط‬ :ٖ٤‫ػالػ‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ٖ٣َ٘‫ػ‬ٓٞ٣‫آ‬َ‫هز‬ ٢٘‫حُـ‬،‫حُل٤ٞ٣ش‬ ‫حُلَحٍس‬ ٖٓ َ‫حه‬ ‫حُٔ٘ول٠ش‬ ‫حُلَحٍس‬ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ‫ٗ٠ؾ‬ ٖٓ ‫طَٔع‬ َ٤ٜ‫ه‬ ٢ِٗ‫حُو‬ ‫ػَٔٛخ‬ ٌٕٞ٣ ٌُٖ‫آ‬ُ‫حُلخ‬ ٌٙٛ َٔ٘‫ط‬ ٝ‫ش‬premature
  27. 27. 26 ripeningٍ‫حُلَح‬ ١‫طئى‬ ‫هي‬ ٝ‫ح‬‫س‬٠‫حُٔ٘ول‬‫ش‬ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٢‫طٔخه‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬،‫ىٍؿ‬ ٕ‫ال‬‫ش‬ ٍ‫حُلَح‬‫س‬‫حُٔ٘ول٠ش‬َ‫حُلظ‬ ٌٙٛ ٍ‫هال‬‫س‬ٝ ٌَٓ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ‫حُ٘٘ؤ‬ ٍٞ‫طل‬ٖ٤‫حُزٌظ‬ َِ‫طل‬، . ‫حُ٘٠ؾ‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ١‫٣ئى‬ ‫ٓٔخ‬ ‫اُ٘عظ‬ ‫اص٘بء‬ ‫اُضٔبه‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫رؾلس‬ ٢‫اُز‬ ‫اُزـ٤٤واد‬:- 1-ٍّٞ‫طل‬ٌَٓ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ‫حُ٘٘ؤ‬. 2-ٖ٤‫حُزٌظ‬ ٍّٞ‫طل‬َ٤‫ؿ‬‫حٌُحثذ‬‫ًحثذ‬ ٖ٤‫رٌظ‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬. 3-َ‫طو‬.‫حُلٟٔٞش‬ ‫ٗٔزش‬ 4-.‫حُل٤ُ٘ٞ٤ش‬ ‫حُٔٞحى‬ ِ٤ًَ‫ط‬ َ‫٣و‬ 5-‫حُظخٗ٤٘٤ش‬ ٝ‫ح‬ ‫حُوخر٠ش‬ ‫حُٔٞحى‬٢‫طوظل‬ ٝ‫ح‬ َِ‫طظل‬. 6-٣ٞ٠‫حُؼ‬ ٝ‫ٝحالكٔخ‬ ‫حٌَُٔ٣خص‬ ٖ٤‫ر‬ ُٕ‫طٞح‬ ‫٣ليع‬‫ش‬. 7-ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ‫ُذ‬ ِٕٞ‫ط‬. 8-ٝ‫كال‬ ‫طِىحى‬‫س‬ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬‫ٗظ٤ـش‬ ،‫ُ٣خى‬‫س‬‫حٌَُٔ٣خص‬. 9-ٝ َ٠‫حاله‬ ُِٕٞ‫ح‬ ٢‫٣وظل‬َٟ‫حاله‬ ٕ‫حالُٞح‬ َٜ‫طظ‬‫ٗظ٤ـش‬ ،َ٤‫حٌٍُِٞٝك‬ َِ‫طل‬ 10-‫َٓػ‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫ٓلخؿت‬ ‫حٍطلخع‬ ‫٣ليع‬‫ش‬ْ‫حُظ٘ل‬. 11-‫حُٔظطخ٣َس‬ ‫حُٔٞحى‬ ٞ‫رؼ‬ ٌٕٞ‫طظ‬volatiles. 12-ٖ٤‫حٌُخٍٝط‬ ‫ٛزـخص‬ ِ٤ًَ‫ط‬ ٙ‫ُ٣خى‬caroteneَ٤‫ٝحُِحٗؼٞك‬ xanthophylls٤ٗ‫ٝحالٗؼٞٓ٤خ‬ٖ٤athocyanins. 13-‫حُِٜزش‬ ‫حُٔٞحى‬ ‫ٗٔزش‬ ‫طِىحى‬‫حٌُحثزش‬. 14-‫حُـخكش‬ ‫حُٔخىس‬ ٖٓ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٟٞ‫ٓلظ‬ ‫٣ِىحى‬.
  28. 28. 27 ٕ‫اُٞى‬ ٕ‫كولا‬weight loss ‫حُ٘ٔز‬‫ش‬٣ٞ‫حُٔج‬‫ش‬ُُٕٞ‫ح‬ ٕ‫ُلويح‬‫ط‬ ‫ً٤ق‬ْ‫ظ‬‫؟‬ٝ‫حُٔليى‬ َٓ‫حُؼٞح‬ ٢ٛ ‫ٓخ‬‫س‬ٕ‫ُلويح‬ ُُٕٞ‫ح‬‫؟‬‫حُلٜخى‬ ‫رؼي‬‫كو٤و‬ ‫ٗؼَف‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ‫الري‬‫ش‬ٜٔٓٚ٢ٛ‫ا‬َٔ‫حُؼ‬ ٕ‫س‬ٌٕٞ‫ط‬ ‫ػ٘يٓخ‬ ‫ِٓظٜوش‬ّ‫حال‬ ‫رخُ٘زخص‬،َٔ‫حُؼ‬ ِٜ‫ٓ٤ـ‬ ‫كخُ٘زخص‬‫س‬‫ٓخء‬ ٖٓ ٚ٤ُ‫ح‬ ‫طلظخؽ‬ ‫ٓخ‬ ٌَ‫ر‬ َٝٛ‫ػ٘خ‬‫ؿٌحث٤ش‬‫كويص‬ ‫ٓخ‬ ٠‫ٓظ‬‫حُؼَٔس‬٢‫ظَك‬ ‫ٓزذ‬ ١٧ٝ‫أ‬َٔ‫حُؼ‬ ٕ‫س‬‫ػ٘يٓخ‬ ٌُٜ ِٜ‫حُٔـ‬ ٍ‫رخُٜٔي‬ ‫ػالهظٜخ‬ ‫ٓظ٘وطغ‬ ‫طوطق‬‫حُٔٞحى‬ ٙ،َ٤ٌ‫حُظل‬ ٕ‫ًخ‬ ‫ٛ٘خ‬ ٖٓ ‫حُٔ٤طَس‬ ‫ظَٝف‬ ٢‫ك‬ٌٞ‫ط‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ٌٖٔ٣ ٢‫حُظ‬ َٓ‫حُؼٞح‬ ًَ ٠ِ‫ػ‬‫ٓزز‬ ٕ‫آ‬ٕ‫كويح‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫حُٔٞحى‬ ٌٙٛ٧ ،ًّٕ٤‫حُـٌحث‬ ‫ٝه٤ٔظٜخ‬ ‫ٌِٜٗخ‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫ِٓزخ‬ َ‫٣ئػ‬ ‫ٓٞف‬ ‫ُي‬‫ش‬ٝ ،٢ُ‫رخُظخ‬ ٢ِٗ‫حُو‬ ‫ػَٔٛخ‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬،ٝ‫ٌٛح‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬‫طِق‬ ‫حٓزخد‬ ْٛ‫ح‬ ُُٕٞ‫رخ‬ ‫حُلوي‬ َ‫حػظز‬ ّ‫حالٓخ‬ . ‫كِٔـ٤خ‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ‫حُظِق‬ ٍ‫حٌٗخ‬ ‫حكي‬ ٞٛ ُُٕٞ‫رخ‬ ‫حُلوي‬ ٕ‫ح‬،ٕ‫كويح‬ ٕ‫ٝح‬5ٟٞ‫حُٔلظ‬ ٖٓ % َٔ‫حُؼ‬ َ‫ٓ٤ـؼ‬ ٍ‫ُِؼٔخ‬ ٢‫حَُ١ٞر‬‫س‬٢‫حَُ١ٞر‬ ‫ٓلظٞحٛخ‬ ٢‫ك‬ ٚ‫حُ٘و‬ ‫اؿٜخى‬ ‫طلض‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ‫حَُ١ٞرش‬ ٕ‫كويح‬ ‫ٗٔزش‬ ‫اُىحىص‬ ‫ٝاًح‬7‫حُؼَٔس‬ ‫ٓظٜزق‬ %‫ٓل٤ي‬ َ٤‫ؿ‬‫س‬ ‫ٝؿٌحث٤خ‬ ‫حهظٜخى٣خ‬٦‫ٓؼ‬ ‫حُزطخ١خ‬ ‫ىٍٗش‬ ٢‫ك‬ ٕ‫حُلويح‬ ‫ٌٛح‬ َ‫ٓؼ‬ ٕ‫ال‬ ،ٕ‫ح‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ١‫ٓ٤ئى‬ َٔ‫حُؼ‬ ٌٕٞ‫ط‬‫س‬‫ٓـؼي‬‫س‬٣ٝ ١‫ؿِي‬ ٝ‫ح‬ ٢‫حٓل٘ـ‬ ّ‫هٞح‬ ‫ًحص‬ ٝ‫الكع‬‫ؿالف‬ ‫طِٜذ‬ ‫حُيٍٗش‬‫حُِذ‬ ْ٤ُ ٝ ‫حُلوي‬ ٕ‫ٝح‬5ٕ‫كويح‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ١‫ٓ٤ئى‬ ُُٕٞ‫ح‬ ٖٓ %c.v،‫طلوي‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٞ‫ٝرؼ‬ ٕ‫كويح‬ ٢٘‫٣ؼ‬ ‫ٌٛح‬ ٝ ٖ٤‫حٌُخٍٝط‬c.v،ٍٙ‫ٜٓخى‬ ‫حكي‬ ٚٗ‫ال‬‫ٗٔزش‬ َ‫ٝطو‬ ،‫حٌَُٔ٣خص‬ ِ‫ؿ‬ َٔ‫ٓ٘و‬ ٢ُ‫ٝرخُظخ‬‫ء‬‫ح‬"‫حُطخه‬ ٖٓ‫ش‬‫حُٔٞؿٞى‬‫س‬َٔ‫حُؼ‬ ٢‫ك‬‫س‬ٝ‫حالكٔخ‬ ‫ًٌُي‬ ٣ٞ٠‫حُؼ‬‫ش‬‫أ‬ ٢ُٛٝٝ٠‫حُٔلوٞىس‬ ٞٓ‫حُلٞح‬. ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٖٓ ‫ُ٣خى‬ ٕ‫ح‬‫س‬٤ِٔ‫ػ‬‫ش‬٤ِ‫هخر‬ ٖٓ َِ‫طو‬ ‫ٓٞف‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ُٕٝ ٕ‫كويح‬‫ش‬‫حُل٤ش‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٌٙٛ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ٓٝ‫ٓوخ‬‫ش‬٣َٜ‫حُٔـ‬ ‫حالك٤خء‬‫ش‬‫ٝحُلَ٘حص‬،‫ٗظ٤ـ‬‫ش‬٤‫حُوخٍؿ‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ‫هال٣خ‬ َ‫ُظؤػ‬‫ش‬. ‫ُ٣خى‬ ٕ‫ٝح‬‫س‬٤ِٔ‫ػ‬‫ش‬‫ط‬ ُُٕٞ‫ح‬ ٕ‫كويح‬٤ٓ‫كٔخ‬ ٖٓ ‫ِ٣ي‬ٍ‫رخالَٟح‬ ٚ‫ُالٛخر‬ ٍ‫شحُؼٔخ‬ ‫حُلِٔـ٤ش‬ٓ‫ال‬ َ‫حًؼ‬ ٌَ٘‫ر‬ َ٤‫حٌٍُِٞٝك‬ َِ‫طل‬ ُُٕٞ‫ح‬ ٕ‫كويح‬ ‫ُحى‬ ‫ًِٝٔخ‬ ،‫٤ٔخ‬٢‫ك‬ ٚ٤‫حٍُٞه‬ َ٤ٛ‫حُٔلخ‬،ٍ‫ػٔخ‬ ٢‫ٝك‬ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ‫ٗ٠ؾ‬ ‫طَٔ٣غ‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ١‫٣ئى‬ َٟ‫حه‬‫.ٝالري‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ‫ٗؼَف‬ ٕ‫ح‬‫حٍُٞه٤ش‬‫ٗٔز‬ َٔ‫طظل‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ٌٖٔ٣‫ش‬٠ُ‫ح‬ َٜ‫ط‬ ُٕٝ ٕ‫كويح‬ 10ٛ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ َ‫٣ئػ‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ٕٝ‫ى‬ %‫حُل٤ِ٣خٝ٣ش‬ ‫لخطٜخ‬٣ٝ‫ٝحٌُ٤ٔ٤خ‬‫ش‬،‫ُ٣خى‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ١‫ٝ٣ئى‬‫س‬ ٤ٓ‫كٔخ‬‫ش‬‫ُٝ٣خى‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬‫س‬٤ُ‫كؼخ‬‫ش‬‫حُل٤ُ٘ٞ٤ش‬ ‫حًَُٔزخص‬،٢‫ك‬ َ‫حًؼ‬ ٌٕٞ٣ ‫ٝحُلوي‬
  29. 29. 28 ‫ٓ٘طو‬‫ش‬َٔ‫حُؼ‬ ٍ‫حطٜخ‬‫س‬ٖٜ‫رخُـ‬،٠ُ‫ح‬ َٜ٣ ‫كوي‬60ٖٓ %ُ‫ح‬٢‫حَُ١ٞر‬ ٕ‫لويح‬ٖٓ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬٢ُ‫حُظخ‬ ‫حًُ٘ٔٞؽ‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫ًٔخ‬. ‫رؼي‬ ٢ُٝ‫حال‬ ‫حُظزَ٣ي‬ ‫ٝهخٛش‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ‫طزَ٣ي‬ َ٤‫طخه‬ ‫ٓغ‬ ٢‫حَُ١ٞر‬ ‫حُلوي‬ ‫ٝ٣ِىحى‬ ٍٝ‫حُـي‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫ًٔخ‬ ٢٘‫حُـ‬(3) ٍٝ‫ؿي‬-3.ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ‫ٗٞػ٤ش‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫حُظزَ٣ي‬ َ٤‫طخه‬ َ٤‫طخػ‬ Table 3. Effect of Delayed Cooling on Snap Bean Quality Delay Time (hours) Weight Loss (%) 1 2.2 3 2.8 5 10.0 Duplicate boxes held, cold stored, and reweighed. Source: W. Hurst, University of Georgia, 1982.
