Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Wir verwenden Ihre LinkedIn Profilangaben und Informationen zu Ihren Aktivitäten, um Anzeigen zu personalisieren und Ihnen relevantere Inhalte anzuzeigen. Sie können Ihre Anzeigeneinstellungen jederzeit ändern.
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 1 -
PEACEBUILDING
COMMISS...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 2 -
Word of Welcome
Secre...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 3 -
Dear Delegates,
My Na...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 4 -
Dear delegates,
My na...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 5 -
Introduction to the P...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 6 -
Topic A – Children in...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 7 -
How to explain the cu...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 8 -
B. Analysis of the pr...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 9 -
Children involved in ...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 10 -
Columbia-
Since La V...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 11 -
Afghanistan and Paki...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 12 -
Afghan refugee child...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 13 -
the constant struggl...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 14 -
discipline, hatred o...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 15 -
C. Proposed Solution...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 16 -
underestimated. One ...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 17 -
help them develop cr...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 18 -
most powerful figure...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 19 -
D. Past Actions
Inte...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 20 -
1990 - Organization ...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 21 -
E. Bloc Positions
CE...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 22 -
disabled children bu...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 23 -
F. Thinker’s (Questi...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 24 -
G. Recommended Readi...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 25 -
Leone before he fled...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 26 -
Bibliography
 Beah,...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 27 -
 United Nations Gen...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 28 -
Topic B – Peacebuild...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 29 -
A. Statement, analys...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 30 -
Analysis of the prob...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 31 -
Dictatorship:
In 196...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 32 -
Path to Peace:
Effor...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 33 -
Many obstacles remai...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 34 -
In a country recover...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 35 -
Past action
The Unit...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 36 -
in the DRC. This for...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 37 -
B. Proposed Solution...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 38 -
Co-ordinate projects...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 39 -
Ethnic tensions, war...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 40 -
involvement with ext...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 41 -
The relationship imp...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 42 -
D. Thinker’s - Quest...
Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster
www.RotaractMUN.org |
- 43 -
E. Recommended readi...
Nächste SlideShare
Wird geladen in …5
×

Rotaract global model united nations 2014 peacbuilding commision study guide

608 Aufrufe

Veröffentlicht am

Children in Armed Conflict.
The issue of children in armed conflict has been time and again ignored by the world community. We are sadly reminded of these innocent lives time and again when they are lost. In this context we do not only look at the protection of children in armed conflict, but more fearfully, their involvement in it.

  • Als Erste(r) kommentieren

  • Gehören Sie zu den Ersten, denen das gefällt!

Rotaract global model united nations 2014 peacbuilding commision study guide

  1. 1. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 1 - PEACEBUILDING COMMISSION STUDY – GUIDE Prepared by: Suhaas Ema & Joe Kennedy On the date of: July 2014
  2. 2. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 2 - Word of Welcome Secretary General of Rotaract Global Model United Nations 2013 Dear Delegates, It is my absolute pleasure to welcome you to the 2014 edition of Rotaract Global Model United Nations. We are privileged to hold this conference in Westminster, a city that has been a bastion of diplomacy and debate for centuries – and which saw the birth of the UN nearly 60 years ago. Having engaged with Model UN since my school days, I can confidently say that the activity is in my blood. I sincerely believe that there is no better activity for young people trying to engage with the issues currently troubling our world today. It goes without saying that these issues are dangerous, as they are numerous, and I could not even begin to summarise them in such a limited space. However, simply from reading your applications, I have been inspired by the massive contribution young people are willing to make to solving these problems. This is why I have decided that the conference shall be based around the theme: Leaders of Tomorrow. I do not mean to suggest by this that our conference will nurture you and prepare you to make future contributions. Rather, I propose that you are already leaders – young people poised to make a meaningful difference to international affairs. With our conference as your unique gathering place and speaking platform, I can guarantee that your debate contributions will not simply be academic exercises. Instead, they will form part of a meaningful policy proposal that Rotaract will ensure reaches the desks of the UN. With this collective spirit in mind, I hope you are extremely excited to read the Study Guide of your committee. Having handpicked your chairs personally, I can assure you that they are world- leaders in their field. Put simply, there are few people who are more qualified to write this guide than them. So, use their sterling work as a starting point for your research, and be inspired to read and research far beyond the confines of this guide. I feel extremely honoured to welcome this unprecedented gathering of great young minds to London. I am fascinated to hear the solutions you propose, and pledge to do all in my power to translate them into meaningful political change. Yours Sincerely, Adam McLaren Secretary General, Rotaract Global Model United Nations 2014
