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Environmental and Public Health Impacts
And
Opportunities for Businesses
to ReduceTheir Use
Speakers:
Roger McFadden, Stap...
Center for Environmental Health
(CEH)
Advisory Group Members
 Jean Hansen: HDR Architects, Senior Professional Associate, Sustainable
Interiors Manager
 Roger...
Webinar Overview
1. Flame Retardant Chemical Concerns
 Human and Environmental Health
Hazards
 Lack of Fire Safety Benef...
 What are flame retardants?
 Human and environmental health
hazards of flame retardants
 Lack of fire safety benefit
Wh...
Flame Retardants
What are flame retardants?
Inhibit ignition or spread of flames
Where are flame retardants
used?
Electro...
Flame Retardant Chemicals
Many flame retardants are:
Persistent
Bioaccumulative
Toxic
Carcinogens
Mutagens
Reproduct...
Toxic Substances Control Act
(TSCA) (1976)
Most Chemicals in the U.S. are Not Regulated
62,000 chemicals in commerce “gran...
Flame Retardants Are Ubiquitous
Slide courtesy of Green Science Policy Institute
How are We Exposed?
 Inhalation or ingestion of contaminated dust
particles
 Ingestion from food, especially meat and da...
Flame Retardants:At Home and Work
WORK HOME
Indoor Air Quality
 Most Americans spend up to
90% of their time indoors.
 Indoor air can have higher levels
of pollutan...
Brominated Flame Retardants in
Offices in MI (2010)
 “BFRs are now ubiquitous contaminants with large
reservoirs and high...
Flame Retardants in MA Offices (2013)
 Chlorinated Tris was present in 99% of dust samples
taken from participants’ homes...
Health Effects of Flame Retardants
Neurodevelopmental Effects
Decreased memory and learning
Reduced IQ
Hyperactivity Diabe...
Occupational Exposures
 Fire Fighters/First
Responders
 FRC Manufacturing
Workers
 Foam Workers
(manufacturers,
install...
Lack of Fire Safety Benefit
 No significant difference in fire growth between
foam with flame retardants formulated to pa...
Additional Considerations
 Presence of automatic fire
sprinklers in buildings
 People not allowed to smoke
 No fire dat...
Flame Retardants May Make
Fires Less Survivable
Data Source: Chandra Jayakody, et al. J. Fire Sciences, Vol. 18, pp 430-45...
FIRES IN DORMITORIES, FRATERNITIES,
SORORITIES AND BARRACKS
Approximately 3,810 fires in dorms, fraternities,
sororities/b...
Fires in Health Care Facilities
2006-2010
Roughly 1,430/year in hospitals/hospices
Leading causes include:
• Cooking equip...
Furniture Flammability
Regulations
Technical Bulletin 117
• Small open flame test for filling
inside upholstered furniture...
New California Furniture Standard:
TB 117-2013
 Addresses leading
cause of fires
 Reflects real life fire
scenarios
 Ca...
Governor Brown Announces New Standards
to Reduce Toxic Chemicals in Furniture
November 21, 2013
Beginning January 1, 2014,...
Comparison
TB 117 vs. 117-2013
TB 117 TB 117-2013
Small Open Flame
Standard
Smolder Standard (largest
cause of fires and d...
Technical Bulletin 133
Seating Furniture for Public Buildings
or Assembly Areas
CA includes:
Hospitals, health care facil...
Key ComparisonsTB 133
vs.TB 117-2013
TECHNICAL
BULLETIN 133
TECHNICAL BULLETIN 117-
2013
Addresses public buildings or
pub...
Entities Known to Reference
CA Regulations
Ohio- Public Buildings must comply
with TB 133 (no exceptions for
sprinklers)
I...
Massachusetts Rules (527 CMR 29)
In fully sprinkled building, spaces may meet TB-
117 OR TB-133
In building not fully spri...
Boston Rules (BFD IX-10)
All regulated spaces must
meet TB-133, regardless of
sprinklers
Regulated Spaces:
Assembly (A), E...
Boston Rules - Update
As of 4/1/14 seating in “Business” and
“Mercantile” spaces no longer regulated
*EXCEPT:
B and M spac...
Staples Leadership & Engagement
Staples seeks to offer
organizations of all sizes
products that are inherently
safer for h...
Chemicals of Concern
 Hexavalent Chromium
 Formaldehyde
 Perfluorinated Compounds (PFCs)
 PVC (vinyl)
 Heavy Metals
...