  30. 30. 29 ‫أُؤصوح‬ َٓ‫اُؼٞا‬٢‫ك‬‫ٍوػخ‬‫اُضٔبه‬ ٢‫ك‬ ٕ‫اُٞى‬ ٕ‫كولا‬:- ٢‫ك‬ ُُٕٞ‫ح‬ ٕ‫كويح‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫ح٣ـخرخ‬ ٝ‫ح‬ ‫ِٓزخ‬ َ‫طئػ‬ ٢‫حُظ‬ َٓ‫حُؼٞح‬ ٖٓ ‫حُؼي٣ي‬ ‫ٛ٘خى‬ ‫رخ‬ ‫ٓظؼِن‬ ‫ٜٓ٘خ‬ ْٔ‫ه‬ . ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬‫رخُظ‬ ‫ٓظؼِن‬ َ‫حه‬ ْٔ‫ه‬ ٝ ٚٔ‫ٗل‬ ٍٜٞ‫ُٔل‬‫َٝف‬ : ٍٜٞ‫رخُٔل‬ ٚ‫حُٔل٤ط‬- ‫أ‬-‫اُقبصخ‬ َٓ‫اُؼٞا‬‫ث‬: ٍٞ‫بُٔؾص‬- ً‫حُلٞح‬ ٍ‫ػٔخ‬ ‫طوظِق‬‫رو٤ٔش‬ ‫ر٤ٜ٘خ‬ ‫ك٤ٔخ‬ ‫ٝحُو٠َٝحص‬ ُُٕٚٞ‫رخ‬ ٕ‫حُلويح‬، ‫ًُي‬ ٢‫ك‬ ّ‫حالٓخ‬ ٞٛ ١ٝ‫ٝحٌُ٤ٔ٤خ‬ ١ٝ‫ٝحُل٤ِ٣خ‬ ٢‫حُظَ٘٣ل‬ َٓ‫ٝحُؼخ‬،‫ٌٛح‬ ٠ِ‫ٝػ‬ ‫حُلوي‬ ٍ‫ٓويح‬ ٢‫ك‬ ٚ‫ًِٓٞ٤ظ‬ ‫ٓظوظِق‬ ٢‫ٗزخط‬ ‫ٗٞع‬ ًَ ٕ‫ح‬ ٍٞ‫ٗو‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ‫٣ٌٔ٘٘خ‬ ّ‫حالٓخ‬ ٖ‫ػ‬ ٢‫حَُ١ٞر‬‫حَُث٤ٔ٤ش‬ َٓ‫حُؼٞح‬ ٌُٜٙ ‫طزؼخ‬ َ‫حاله‬‫ٝحٜٛٔخ‬:- 1j-‫حُؼَٔس‬ ْ‫كـ‬:Fruit size ٤ِٔ‫ػ‬ ٢‫ك‬ ْ‫حُلـ‬ َ‫٣ئػ‬‫ش‬ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ُٕٝ ٕ‫كويح‬َُٙ٤‫ظؤػ‬‫ٗٔز‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬‫ش‬‫حُٔٔخك‬‫ش‬ ٤‫حُٔطل‬‫ش‬َٔ‫ُِؼ‬‫س‬‫ٓلٔٞر‬‫ش‬‫ح‬ٍ‫رؼزخ‬ ٝ ‫ُٜٝٗخ‬ ٠ُ‫س‬‫ُ٣خى‬ َٟ‫حه‬‫س‬َٔ‫حُؼ‬ ْ‫كـ‬‫س‬٣٢٘‫ؼ‬ ِ‫ه‬‫ش‬‫ٗٔز‬‫ش‬‫ٓٔخكظٜخ‬ ٌٕٞ‫ٓظ‬ ‫حُٜـ٤َس‬ ٍ‫كخُؼٔخ‬ ُُٕٞ‫ح‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ‫حُٔطل٤ش‬ ‫حُٔٔخكش‬ ‫حُٔطل٤ش‬َ٤‫ًز‬‫س‬‫ُٜٝٗخ‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ‫ه٤خٓخ‬ ‫ؿيح‬،‫حُٔٔخك‬ ٌٕٞ‫ٓظ‬ ٖ٤‫ك‬ ٢‫ك‬‫ش‬٤‫حُٔطل‬‫ش‬ َ٤‫حٌُز‬ ٍ‫ُِؼٔخ‬‫س‬ِ٤ِ‫ه‬ ْ‫حُلـ‬‫ش‬َ٤‫حٌُز‬ ‫ُٜٝٗخ‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ‫ه٤خٓخ‬. ‫حُٔٔخك‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫٣ؼظٔي‬ ‫حُ٘ظق‬ ٕ‫ٝح‬‫ش‬ُٔ‫ح‬٤‫طل‬‫ش‬‫ػاله‬ ‫ٛ٘خى‬ ‫ٌُُي‬‫ش‬٣‫١َى‬‫ش‬ٖ٤‫ر‬ ‫حَُ١ٞر‬‫ش‬‫حُٔلوٞى‬‫س‬‫حُٔٔخك‬ ٖ٤‫ٝر‬‫ش‬٤‫حُٔطل‬‫ش‬ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ‫ٗظٞهغ‬ ‫ٌُح‬ ‫ُِؼَٔس‬ ‫حُٜـ٤َس‬َ٤‫حٌُز‬ ْ‫حُلـ‬‫س‬‫حُٔٔخك‬‫ش‬ُ‫حُلخ‬ ٌٙٛ ٢‫ك‬ ٌٕٞ‫ٓظ‬‫ش‬َ٤‫ًز‬‫س‬٢‫حَُ١ٞر‬ ‫حُلوي‬ َٔ‫حُؼ‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ‫ه٤خٓخ‬‫س‬َ٤‫حٌُز‬‫س‬ْ‫حُلـ‬،َ٤‫حُٜـ‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ‫ٗظٞهغ‬ ‫ٌُح‬‫س‬َ‫ٓظٌر‬ ْ‫حُلـ‬ َ٤‫حٌُز‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٖٓ ‫حَٓع‬‫س‬‫كب‬ ‫ًٌُي‬ ،َ٤‫حُٜـ‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٕ‫س‬ٞٔٗ ‫ك٤ٜخ‬ َٔ‫٣ٌظ‬ ُْ َٔ‫حُؼ‬ ‫حُطزو‬‫ش‬٤‫حُ٘ٔؼ‬‫ش‬ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٖٓ ٢‫حَُ١ٞر‬ ‫حُلوي‬ َٜٔ٣ ‫ٓٔخ‬ ‫ؿيٍحٜٗخ‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ َٓ‫ًخ‬ ٌَ٘‫ر‬ . ‫حُٜـ٤َس‬