  3. 3. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 3 - Dear Delegates, My Name is Suhaas Ema, I am currently a second year degree student pursuing my triple major in Psychology, Sociology and Economics at Christ University, Bangalore. My interested in Model U.N conferences sparked when I was in high school and it has never left me since then. I have a deep passion of international relations and I am extremely excited to come to London to be chairperson of the U.N Peace-Building commission. In my free time, I enjoy watching my favorite TV shows and singing. I cannot wait to experience a whole new different style of Model U.N. Coming from the Indian Model U.N circuit I can say that it’s very competitive and the level of debate is intense. I hope to find even more of that here. All the best, Suhaas Savio Ema
  4. 4. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 4 - Dear delegates, My name's Joe Kennedy, I've just finished up a law degree in University College Cork, Ireland. My particular areas of interest are public international law and human rights law. I fell in love with MUN when I first tried it with my university society and I've been hooked ever since. I've had great success at MUNs throughout the UK and chaired at Cambridge Univerity International MUN last year. I had the great honour of being President of my university's MUN society last year. This year I'm the Education Officer in my Students' Union and I'll be fitting in as much MUN as I can. Looking forward to a great weekend of debate. All the best, Joe.
  5. 5. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 5 - Introduction to the Peace-building Commission As a result of a General assembly resolution passed in December of 2005, the UNPBC has the highest priority of ensuring that post conflict countries are stabilized using methods of peace building, recovery, development etc. The UNPBC also has latent functions it must perform to ensure that conflict areas do receive non-intervention based assistance. This commission may be mandated to perform a number of functions in regards to a broad social sense. It is a subsidiary body of not only the general assembly but more importantly, the Security Council. Its mandate maybe expanded by a resolution from the latter. It is a non-traditional approach to resolving many conflicts that plague our world. We hope that delegates take advantage of this platform to perform their best.
  6. 6. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 6 - Topic A – Children in Armed Conflict A. Statement of the problem The issue of children in armed conflict has been time and again ignored by the world community. We are sadly reminded of these innocent lives time and again when they are lost. In this context we do not only look at the protection of children in armed conflict, but more fearfully, their involvement in it. Children being recruited as soldiers or trained to terrorize the public is a worse scenario. Children have served as militants for centuries, yet the image of a young child with barrels of dynamite strapped tightly to his chest is a more recent, more shocking one. This image galvanizes us because it deeply disturbs our sense of humanity – war is brutal, evil, and destroys life; children are young, innocent, and must be protected. Particularly because terrorism is a branch of warfare which is bound by no rules or conscience and whose aim is to create as much fear and destruction as possible, children must be protected from its false lures of “glory” and almost certain result of death. Thus, whether as boy soldiers in the American Revolution, disguised insurgents on the Soviet border during the Cold War, or suicide bombers during the World Wars, these children should have been protected. Thus we can better understand how the modern surge of children trained to terrorize is in part a legacy of the child- spy networks created during the First and Second World Wars and the Cold War. Today, well- funded and connected organizations including Al-Qaeda and the Tamil Tigers actively recruit children to execute terrorist attacks. Often enlisted against their own will, these little “angels of death” are not only indoctrinated to take pride in their cause, but are also trained in espionage, marksmanship, kidnappings, arson, bombings, and in some cases, suicide missions. The responsibility of the Peace Building commission of to ensure that such catastrophes are prevented in this peace building process. Under the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), which is ratified by all U.N. member states except for the United States and Somalia, children under the age of fifteen may not take part in warfare. Considered too low by the international community, the age limit was raised to eighteen in 2000 in the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which prohibits the compulsory military recruitment of children under the age of eighteen and specifically states that “armed groups that are distinct from the armed forces of a State should not, under any circumstances, recruit or use in hostilities persons under the age of eighteen years. “Thus, consistent with international legal standards, the word “children” in this guide refers to all persons under Eighteen years of age.