Market is Moving
 Consumer awareness is growing – ChicagoTribune “Playing with
Fire”, social media and crowd sourcing.
 ...
Suppliers Are Important In Helping Meet Our Goals
We challenge and ask our suppliers to:
• Consider chemicals of high conc...
Health Product Declaration (HPD)
PromotingTransparency
Changing Supplier Behavior
Lessons Learned
• Be clear with suppliers about what you
want. Suppliers are looking for ways t...
Safer Chemicals, Materials and Products
Benefits For Everyone
• Workers that make and/or use them;
• Firefighters that are...
PURCHASER STRATEGY
ADVISORY GROUP TOOLS
 FR Free Products
Purchaser Preference
 Letter to Suppliers
 Talking Points for...
NEXT STEPS
 Engage others!
 Build awareness re: value of transitioning to less
toxic products (CEH can help)
 Screen cu...
CELEBRATE !!!
QUESTIONS?
Judy Levin Roger McFadden
CEH Staples, Inc.
Pollution Prevention Co-Director Senior Scientist,VP
(510) 655-3900...
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Flame Retardants: Environmental and Public Health Impacts and Opportunities for Business to Reduce their Use

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Learn about the negative effects the flame retardants can have on your health and how businesses to can reduce their use for safer work environments.

Veröffentlicht in: Umweltschutz, Business, Technologie
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Flame Retardants: Environmental and Public Health Impacts and Opportunities for Business to Reduce their Use

  1. 1. Environmental and Public Health Impacts And Opportunities for Businesses to ReduceTheir Use Speakers: Roger McFadden, Staples, Inc , Judy Levin, Center for Environmental Health Kathryn Rodgers, Silent Spring Institute . FLAME RETARDANTS
  2. 2. Center for Environmental Health (CEH)
  3. 3. Advisory Group Members  Jean Hansen: HDR Architects, Senior Professional Associate, Sustainable Interiors Manager  Roger McFadden: Staples, Senior Scientist,Vice President  HowardWilliams: Construction Specialties, Vice President-General Manager  Brian Smith: Multnomah County Oregon, Purchasing Manager  Chris McGough: Fairfax County (Virginia), Green Purchasing Program  Susan ChemerynskiWason: Harvard University, Research Fellow: Department of Environmental Health at Harvard School of Public Health
  4. 4. Webinar Overview 1. Flame Retardant Chemical Concerns  Human and Environmental Health Hazards  Lack of Fire Safety Benefit 1. Changing Regulations-Opportunity for Change 2. LeveragingYour Purchasing Power 3. Questions and Answers
  5. 5.  What are flame retardants?  Human and environmental health hazards of flame retardants  Lack of fire safety benefit What are the Concerns?
  6. 6. Flame Retardants What are flame retardants? Inhibit ignition or spread of flames Where are flame retardants used? Electronics Building Insulation Foam Furniture Wires and Cabling
  7. 7. Flame Retardant Chemicals Many flame retardants are: Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxic Carcinogens Mutagens Reproductive Toxicants 7
  8. 8. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) (1976) Most Chemicals in the U.S. are Not Regulated 62,000 chemicals in commerce “grandfathered” • EPA has regulated only five chemicals 2,000 new chemicals enter market each year • No environmental or health data required • 85% lack data on chemical health effects Burden of proof on EPA to prove chemical is harmful
  9. 9. Flame Retardants Are Ubiquitous Slide courtesy of Green Science Policy Institute
  10. 10. How are We Exposed?  Inhalation or ingestion of contaminated dust particles  Ingestion from food, especially meat and dairy  Occupational Exposure Unique to Children  Absorption across the placenta  Breast milk  Frequent hand-to-mouth activity
  11. 11. Flame Retardants:At Home and Work WORK HOME
  12. 12. Indoor Air Quality  Most Americans spend up to 90% of their time indoors.  Indoor air can have higher levels of pollutants than outside levels.  Impacts health, comfort, well being, and productivity
  13. 13. Brominated Flame Retardants in Offices in MI (2010)  “BFRs are now ubiquitous contaminants with large reservoirs and high concentrations in buildings.”  “The widespread distribution of BFRs found in offices in both new and old buildings suggests the significance of workplace exposures, the need for controls to minimize human exposure, intra-building migration, and environmental releases of these chemicals…” Environ Int. 2010 Aug;36(6):548-56. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2010.04.008. Epub 2010 May 18. Batterman S, Godwin C, Chernyak S, Jia C, Charles S.