  31. 31. 30 4-‫ٝغج٤ؼ‬ ‫ٍٔي‬‫خ‬ٌَ‫اٌُ٤ٞر‬Cuticle thickness:- ‫ػاله‬ ‫ٛ٘خى‬‫ش‬‫ػٌٔ٤ش‬‫١زو‬ ‫ٓٔي‬ ٖ٤‫ر‬‫ش‬٤‫حُ٘ٔؼ‬ ٌَ‫حٌُ٤ٞط‬‫ش‬ٝ‫َٓػ‬ ٖ٤‫ر‬‫ش‬‫حُ٘ظق‬ ٢‫حَُ١ٞر‬ ٕ‫حُلويح‬ ٝ‫ح‬،ٝ‫حُطزو‬ ‫ٓٔي‬ ‫ُحى‬ ‫ًِٔخ‬‫ش‬٤‫حُ٘ٔؼ‬‫ش‬٢‫حَُ١ٞر‬ ٕ‫حُلويح‬ َ‫ه‬ ‫ٗظ٤ـ‬‫ش‬٢٤‫ُظؼز‬‫ػِٔ٤ش‬‫حُ٘ظق‬،‫ٓ٘لٌس‬ َ٤‫ؿ‬ ‫ٓٞحى‬ ٢ٛ ‫حُ٘ٔؼ٤ش‬ ‫حُٔٞحى‬‫ُِٔخء‬،ٝ‫طوظِق‬ ‫حُطزو‬ ٖ٣ٌٞ‫ط‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫رويٍطٜخ‬ ‫ر٤ٜ٘خ‬ ‫ك٤ٔخ‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬‫ش‬٤‫حُ٘ٔؼ‬‫ش‬‫ٗٔز‬ ٖ٤‫ر‬ ٍٕ‫طوخ‬ ‫ػ٘يٓخ‬‫ش‬ ‫ٗٔز‬ َ‫حًؼ‬ ٍٝ‫حال‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ‫ٗـي‬ ‫ٝحُظلخف‬ َٟ‫حٌُٔؼ‬ ٍ‫ُؼٔخ‬ ُُٕٞ‫رخ‬ ‫حُلوي‬‫ش‬٢ٗ‫حُؼخ‬ ٖٓ، ِ‫ه‬ ‫رٔزذ‬‫ش‬‫حُٔخى‬‫س‬٤‫حُ٘ٔؼ‬‫ش‬،‫حٗؼيحٜٓخ‬ ٝ‫ح‬‫ٝػ٘يٓخ‬‫ػَٔس‬ ٍٕ‫ٗوخ‬َٟ‫حٌُٔؼ‬‫ػَٔس‬ ‫ٓغ‬ ‫ٗالكع‬ ‫حُِ٘٤ي‬ٖ٤ٓٞ٣ ٢‫ك‬ ‫ُٜٝٗخ‬ ٖٓ ‫طلوي‬ ‫حُِ٘٤ي‬ َٙٔ‫ػ‬ ٕ‫ح‬ٙ‫طلوي‬ ‫ٓخ‬ ٍ‫ٓخ٣ؼخى‬ ‫ػَٔس‬٢‫ك‬ َٟ‫حٌُٔؼ‬ٖ٤‫ٓظ‬ٓٞ٣‫آ‬‫حُظ‬ ْ‫ٗل‬ ‫طلض‬‫َٝف‬،‫رٔزذ‬ُ‫ح‬ ‫ٝؿٞى‬ ّ‫ػي‬‫طزوش‬ ‫حُ٘ٔؼ٤ش‬‫ُ٣خىس‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ‫حٟخكش‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٌٙٛ ٢‫ك‬‫حُٔطل٤ش‬ ‫ٓٔخكظٜخ‬‫ه‬ُُٕٞ‫ح‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ‫٤خٓخ‬، ٌُُ‫ح‬ ٍ‫ػٔخ‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ٍٞ‫ٗو‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ٌٖٔ٣ ‫ُي‬‫طظِق‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ٌٖٔ٣ ‫ِ٘٤ي‬100‫حٍرؼش‬ ‫رؼي‬ %ّ‫ح٣خ‬ .‫حُلٜخى‬ ٖٓ ‫ٝا‬ّٕ‫حُـٌٍ٣ش‬ َ٤ٛ‫حُٔلخ‬ْ‫ٝحُِ٘ـ‬ ٍ‫ٝحُ٘ٞٗي‬ ٍِ‫ًخُـ‬‫ٝحُيٍٗ٤ش‬ ،‫ًخُزطخ١خ‬، ّٝٞ‫ٝحُؼ‬ َٜ‫ًخُز‬ ٚ٤ِٜ‫حُز‬‫حُٔخىس‬ ‫ػي٣ٔش‬ ٌٕٞ‫ط‬‫حُ٘ٔؼ٤ش‬‫كب‬ ‫ٌُُي‬ٕ‫كويح‬ َ٤ِ‫طو‬ ٕ ‫هي‬ ‫حالٗٞحع‬ ٌٙٛ ٢‫ك‬ ُُٕٞ‫ح‬‫حُظَ٘٣ل٤ش‬ ‫حُظَحً٤ذ‬ ٞ‫رؼ‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ‫٣ؼٞى‬‫ك٤ٜخ‬‫كخُزطخ١خ‬ ‫كِ٤٘٤ش‬ ٚ‫١زو‬ ٌٕٞ‫ط‬َٜ‫ٝحُز‬‫هَ٘س‬ ْ‫ٝحُِ٘ـ‬ ‫كَٗل٤ش‬ ‫حٍٝحم‬‫ؿِي٣ش‬ًَ ٢‫ٝك‬ ‫ٗٔزش‬ ٠ِ‫حػ‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬‫ك‬َٜ‫ط‬ ٢‫ٍ١ٞر‬ ٕ‫ويح‬60‫ٓ٘طوش‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫طليع‬ %ٍ‫حطٜخ‬ َٓ‫حُلخ‬‫رخُؼَٔس‬‫ٝحُظ‬‫ػزخٍس‬ ّ‫حالٓخ‬ ٢‫ك‬ ٢ٛ ٢‫٣ِ٘ف‬ ‫ؿَف‬ ٖ‫ػ‬. ‫آ‬ُ‫٤خ‬: ٢‫اُوغٞث‬ ٕ‫اُلولا‬ ‫رطزوش‬ ‫ٓلخ١ش‬ ‫ػَٔس‬ ًَ٤‫ٍه‬‫حَُ١ٞرش‬ ٖٓ ‫وش‬moisture micro film،‫ًز٤َس‬ ‫حٛٔ٤ش‬ ‫حُطزوش‬ ٌُٜٙ‫ػِٔ٤ش‬ ٢‫ك‬ ّ‫حالٓخ‬ ٢ٛٝ ‫ؿيح‬٢‫حَُ١ٞر‬ ‫حُلوي‬، ‫طوِن‬ ‫٧ٜٗخ‬‫حُؼَٔس‬ َ‫ىحه‬ ‫حَُ١ٞرش‬ ٖ٤‫ر‬ ‫حُٔٞحُٗش‬ ٖٓ ‫كخُش‬‫.ٝػ٘ي‬ ‫ٝهخٍؿٜخ‬ ‫ط‬ ‫كيٝع‬‫ٜٓ٘خ‬ َ‫كؼ‬ ‫ًَى‬ ‫ٝحُؼَٔس‬ ِٚ٤ِ‫حُو‬ ‫حَُ١زش‬ ‫حُطزوش‬ ٌٙٛ ‫ٓ٤ِ٣ق‬ ٢‫ٛٞحث‬ ٍ‫٤خ‬ ‫حُِٔحكش‬ ‫حُٔ٘طوش‬ ٍ‫ري‬ ‫ٍ١ٞرش‬ ٍ‫ٓظٜي‬٢ُ‫حُظخ‬ ‫حًُ٘ٔٞؽ‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫ٟٓٞق‬ ‫ًٔخ‬.