  7. 7. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 7 - How to explain the current state of lawlessness in conflicts waged around the world? Graça Machel provides an astute explanation of our modern situation and the new challenges it presents in the U.N.Report, Impact of Armed Conflict on Children. She characterized modern warfare in postcolonial states as involving the “abandonment of all standards” and having a special “sense of dislocation and chaos.” The culmination of post-colonial struggles, internal dissent, structural monetary adjustments, uneven development, the collapse of government, the personalization of power and the erosion of essential services all contribute to the breakdown in the rules of warfare. As a result, the abandonment of standards has brought about human rights violations against women and children, including the recruitment of children into armed forces as soldiers or terrorists.
  8. 8. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 8 - B. Analysis of the problem “Terrorists are not freedom fighters, as some claim; they are brainwashed killers, oppressors, and murderers, the hidden hands of tyrannical and despotic regimes who want to keep their people in bondage. They reject progress, human rights, and equality under the law. Like pirates, they live off the destruction of others but cleverly disguise their cause around honorable religious slogans...The true freedom fighters are the women and men who speak for peace, progress, democracy and freedom, even if their lives are threatened.” - Nonie Darwish, in “Raised for Jihad: A Shahid’s Daughter Speaks Out” Terrorism is the deliberate creation and exploitation of fear with the aim of attaining political change. It is thus undeniably a form of psychological warfare. Today, around 300,000 children under the age of eighteen are involved in some form of warfare worldwide. These young children fight in 75% of the world’s conflicts. The military use of children takes three distinct forms: children can take direct part in hostilities as combatants, or they can be used in support roles such as porters, spies, messengers, look outs, and sexual slaves; or they can be used for political advantage either as human shields or in propaganda Indeed, it would seem that children are deliberately conscripted by modern militia as part of their strategy, especially for political attention: “War today just simply does not match the traditional conception of two opposed armies…in which each side generally abides by the ‘rules of the game,’ respecting the basic inviolability of civilian non-combatants and the special protection due to the young.” - Graça Machel
  9. 9. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 9 - Children involved in terrorist activities can be found worldwide today. In Burma, it is not uncommon for children as young as eleven-years-old to be forcibly recruited off the streets to serve in armed ethnic opposition groups. In Sudan, the Sudanese Armed Forces, the Janjaweed militias and the Sudan Liberation Army factions all use thousands of child soldiers to partake in terrorizing the civilians. Sadly, the list of countries in which child terrorists can be found extends tirelessly: it includes the Democratic Republic of Congo, India, the Philippines, Cote d’Ivoire, Burundi, Somalia, Thailand, Chad, Uganda, and many others. The following case studies will examine the situation in four countries with the most serious cases of child involvement in terrorism. Not only will the current situations be detailed in their severity and scope, but also for those children who are not in fact coerced, it is also necessary to explore their reasons for volunteering to be terrorists.