  14. 14. Flame Retardants in MA Offices (2013)  Chlorinated Tris was present in 99% of dust samples taken from participants’ homes, vehicles and offices. Widespread presence of this flame retardant in the indoor environment. Environment International, Volume 55,May 2013, Pages 56-61
  15. 15. Health Effects of Flame Retardants Neurodevelopmental Effects Decreased memory and learning Reduced IQ Hyperactivity Diabetes Cancer Endocrine System Disruption Obesity Chemicals that mimic estrogen Alters thyroid hormone ReproductiveToxicant Decreased fertility Decreased birth weight Decreased sperm quality
  16. 16. Occupational Exposures  Fire Fighters/First Responders  FRC Manufacturing Workers  Foam Workers (manufacturers, installers and recyclers)  Gymnasts
  17. 17. Lack of Fire Safety Benefit  No significant difference in fire growth between foam with flame retardants formulated to pass TB 117 and untreated foam. Source: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards.  Chairs with flame retardant foam offered no practically significant difference than those without FR-treated foam. Source: CPSC, 2012.
  18. 18. Additional Considerations  Presence of automatic fire sprinklers in buildings  People not allowed to smoke  No fire data supports need for flame retardant chemicals in office furniture
  19. 19. Flame Retardants May Make Fires Less Survivable Data Source: Chandra Jayakody, et al. J. Fire Sciences, Vol. 18, pp 430-455, 2000 16 19 413 833 (m2 /kg) (kg/kg) (kg/kg) 0.02 0.13 0.01 0.88
  20. 20. FIRES IN DORMITORIES, FRATERNITIES, SORORITIES AND BARRACKS Approximately 3,810 fires in dorms, fraternities, sororities/barracks Leading causes of these fires:  Cooking equipment (84%)  Smoking materials  Heating equipment  Playing with a heat source  Electrical distribution and lighting equipment 2 deaths and 30 injuries nationally (causes not reported) Source: NFPA Study 2013
  21. 21. Fires in Health Care Facilities 2006-2010 Roughly 1,430/year in hospitals/hospices Leading causes include: • Cooking equipment (largest %) • Dryers • Arson • Smoking materials • Heating equipment • Electrical distribution/lighting equipment • Playing with heat sources ** NO reported fire deaths or injuries from furniture. ** Source: National Fire Protection Agency 2012
  22. 22. Furniture Flammability Regulations Technical Bulletin 117 • Small open flame test for filling inside upholstered furniture Technical Bulletin 133 • Severe, large open flame test for seating in “public occupancies” • Voluntary if building is fully sprinklered
  23. 23. New California Furniture Standard: TB 117-2013  Addresses leading cause of fires  Reflects real life fire scenarios  Can meet with smolder proof fabrics and barrier if needed
  24. 24. Governor Brown Announces New Standards to Reduce Toxic Chemicals in Furniture November 21, 2013 Beginning January 1, 2014, manufacturers may begin manufacturing to the new standards. They will have a year to complete the transition and must come into full mandatory compliance on January 1, 2015”
  25. 25. Comparison TB 117 vs. 117-2013 TB 117 TB 117-2013 Small Open Flame Standard Smolder Standard (largest cause of fires and deaths) Does Not Reflect Real Life Fire Scenarios Reflects Real Life Fire Scenarios Typically met with flame retardant chemicals Can be met without use of flame retardant chemicals Exempts 3 baby products Exempts 15 baby products
  26. 26. Technical Bulletin 133 Seating Furniture for Public Buildings or Assembly Areas CA includes: Hospitals, health care facilities, nursing homes, board and care homes, convalescent homes Jails, prisons, penal institutions Stadiums, auditoriums, Public assembly areas of hotels/motels.