  32. 32. 31 4-‫ػلك‬‫اُضـٞه‬ٔ‫ؽغ‬ ٝ‫ٜب‬No. and size of stomata ‫كظلش‬ َ‫حُؼـ‬‫١ز٤ؼ٤ش‬‫حُؼَٔس‬ ٍ‫ؿيح‬ ٢‫ك‬َ‫ٝٓٔ٤ط‬، ‫حٝؿِوٜخ‬ ‫رلظلٜخ‬ ‫ػِ٤ٜخ‬ ‫ٓٞؿٞىس‬‫رَ٘س‬ ‫ٓطق‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ٍٝ‫ى‬ ‫ٝطِؼذ‬ ‫حُ٘زخط٤ش‬ ‫حالٗٔـش‬‫آ‬‫ػِٔ٤ش‬ ٢‫ك‬ ّ‫ٛخ‬ٍ‫حُظزخى‬ ١ُ‫حُـخ‬‫ٝحُ٘ظق‬ ْ‫ٝحُظ٘ل‬،ًٌ ‫طِؼذ‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ٌٖٔ٣ٍٝٝ‫ى‬ ‫ُي‬‫آ‬. ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ‫ٗ٠ؾ‬ ٢‫ك‬ ِ٤ٔ٣‫ٓخ‬‫ػِٔ٤ش‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ‫حُلظلخص‬ ٌَٙٛ‫هز‬ ٖٓ ‫ػِ٤ٜخ‬ َ‫ٓٔ٤ط‬ ‫ٝؿِوٜخ‬ ‫كظلٜخ‬‫حُ٘زخ‬‫ص‬، ‫ػيى‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ‫ًٔخ‬ٍٞ‫حُؼـ‬ٔ‫ٝكـ‬‫ر‬ ‫٣وظِق‬ ‫ٜخ‬،‫حُؼَٔس‬ ‫ٗٞع‬ ‫بهظالف‬‫طوظِق‬ ‫ٌُُي‬ ٞ‫حُٔج‬ ‫حُ٘ٔزش‬ُُٕٞ‫ح‬ ٕ‫ُلويح‬ ‫٣ش‬َ٤‫ٝطظـ‬. ٍٞ‫حُؼـ‬ ‫ػيى‬ ‫رخهظالف‬‫حٍُٞه٤ش‬ َ٠‫حُو‬ ‫حٟخكش‬ِ‫ُِـ‬ٍٞ‫حُؼـ‬ ٖٓ ‫ػخُ٤ش‬ ‫ٗٔزش‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫رخكظٞحثٜخ‬ ِ٤ٔ‫طظ‬ ٍ،ٌُ‫حُلوي‬ ٌٕٞ٣ ‫ُي‬ ٤ُ‫ػخ‬ ‫ك٤ٜخ‬ ٢‫حَُ١ٞر‬‫آ‬ً‫حُلٞح‬ ٍ‫ػٔخ‬ ‫حؿِذ‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ٖ٤‫ك‬ ٢‫ك‬ٜ‫ش‬‫ػيى‬ ٌٕٞ٣ َ٠‫حُو‬ ٝ ٦٤ِ‫ه‬ ٍٞ‫حُؼـ‬ٝ ‫ك٤ٜخ‬‫ٝحُـٌٍ٣ش‬ ‫حُيٍٗ٤ش‬ ‫حُلخٛالص‬ ٢‫ك‬ ّ‫ط٘ؼي‬. 4-: ‫حُؼي٣ٔخص‬Lanticels ٚ٤ِ‫ػ‬ َ‫ٓٔ٤ط‬ َ٤‫ؿ‬ ‫حُؼي٣ٔخص‬ ‫ٝؿِن‬ ‫كظق‬ ٌٕٞ٣‫ػزخٍس‬ ٢ٛٝ ،ٖ‫ػ‬ ١ ‫كظلخص‬‫ز٤ؼ٤ش‬‫ػالهش‬ ‫ٛ٘خى‬ ّ‫حالٓخ‬ ‫ٌٛح‬ ٠ِ‫ٝػ‬‫١َى٣ش‬ٌٙٛ ‫ػيى‬ ٖ٤‫ر‬ ٢‫حَُ١ٞر‬ ‫ٝحُلوي‬ ‫حُؼي٣ٔخص‬،‫ٓخ٣ٔ٤ِٛخ‬ٌٍٝ‫حُـ‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ٙ‫ٓٞؿٞى‬ ٌٕٞ‫ط‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ٌٖٔ٣ ٕ‫ٝحُٔ٤وخ‬ٍ‫ٝحُؼٔخ‬،‫ٓؼي‬ ٌٕٞ‫ط‬ ‫ٌُٜ٘خ‬.‫حٍُٞه٤ش‬ ‫حُو٠َٝحص‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫ٝٓش‬‫ػِٔ٤ش‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ‫حُؼي‬ ‫حٗلظخف‬ٕ‫ح‬ ‫ٝرٔخ‬ ١ُ‫حُـخ‬ ٍ‫حُظزخى‬ ‫رؼِٔ٤ش‬ ‫٣ٔٔق‬ ‫ٓٞف‬ ّ‫حُيٝح‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫٣ٔخص‬ ‫ػِٔ٤ش‬َٔ‫ٓٔظ‬ ٌَ٘‫ر‬ َٙ‫ٝطٞك‬ ٙ‫رٞؿٞى‬ ‫حَٓع‬ ٌٕٞ‫ط‬ ْ‫حُظ٘ل‬،ٕ‫ح‬ ‫ٗظٞهغ‬ ‫ٌُُي‬ ‫حُ٘خ‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬‫ٟـش‬‫ر‬ ‫ػي٣ٔخص‬ ١ٞ‫طلظ‬ ٢‫حُظ‬‫حُلي٣ؼش‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٖٓ َ‫ٝحًؼ‬ َ‫حًز‬ ٌَ٘ ‫حُظ‬٣ٌٖٞ،‫حُٜـ٤َس‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ َ‫هز‬ َ‫ٓظٌر‬. ٠ُٝ‫حال‬ ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬ َ‫َٓحك‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫الُحُض‬ ٢‫حُظ‬ 5-)‫(حُِؿخرخص‬ ‫حُ٘ؼ٤َحص‬ ‫ٝؿٞى‬trichomes ‫حُؼَٔس‬ ‫هَ٘س‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫ٗؼ٤َحص‬ ١‫ح‬ ‫ٝؿٞى‬٢‫حَُ١ٞر‬ ٕ‫حُلويح‬ َ٤ِ‫طو‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ١‫٣ئى‬ ِ‫ػ‬ ‫طؤػ٤َٛخ‬ ٍ‫هال‬ ٖٓ‫ػِٔ٤ش‬ ٠‫حُظزو‬ ٝ‫ح‬ ‫حُ٘ظق‬َ،َ٤ِ‫طو‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫حُ٘ؼ٤َحص‬ ٌٙٛ ٍٝ‫ُي‬
  33. 33. 32 ‫ٗيس‬‫َٝٓػش‬‫حُظ‬‫حُٜٞحث٤ش‬ ‫٤خٍحص‬‫حُٔلخكظش‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫ًٌُٝي‬‫ح‬ ٟٞ‫حُٔلظ‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬٢‫َُ١ٞر‬ ،‫حُٔ٘طوش‬ ٌٙٛ ٢‫ك‬‫ٗالكع‬ ‫ٌُُي‬َ‫حُٔلَؿ‬ ٖٓ ‫حَٓع‬ َ‫٣ٌر‬ ِْٓ‫حال‬ ‫حُوٞم‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ٢‫حُٜٞك‬ ‫ٝحُوٞم‬. 6-ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬ ِٚ‫َٓك‬growth stage ‫طؼظ‬‫َٓكِش‬ َ‫ز‬ُٞٔ٘‫ح‬ٛ‫خٓش‬‫حُظ‬ ٢‫ك‬‫حُلوي‬ ٍ‫ٓويح‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ َ٤‫ؤػ‬ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٕ‫ٝح‬ ُُٕٞ‫رخ‬ ٢‫ك‬‫ٓوخٍٗش‬ ٢‫حَُ١ٞر‬ ‫ٓلظٞحٛخ‬ ٕ‫كويح‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫حَٓع‬ ٌٕٞ‫ط‬ ٠ُٝ‫حال‬ ‫ٗٔٞٛخ‬ َ‫َٓحك‬ ‫ٓخروآ‬ ‫ًًَص‬ ٢‫حُظ‬ ‫ُالٓزخد‬ ‫حُ٘خٟـش‬ ٍ‫رخُؼٔخ‬( ٌَُ٘‫ح‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫ًٔخ‬3)ٖ٤‫٣ز‬ ١ٌُ‫ح‬ ‫ٓزخَٗس‬ ‫ػالهش‬ ُٚ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ َٔ‫ػ‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ‫ًٔخ‬ ‫ط٘لٜٔخ‬ ‫َٝٓػش‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٞٔٗ ٖ٤‫ر‬ ‫حُؼالهش‬ ( ٌَُ٘‫ح‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫ًٔخ‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٖٓ ‫حَُ١ٞرش‬ ٕ‫كويح‬ ‫ر٘ٔزش‬4. ) ( ٌَٗ3ْ‫حُظ٘ل‬ ‫َٓػش‬ ٍ‫ٝٓؼي‬ ‫حُؼَٔس‬ َٔ‫ػ‬ ٖ٤‫ر‬ ‫حُؼالهش‬ ) 7-ٍ‫ُِؼٔخ‬ ١ٝ‫حٌُ٤ٔ٤خ‬ ‫حُظًَ٤ذ‬ ‫٣ِؼذ‬‫ىٍٝح‬ ٍ‫ُِؼٔخ‬ ١ٝ‫حٌُ٤ٔ٤خ‬ ‫حُظًَ٤ذ‬ٛ‫خٓآ‬ًٝ٠ِ‫ػ‬ َ٤‫حُظخػ‬ ٍ‫ٓويح‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫ز٤َح‬ ‫حُٔجٞ٣ش‬ ‫حُ٘ٔزش‬ُُٕٞ‫ح‬ ٕ‫ُلويح‬.‫ٛ٘خى‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ِْ‫ٗؼ‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ‫ٝالري‬‫ػٌٔ٤ش‬ ‫ػالهش‬ٖ٣ٌٛ ٖ٤‫ر‬ ٖ٤ِٓ‫حُؼخ‬‫رخ‬ ‫حٌُ٤ٔ٤خٝ٣ش‬ ‫حٌُٔٞٗخص‬ ٙ‫كِ٣خى‬ ،‫حٌُحثزش‬ ٚ‫اله‬َ٤ِ‫طو‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ َٔ‫طؼ‬ ً‫ٝحُلٞح‬ ‫حُو٠َٝحص‬ ٍ‫ػٔخ‬ ٢‫ك‬ ٢‫حَُ١ٞر‬ ٕ‫حُلويح‬‫ش‬‫الٓ٤ٔخ‬‫ح‬‫حٌُحثزش‬ ‫ٌَُٔ٣خص‬ ‫حُؼ٠ٞ٣ش‬ ٝ‫ٝحالكٔخ‬. ٕ‫ٝحُٔؼخى‬ ‫ٝحُل٤ظخٓ٤٘خص‬ ‫ُ٣خىس‬‫حٌُحثزش‬ ‫حُِٜزش‬ ‫حُٔٞحى‬TSSٍ‫هال‬ ٖٓ ُُٕٞ‫رخ‬ ٕ‫حُلويح‬ َ٤ِ‫طو‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ َٔ‫طؼ‬ ‫حُزو‬ ٢‫حُ٠ـ‬ َ٤ِ‫طو‬،‫حُؼَٔس‬ َ‫ىحه‬ ‫ُِٔخء‬ ١ٍ‫خ‬‫هِش‬ٝ‫ح‬ ‫٣ٔ٘غ‬ ١ٍ‫حُزوخ‬ ٢‫حُ٠ـ‬ ‫حُٔخء‬ ‫ؿِ٣جخص‬ ‫٣ؼٞم‬َِ‫ٝ٣و‬٢ُ‫حُوخ‬ ٢‫حُ٘و‬ ‫كخُٔخء‬ ‫ٌُُي‬ َ‫حُظزو‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫هخرِ٤ظٜخ‬ ٖٓ ٖٓ‫ًحص‬ ٌٕٞ٤ٓ ٚ‫ًحثز‬ ٚ‫ِٛز‬ ‫ٓٞحى‬ ١‫ح‬ ‫ٝؿٞى‬‫ٟـ‬ٕ‫كؤ‬ ٢ُ‫ٝرخُظخ‬ ٢ُ‫ػخ‬ ١ٍ‫روخ‬ ٢ ‫هخرِ٤ش‬َ‫ُِظزو‬ ‫حُٔخء‬ ‫ٌٛح‬ َ‫ٓؼ‬،‫ػخُ٤ش‬ ٌٕٞ‫ٓظ‬‫هِش‬ ‫ٗظٞهغ‬ ‫ٌُُي‬ٞ١َُ‫ح‬ ٟٞ‫حُٔلظ‬٢‫ر‬ ٢‫ك‬ ٙ‫ُ٣خى‬ ‫ٓظَحكوٜخ‬ ٍ‫ُِؼٔخ‬‫ًٔ٤ش‬ُ‫ح‬‫ــ‬TSS‫هِش‬ ٢ُ‫ٝرخُظخ‬. ‫ُِٔخء‬ ١ٍ‫حُزوخ‬ ٢‫حُ٠ـ‬
  34. 34. 33 ٝ‫حُ٘زخط٤ش‬ ‫حُوِ٤ش‬ ‫ًخٗض‬ ‫ًِٔخ‬‫ٛـ٤َس‬ ‫الُحُض‬ ١‫ح‬ .‫كظ٤ش‬٢‫حَُ١ٞر‬ ‫حُلوي‬ ‫حُىحى‬، ‫ُحى‬ ‫ًِٝٔخ‬TSS‫ح‬١ٍ‫حُزوخ‬ ٢‫حُ٠ـ‬ ٞ‫ٗول‬ٝ‫حُلوي‬ ٍ‫ٓويح‬ َ‫ٓ٤و‬ ٟٚ‫رؤٗولخ‬ ‫ُحى‬ ‫ًِٝٔخ‬ ُُٕٞ‫رخ‬‫ص‬‫ٗٔزش‬TSSُ ‫حٛزلض‬ٔ‫ِؼ‬‫َس‬‫حُويٍس‬‫ٓوخٝٓش‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫حُلطَ٣خص‬َ‫أًؼ‬‫ًحص‬ َٟ‫حه‬ َٙٔ‫ػ‬ ٖٓTSSَ‫حه‬،ٕ‫ال‬TSS‫ٓٞحى‬ َ‫طؼظز‬‫آ‬ ‫كخكظ‬‫ش‬. 8-ٍ‫ُِؼٔخ‬ ٢‫حَُٔكُٞٞؿ‬ ‫حُظًَ٤ذ‬fruit morphology:- ‫٣ئ‬‫حُؼَٔس‬ ٌَٗ َ‫ػ‬٢‫ٍ١ٞر‬ ٟٞ‫ٓلظ‬ ٖٓ ٙ‫طلوي‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ٌٖٔ٣ ‫ٓخ‬ ٍ‫ٓويح‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬، ٝ‫حٌٗخُٜخ‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫طوظِق‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ‫حُٔؼَٝف‬‫١ز٤ؼش‬ ٢‫ٝك‬‫حؿِحثٜخ‬ ٖٓ ‫ؿِء‬ ًَ ‫حُِٜخٗش‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫ًٔخ‬ ‫ٍٝه٤ش‬ َ٤ٛ‫ٓلخ‬ ‫كٜ٘خى‬‫ٝحُٔزخٗؾ‬ ‫ٝحُِٔن‬ ْ‫ٝحُو‬،ٖ٤‫ك‬ ٢‫ك‬ٕ‫ح‬ ‫ػزخٍس‬ َٛ‫حال‬ ٢‫ك‬ ٢ٛ ٍ‫ػٔخ‬ ‫ٛ٘خُي‬ٌٍ‫ؿ‬ ٖ‫ػ‬،ٍ‫حُ٘ٞٗي‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫ًٔخ‬ٍِ‫ٝحُـ‬ ٕ‫ٓ٤وخ‬ ٖ‫ػ‬ ‫ػزخٍس‬ َٟ‫حه‬ ٍ‫ٝػٔخ‬ ْ‫ٝحُِ٘ـ‬،‫ػزخٍس‬ ٝ‫ح‬ ‫حُزطخ١خ‬ ‫كخُش‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫ًٔخ‬ٖ‫ػ‬ ‫ٍٗٞس‬٢٤‫حُوَٗخر‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫ًٔخ‬٠ِ‫ػ‬ ٌٕٞ‫ط‬ ٝ‫ح‬ ٢ًَُٞٝ‫ٝحُز‬‫ػخى٣ش‬ ‫ػَٔس‬ ٌٌَٕٗٞ‫طظ‬ ‫ٓغ‬ ‫حُ٘خٟؾ‬ ٞ٤‫حُٔز‬ ٖٓ‫حَُِٛس‬ ٖٓ َٟ‫حاله‬ ‫حالؿِحء‬ٗٝ‫ري‬ ٝ‫ح‬‫ٜخ‬٢‫ك‬ ‫ًٔخ‬ ١‫حُطٔخ‬ْٝ،‫ػٔٞٓآ‬ ‫حٍُٞه٤ش‬ َ٠‫ٝحُو‬ ٕ‫ٝحُزخًٗـخ‬ ٍ‫حُو٤خ‬‫حٍُٞه٤ش‬ ‫ٓٔخكظٜخ‬ ٕ‫ال‬ ‫ٝحٓؼش‬٤ُ‫ػخ‬ ‫ك٤ٜخ‬ ‫حُلوي‬ ٍ‫ٓويح‬ ٌٕٞ٤‫ك‬ً‫ا‬ ،‫آ‬‫ٝحُ٘ظق‬ ْ‫حُظ٘ل‬ٜ٤‫ك‬٤ُ‫ػخ‬ ‫خ‬‫خ‬ٌٕٞ٤‫ك‬ ‫ك٤ٜخ‬ . ‫حُظلخف‬ ٍ‫ٝػٔخ‬ ‫حُزطخ١خ‬ ‫ىٍٗخص‬ ٖٓ ٠ِ‫حػ‬ ٢ُ‫ػخ‬ ‫ك٤ٜخ‬ ٢‫حَُ١ٞر‬ ‫حُلوي‬ ٍ‫ٓويح‬ ‫حٍُٞه٤ش‬ ‫حُو٠َٝحص‬ ِ٤ٔ٣ ‫ٓخ‬ ٌُٖ‫ٛخُلش‬ ٠‫طزو‬ُ‫ػ٘ي‬ ٠‫كظ‬ ‫ِظٔٞ٣ن‬ٍٛٝٞ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ‫ك٤ٜخ‬ ‫حُلوي‬10%،‫حاله‬ ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬ ‫حٓخ‬‫حُ٘ٔزش‬ ٌٙٛ ‫ػ٘ي‬ ‫ٛخُلش‬ َ٤‫ؿ‬ ٌٕٞ‫ط‬ َٟ ٝ‫ٛخُلش‬ َ٤‫ؿ‬٢‫حَُ١ٞر‬ ‫حُلوي‬ ‫ٗٔزش‬ ٌٕٞ‫ط‬ ‫ػ٘يٓخ‬ ١َ٘‫حُز‬ ‫ُالٓظٜالى‬َ‫حًؼ‬5% ّ‫ػخ‬ ٌَ٘‫ر‬. ( ٌَٗ4ٞٔٗ ‫ٓغ‬ ُُٕٞ‫ح‬ ٕ‫كويح‬ ‫ٗٔزش‬ )ٍ‫حُؼٔخ‬‫ٝٗ٠ـ‬‫ٜخ‬
  35. 35. 34 ‫ة‬-‫أُؾ٤ط‬ ‫اُظوٝف‬‫خ‬ٍٞ‫ثبُٔؾص‬:- ‫ػَٔس‬ ًَ‫طل٤ط‬ ‫حُلٜخى‬ ‫رؼي‬ ٝ‫ح‬ ‫حُ٘زخص‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫ًخٗض‬ ‫ٓٞحء‬ٖٓ ‫ٓـٔٞػش‬ ‫ٜخ‬ ‫حُز٤ج٤ش‬ َٓ‫حُؼٞح‬ٝ‫رٜخ‬ َ‫طئػ‬ٕٝ‫ح‬ ٌٖٔ٣ ٢‫حُظ‬‫ح‬ ٝ‫ح‬ ‫ِٓزخ‬ ‫رٜخ‬ َ‫طئػ‬٣‫ـخرخ‬،ٍٝ‫ٝٓ٘لخ‬ َٓ‫حُؼٞح‬ ٌٙٛ ٖ‫ػ‬ ٌِْ‫ٗظ‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ٕ‫حالٌٓخ‬ ٍ‫هي‬:- 1-‫حُلَحٍس‬ ‫ىٍؿش‬:Temperature ‫ٌٛح‬‫ك‬ َ‫طئػ‬ ٢‫حُظ‬ َٓ‫حُؼٞح‬ ْٛ‫ح‬ ‫حكي‬٢‫ُِٔخء‬ ٢‫حَُ١ٞر‬ ‫حُلوي‬،‫ٛ٘خى‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ‫ػِٔخ‬ ‫ىٍؿ‬ ٖ٤‫ر‬ ‫١َى٣ش‬ ‫ػالهش‬‫ش‬‫حُلو‬ ‫ُٝ٣خىس‬ ‫حُلَحٍس‬٢‫حَُ١ٞر‬ ‫ي‬،‫حٍطلخع‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ‫رٔزذ‬ ‫ىٍؿش‬ٍ‫حُلَح‬‫س‬٣ِ‫ٓظ‬٤ِ‫هخر‬ ٖٓ ‫ي‬‫ش‬٤ًٔ َ‫حًز‬ َٔ‫ك‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ ‫حُٜٞحء‬‫ش‬‫حُٔخء‬ ٍ‫روخ‬ ٖٓ ٝ‫حُؼَٔس‬ ٖٓ ‫ػِ٤ٜخ‬ ٍٜٞ‫حُل‬ ْ‫ٓ٤ظ‬ ٢‫حُظ‬. ‫ىٍؿ‬ ‫حٍطلخع‬ ٕ‫ح‬ ‫ًٔخ‬‫ش‬ٍ‫كَح‬‫س‬‫حُؼَٔس‬‫ُ٣خى‬ ٠ِ‫ػ‬ َٔ‫ٓ٤ؼ‬‫س‬‫الٓ٤ٔخ‬ ‫حُٔخء‬ َ‫طزو‬ ٤٘٤‫حُز‬ ‫حُٔٔخكخص‬ ٢‫ك‬ ‫حُٔٞؿٞى‬ َ‫حُل‬ ‫حُٔخء‬‫ش‬‫حٝال‬ ‫حُؼَٔس‬ َ‫ىحه‬ٍ‫ٝحُلَح‬‫س‬َٓ‫ػخ‬ ُ‫حُلخ‬ ٖٓ ‫حُٔخء‬ َ٣ٞ‫طل‬ ٢‫ك‬ ْٜٓ‫ش‬ُٔ‫ح‬ِ‫خث‬‫ش‬ُ‫حُلخ‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬‫ش‬٣ُ‫حُـخ‬‫ش‬،ًَ ٕ‫ٝح‬1ْ‫ؿ‬ H2O٠ُ‫ح‬ ‫٣لظخؽ‬ ‫ٓخء‬ ٍ‫روخ‬ ٠ُ‫ح‬ ٍٞ‫٣ظل‬540 calٝ‫حُلَحٍس‬ ٕ‫ح‬ٖٓ ‫ٓظَكغ‬ ‫ىٍؿ‬‫ش‬ٍ‫كَح‬‫س‬‫حُؼَٔس‬ًِٔٝ ‫ٌٝٓٞٗخطٜخ‬‫ىٍؿ‬ ‫حٍطلؼض‬ ‫خ‬‫ش‬ٍ‫حُلَح‬‫س‬َٔ‫حُؼ‬ ٢‫ك‬‫س‬‫ُحى‬ ٢‫حَُ١ٞر‬ ‫حُلوي‬( ٍٝ‫ٝحُـي‬4ٞ‫رؼ‬ ِٕ‫ُو‬ ‫حُٔ٘خٓزش‬ ‫حُلَحٍس‬ ‫ىٍؿخص‬ ) َ٤ٛ‫حُٔلخ‬. ( ٍٝ‫ؿي‬4‫ىٍؿخص‬ )‫حُزٔظ٘٤ش‬ َ٤ٛ‫حُٔلخ‬ ٞ‫ُزؼ‬ ‫حُٔ٘خٓزش‬ ِٕ‫حُو‬ ‫كَحٍس‬ Recommended storage temperature a selection of fruits and vegetables 1 - 4 °C 5 - 9 °C > 10 °C Apple Avocado (temperate origin) Avocado (sub- tropical) Asparagus Zucchini Pawpaw Berry fruits French Bean Grape fruit and Lemon

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