  10. 10. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 10 - Columbia- Since La Violencia in 1948, Colombia’s political scene has been fraught with South America’s most enduring armed conflict. Between government forces, right-wing paramilitaries and left- wing guerrilla insurgents, violence and anarchy escalated in the 1990s, fuelled by the cocaine trade. While violence has decreased significantly since 2002, the well-established Marxist- Leninist guerrilla group FARC (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia), the ELN (Ejército de Liberación Nacional) and the paramilitary federation AUC (Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia) are still declared as terrorist groups by the Colombian Government, the European Union for their ongoing terrorist activities and the United States Department of State Notorious for their prolonged kidnappings, extortion, drug-trafficking and arbitrary assassinations, the aforementioned terrorist groups are also known for their indiscriminately-ruthless attacks. Be it Colombian politicians or ordinary civilians, any and all are considered legitimate targets. In accordance with such modus operandi, both FARC and ELN continually fill their ranks with “dispensable” child forces. In fact, at least one in four of their ranks are children, who are forced perpetrators of car-bombings and mass murders, etc.
  11. 11. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 11 - Afghanistan and Pakistan- Mired in bloody conflict for the last 30 years, Afghanistan has been involved in wars that have ravaged the country and taken a severe toll on its citizens. As a result, those with financial means flee, and those who remain do their best to survive amid the violence and downward economic spiral. Families are destroyed and children are robbed of their innocence. For the millions of Afghan refugees fleeing into neighboring Pakistan, losses incurred are material, social, and emotional. Since the events of 11 September, 2001, Pakistan has been a center of terrorist activity, including the bombing of the US Consulate and the kidnap and murder of American journalist Daniel Pearl. The volatile political climate has become even more unstable due to the latest influx of Afghan refugees. Since the fall of the Taliban, hundreds of thousands of refugees, over half of them children, have flooded into Pakistan. They roam the streets, picking through rubbish and hustling odd jobs at the markets, ostracized socially by local Pakistanis. Scarred by the violence that has woven their childhood, the young Afghan boys found in Pakistani refugee camps are more familiar with Kalishnikovs and APC guns than they are with their alphabet. Fear of bombs and death continues to haunt them as they struggle to make ends meet. Treated as adults, these young Afghan children are burdened with the responsibility of feeding the members remaining in their family, and so they must scavenge for food, work long and arduous hours or take up dangerous jobs for money. As a result, many
  12. 12. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 12 - Afghan refugee children find the Islamic religious schools, or madrassas, appealing. The madrassas not only feed and care for the students, but free the children from the burden to work and teach them the Qur’an. Unfortunately, many of the madrassas focus on rote memorization and do not encourage critical thinking. Some even teach their students to develop a disdain for Western life and ideals, and develop extremist ideology within the four walls of these schools. Pakistan has between 10,000 and 40,000 madrassas, a few of which are said to provide military training. Pakistan is thus a paradigm example of where a society of immense poverty, lack of education, and a high unemployment rate creates the potential for terrorism. “God willing we will strike. We will strike so that America would repent for Afghanistan. Real Muslim’s hearts would be glad. And American veins would be cut.” - Khal Mohammad, 10 years old Palestine- “Any attack on civilians is prohibited by international law, but using children for suicide attacks is particularly egregious. Palestinian armed groups must clearly and publicly condemn all use of children…for military activities, and make sure these policies are carried out.” - Jo Becker, children’s rights advocacy director at Human Rights Watch The situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territories is the gravest example of its kind. Aside from the recruitment of underage boys and girls to participate in “regular” terrorist activities such as those listed above, the Palestinian case is particularly astounding for its recent history of child suicide bombers, all aimed at Israel and Israelis, with the aim of establishing a Palestinian state. Why is this the case? The prominent Palestinian legislator Hanan Ashrawi explains that “The people who do it… are driven to desperation and anger by the Israeli activities.” Indeed,