  27. 27. Key ComparisonsTB 133 vs.TB 117-2013 TECHNICAL BULLETIN 133 TECHNICAL BULLETIN 117- 2013 Addresses public buildings or public assembly areas Non- public occupancy or assembly buildings OR those public occupancy buildings that are fully sprinklered Large Open Flame Test Smolder Test Typically met with FRs in fabric, foam and/or barrier materials Can be met without FRs More expensive to meet than TB 117-2013 Less expensive to meet than TB 133
  28. 28. Entities Known to Reference CA Regulations Ohio- Public Buildings must comply with TB 133 (no exceptions for sprinklers) Illinois-Public Buildings must comply with TB 133 unless fully sprinklered, then may comply with TB117 and TB 116
  29. 29. Massachusetts Rules (527 CMR 29) In fully sprinkled building, spaces may meet TB- 117 OR TB-133 In building not fully sprinkled, spaces must meet TB-133 Regulated Spaces: Assembly (A), Educational (E), Institutional (I), and Residential (R): R1 – public/enclosed spaces in space of transient nature, e.g. hotel R2 – public spaces in apartment houses, dormitories (more than 2 units) R5 – enclosed spaces in group residence (12 people max) for impaired people (all defined in 780 CMR 3)
  30. 30. Boston Rules (BFD IX-10) All regulated spaces must meet TB-133, regardless of sprinklers Regulated Spaces: Assembly (A), Educational (E), Institutional (I), and Residential (R): R1 – public/enclosed spaces of transient nature, e.g. hotel R2 – public spaces in apartment houses, dormitories (more than 2 units) R5 – enclosed spaces in group residence (12 people max) for impaired people (all defined in 780 CMR 3)
  31. 31. Boston Rules - Update As of 4/1/14 seating in “Business” and “Mercantile” spaces no longer regulated *EXCEPT: B and M spaces with no sprinklers, and R above B and M spaces with A occupancy load > 49 people Temporary structure with open flame (candles, cooking)
  32. 32. Staples Leadership & Engagement Staples seeks to offer organizations of all sizes products that are inherently safer for human and environmental health and that address environmental impacts throughout their lifecycle.
  33. 33. Chemicals of Concern  Hexavalent Chromium  Formaldehyde  Perfluorinated Compounds (PFCs)  PVC (vinyl)  Heavy Metals  Nonyl phenol ethoxylates  Phthalates  Bisphenol A  Triclosan  Today’s focus is Flame Retardants due to regulation change  Other chemicals of concern in the market
  34. 34. Market is Moving  Consumer awareness is growing – ChicagoTribune “Playing with Fire”, social media and crowd sourcing.  Business customers are beginning to ask for flame retardant free furniture in their RFPs.  Architectural / Design Firms are requesting HPDs  Living Building Challenge raises the bar  BIFMA and BIFMA members are supportive  Flame Retardant free foam furniture already exists
  35. 35. Suppliers Are Important In Helping Meet Our Goals We challenge and ask our suppliers to: • Consider chemicals of high concern like flame retardants to be pollutants or contaminants; • Consider direct and indirect chemical exposure to vulnerable sub-populations including children, women of child-bearing age and workers; • Consider life cycle impacts of chemicals including harmful degradation and combustion by- products; • Consider full life-cycle costing including externalities when making a product; • Apply green chemistry/green engineering principles into their product design or product re-design whenever possible.
  36. 36. Health Product Declaration (HPD) PromotingTransparency
  37. 37. Changing Supplier Behavior Lessons Learned • Be clear with suppliers about what you want. Suppliers are looking for ways to differentiate themselves and bring you value.The best in class will cooperate and collaborate. • Be fair with suppliers and provide them reasonable time to meet your expectations, but don’t allow them to use this to stall or delay taking action. • Don’t be deterred or obstructed by “status quo”. Be willing to look at new options.
  38. 38. Safer Chemicals, Materials and Products Benefits For Everyone • Workers that make and/or use them; • Firefighters that are exposed to them; • Suppliers that sell them; • Logistics that transport them; • Consumers that buy and use them; • Our children that inherit them.
  39. 39. PURCHASER STRATEGY ADVISORY GROUP TOOLS  FR Free Products Purchaser Preference  Letter to Suppliers  Talking Points for Supplier Meetings  RFI / RFP / Contract Language  Fact sheet
  40. 40. NEXT STEPS  Engage others!  Build awareness re: value of transitioning to less toxic products (CEH can help)  Screen current product inventory for chemicals of concern  Send letter or meet with suppliers: Express preference & ask for their help in meeting your toxic reduction objectives  Explore / develop environmentally preferable purchasing policies  Find out your org’s. furniture contract timeframe  Sign the pledge
  41. 41. CELEBRATE !!!
  42. 42. QUESTIONS? Judy Levin Roger McFadden CEH Staples, Inc. Pollution Prevention Co-Director Senior Scientist,VP (510) 655-3900 ext. 316 (303) 862-0421 judy@ceh.org roger.mcfadden@staples.com Kathryn Rodgers Silent Spring Institute Research Asst. (617) 332-4288 ext. 225 rodgers@silentspring.org

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