  13. 13. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 13 - the constant struggle between the Palestinians and Israel for the last 60 years forms the background of the issue at hand. The Palestinian refugee crisis was created in the wake of 1948 Israeli War of Independence, otherwise known as Al-Nakba (the catastrophe) in the Arab historical narrative. Apart from the physical destruction of over 530 Palestinian villages that resulted, the psychological trauma of sustained homelessness is profound within the Palestinian psyche. Throughout the years immediately after Al-Nakba, Palestinians reportedly suffered from fear, anxiety, panic, insecurity about their immediate future, and uncertainty about the whereabouts of relatives and loved ones. Indeed, such dire conditions contributed to the national desperation which was manifested in a high frequency (almost 80%) of PTSD, and a highly vulnerable mental state emerged. Furthermore, according to Eyad Sarraj, a psychiatrist and founder of the Palestinian Independent Commission for Citizen Rights, “Since the establishment of Israel in 1948 and the resultant uprooting of Palestinians, a deep seated feeling of shame has taken root in the Arab psyche. Shame is the most painful emotion in the Arab culture, producing the feeling that one is unworthy to live.” Stemming from this desperate existence is the “cult of martyrdom” that has developed more and more prominently in the occupied Palestinian territories (OPT). Although this “cult” does have a strong underpinning in the Arab tradition of honoring martyrs, the popular support for suicide bombing appears to have developed principally over the last decade, as the first act of suicide terrorism occurred in Israel only twelve years ago. As Ashrawi insists, “Our culture is not a suicidal culture; historically, the incidence of suicide among Palestinians has been very low.” While support for suicide terrorism fluctuates constantly, since November 2000 Palestinian public opinion has increasingly supported suicide bombing, shifting alarmingly towards radical Islamic organizations. In early 1996, only 20% of Palestinians Supported the practice, but today about 70% do. From a very young age, children are socialized into a group consciousness that honors “martyrs,” including human bombers who have given their lives for the fight against what is perceived by Palestinians to be the unjust Occupiers of their lands. Young children are told stories of “martyrs” and many wear necklaces venerating particular ones. Especially in the more militant refugee camps of Nablus and Jenin, posters of martyrs and their deeds cover the walls of the town and camps, and television programs and music videos extol the virtues of bombers. An alarming number of children even aspire to be terrorists, as many reports and stories affirm. Recruiters from Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade pick out candidates from schools or mosques, particularly those stating admiration for martyrs. In 2002, 16-year-old Ayat al-Akhras volunteered as a terrorist for Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade. Ayat’s “self-
  14. 14. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 14 - discipline, hatred of Israel and fierce Palestinian nationalism made her a natural candidate,” needing little psychological preparation. Soon after, she strapped a set of explosives to her waist and detonated them, killing herself and two Israeli civilians. Although originally devastated by their daughter’s suicide attack, Ayat’s family reticence shifted to pride. Ayat became an icon in Bethlehem and at Al-Quds University, was the muse for a poem in London-based Arabic Newspaper al-Hayat, was a Newsweek magazine cover story and was featured in the New York Times and on CBS TV’s 60 Minutes II (Bomber Next Door, 2003), making her the most discussed female suicide bomber of the time. Although there is no evidence of systematic recruitment of children by armed Palestinian groups, who all publicly oppose the use of children in combat, Hamas, Islamic Jihad, Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade (all considered terrorist organizations by the European Union, United Kingdom, the United States And Canada) nevertheless provide children with military training and use them either as messengers and couriers or fighters and suicide bombers to attack Israeli soldiers and civilians. According to the “2004 Global Report on the Use of Child Soldiers” by the Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, at least nine children were documented as having perpetrated suicide attacks between October 2000 and March 2004. A major cause for concern is that although militant Palestinian groups oppose the use of children in combat, there is no system for enforcement of such ideals. The confusion regarding government authority in Gaza extends to this as well.
  15. 15. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 15 - C. Proposed Solutions The aim to eradicate all involvement of children in terrorism begins with a unilateral declaration by all member states condemning this abhorrent practice. International law prohibits the recruitment of children for warfare, but the specific indictment of non-state terrorist organizations for their recruitment of children is currently fragmented and insufficient. Thus, a unified front is necessary if the roots of the global problem are to be addressed. Intercept Flow of arms and Financial Funds In regards to technical reasons behind the large numbers of child terrorists, UNPBC believes that the proliferation and widespread availability of small, lightweight arms is one of the primary factors behind the disturbing increase in the number of child terrorists. Easy to carry, use and maintain, these weapons can be used by children without much prior training, and allow a child to become a direct combatant. The culture of violence is a grim one; as one writer puts it, “When… ten- to fourteen-year-old children armed with automatic rifles that can fire 600 700 rounds per minute is set loose on the civilian population, the results can be devastating.” This committee thus should urge its member states to cooperate in minimizing the manufacturing and proliferation of such weapons. States neighboring volatile areas must develop strategies to tightly monitor their borders for illegal shipments and drug trafficking, both which often make up a large percentage of the funds supporting terrorist organizations. It is the responsibility of each delegate in committee to understand the intricacies that are involved in implementing this solution. The problems and ways of implementation must be discussed and thoroughly debated. Legal consequences for adult Perpetrators Since children, even aspiring suicide bombers, cannot successfully commit terrorism without the inspiration, guidance and training offered by adult members of terrorist organizations, the international community must focus its efforts on identifying the adult perpetrators and bringing them to justice. Whether before international or domestic courts, the adult members of terrorist organizations must be prosecuted properly and held accountable for robbing countless children of their lives and futures. Aside from international efforts, domestic efforts must not be
  16. 16. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 16 - underestimated. One of the most effective measures towards addressing the situation of child militants is the cooperation and collaboration of regional bodies. These outcome documents are often more targeted more specifically to the unique circumstances of a region, more focused and easier to enforce, and more readily accepted and implemented by the nations of the regional conference. Dismantling “Fertile Soil” The layers of obstacles this committee faces lie in addressing the conditions which allow for and create vulnerable candidates. These include poverty, rampant violence, and lack of education, frequent humiliation and abuse, all of which inspire despair, low self-esteem and “cracks” in children’s psychology. The international community also needs to tackle the atmosphere that not only accepts but supports the recruitment of children into terrorist organizations. Too often, the children who become terrorist recruits are sent by their parents, either out of desperation or ironically, pride and hope for glory. Thus parents must be properly educated of the consequences their children suffer and held responsible for their fate; pro-terrorist media must be outlawed, and funds for both indoctrination and training must be sought out and cut off. This committee has the resources to provide vulnerable communities with alternate measures to protect their children. Aside from educating parents about the illusion of “terrorist glory,” cooperation with local humanitarian groups and NGO’s to collect information will help to tightly monitor and look out for unstable families. To date, the dearth of information regarding the names, ages, and exact numbers of children being recruited into terrorist organizations makes it very hard for international organizations to track these children and also prosecute adult perpetrators. Thus information centers are part of the solution which will greatly benefit the children in question; not only will they provide a safe location where civilians can go to for help without fear of being reported to terrorist organizations, but the U.N will also gain a better understanding of the recruitment strategies of the various terrorist groups and develop counterstrategies. Education for Peace Before being recruited, the lack of education often makes a child the perfect “blank slate” on which terrorists can carve their own agendas. Thus early training of children in the indoctrination process is developmentally dangerous because it can become too absolute, fixed, and irreversible. For this reason, it is crucial that sovereign states educate their children so as to
  17. 17. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 17 - help them develop critical thinking, consider consequences, and form individual judgments – tools with which to recognize terrorism as an undesirable future. As for those who have already been recruited and after the war must learn how to live, think, and feel again, education has the unique ability to dissolve the false images of hatred fed to children by their adult leaders. These perceptions are often reinforced by education from early childhood and by political brainwashing, whereby the demonization of the other allows the attribution of hateful and threatening qualities to a group of people whom we perceive as alien or different. As child psychiatrist Dr. Flashman says, “Nothing gives children more hope than the understanding that children of the enemy side are very much like themselves – also growing up in times of pain, solitude, and silence. Children need to hope that on the other side there are children like themselves, who wish to live in a quiet and just way, protected and safe.” Psychologically Given the damage to a child’s psyche that involvement and growth amidst the horrors of terrorism can create, successful DDR must include expert treatment and sufficient attention for children with PTSD. Post-traumatic stress disorder is particularly difficult to understand for many communities, however it is important to understand that it occurs in over 40% of children simply exposed to a threatening event or disorder. It has been found to be present more than fifteen years after a terrorist event. These numbers are shocking on their own, but they do not speak to the devastating consequences of actually participating in such events. The demonization of the other perpetuates trauma and violence between individuals and collective societies. Children are particularly vulnerable to this projection onto an enemy, but the negative consequences of this process can be reverse. Simple, effective tools to do this can restore healthy functioning on various levels, including physical, emotional, and spiritual. The role of children The role of children in solving the problem that they were once part of is a delicate one. Often, the trauma sustained renders it impossible and psychologically dangerous for children to revisit their memories. Nevertheless, the international community needs to provide an outlet for those children who wish to speak out against their oppressors. Indeed, whether their stories are told at national forums or international summits, only the voices of children can help us truly understand the extent of this humanitarian crisis and be better equipped to stop it. Some of the
  18. 18. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 18 - most powerful figures in children’s rights today were themselves child soldiers or terrorists – Ishmael Beah and Graca Machel are only two examples of individuals whose resilience has inspired and lead the healing process for many others who have suffered the same injustice. The stakes that rest on the success of the international community are high. If yet another generation of children in Colombia, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Israel, Palestine and elsewhere are exposed to current levels of political violence, the violations of children’s rights will not only damage these children’s prospects for a future life, but a generation of children who grow up to be adults who do not know how to resolve conflict in a non-violent manner will only perpetuate the cycle of violence throughout the world.
  19. 19. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 19 - D. Past Actions International Measures, Forums, and Standards 1924 and 1959 - Declaration of the Rights of the Child 1948 - Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1949 - The four Geneva Conventions 1973 - International Labor Organization (ILO) Minimum Age Convention (138) 1977 - Additional Protocols to the Geneva Conventions 1979 - International Year of the Child 1985 - United Nations Standards Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (“The Beijing Rules”) 1989 - Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) 1990 - World Summit for Children 1995-1996 - Mid-decade review 1996 - United Nations report: “Impact of Armed Conflict on Children” by Graça Machel 1997 - The Cape Town Principles and Best Practices: on the Prevention of Recruitment of Children into the Armed Forces and on Demobilization and Social Reintegration of Child Soldiers in Africa 1997-present - Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict (OSRSG/CAAC) 1999 - ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention (182) 2000 - Optional Protocols (OP) to the CRC 2000 - United Nations Millennium Summit and Declaration 2000 - International Conference on War-Affected Children 2001 - “We the Children: Meeting the Promises of the World Summit for Children” 2002-present - Red Hand Day 2002 - United Nations Special Session on Children 2005 - World Summit 2007 - “Free Children from War” Conference, the Paris Commitments and Principles 14 Specialized Agencies 15Harvard Model United Nations India 2012 Harvard Model United Nations India 2012A14 Regional Instruments and Initiatives
  20. 20. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 20 - 1990 - Organization of African States, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child 1994 - League of Arab States, Arab Charter on Human Rights 2001 - Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), Declaration on the Commitments for Children in ASEAN 2002 - Organization of American States, Resolution 1904 2003 and 2006 - European Union (EU), “Guidelines on Children and Armed Conflict” and Implementation Strategy for the Guidelines 2007: United Nations, Paris Commitments on Children Associated with Armed Forces or Armed Groups 2009: United Nations and Nepal, Action Plan for Discharge of Minors Disqualified from the Maoist Army 2010: Central African Countries, N’Djamena Declaration 2011: United Nations Security Council, Resolution 2002 Targets Recruiters of Child Soldiers. As the above timeline illustrates, numerous international laws have been passed in an attempt to protect children fighting in conflict zones around the world. Certain documents in particular, such as the updated Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Impact of Armed Conflict on Children written by Graça Machel, the 1997 Cape Town Principles, etc. mark crucial milestones in establishing acceptable international standards for child recruitment and military training. While focused attention and discussion on the more extreme case of child terrorists is lacking in the history of international law, the literature on child soldiers (of which child terrorists are a significant portion) is far from meager. Thus the question remains, given all the international laws and protocols created to protect children from becoming child soldiers and child terrorists: why has the practice not only continued but become more severe in certain parts of the world? Eligibility and the scope of international law is perhaps the first barrier. The structure of the current international system is such that war crimes committed by non-state actors are difficult to prosecute.
  21. 21. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 21 - E. Bloc Positions CEE/CIS region As the region with the most severe cases of institutionalization and children’s rights violations, CEE/CIS countries are under international pressure to overhaul the remnant practices of defect ology which continue to stigmatize, isolate and imprison millions of children with disabilities. Many promising initiatives for the disabled have taken root in CEE and CIS countries which, if implemented, could considerably improve the quality of life of children with disabilities. Examples of positive actions include: laws in Hungary which require all public and private institutions to be accessible with lifts and ramps; integrated education implemented in 120 primary schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina; the innovation of family therapy centres in Kazakhstan; improved neonatal services in Poland; establishment of a resource centre for child psychosocial and cognitive development in Georgia with the help of UNICEF; para-Olympic committees and international charities and businesses in Turkmenistan; de-institutionalization strategies formed by the Ministry of Social Security, local NGOs and UNICEF in Armenia. While still at the beginning stage, these initiatives seem to represent a desire to help children with disabilities feel like an equal member of society, and a willingness to cooperate with international bodies in protecting these children’s human rights. Asia: china, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, India, Indonesia As the region with the greatest prevalence of children with disabilities being exploited as beggars, prostitutes or child laborers in homes and in factories, Asia can no longer turn a blind eye to the plight of over 2 million children within their borders. While these countries are all developed countries, the “black market” for these practices is still alive and well, and it is up to the local governments to act upon their voiced commitment to the protection of their children’s rights. Developed countries: North America and Western Europe As made evident from the list of regional acts and treaties in the above section “Relevant UN Actions,” developed countries may not have the problem of institutionalization or exploitation of
  22. 22. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 22 - disabled children but still continue to address social discrimination and the rights of persons with disabilities especially in education and in the work force. These countries have a responsibility to lead the disability movement on an international scale. Indeed, the modern disability movement in the United States back to the “Rolling Quads,” a small group of wheelchair users in California in the late 1960s who insisted on being allowed to attend university and live on campus. As we can see, access to buildings, transportation, public spaces, information and communication are critical first steps to the participation and inclusion persons with disabilities having established these basic facilities, countries such as the U.S., Canada, U.K. and Australia have both the resources and the experience to improve the plight of children with disabilities worldwide.
  23. 23. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 23 - F. Thinker’s (Question A Resolution Must Answer) 1. What are the conditions and variables contributing to the recruitment of children into terrorist organizations? What can the international community to do decrease and prevent these underlying factors? United Nations Children’s Fund 2. How do the issues of lightweight arms, drug trafficking, sexual exploitation contribute to the greater issue at hand? As with preventative measures, what can be done to combat these components of the topic? 3. How can children be successfully reintegrated into their communities and empowered for the future? 4. Do neighboring countries of states that harbor child-exploiting terrorist organizations have a special responsibility to help their child populations? If so, what kind of responsibilities do these include? 5. What can and should both national and international governments implement in order to better educate global citizens about this issue? In particular, how should UNPBC help address the issue of media misconceptions and range of this information as well? 6. How can the international community better keep track of the number of child recruits and their plight? 7. What alternatives can UNPBC and the international community provide for the children who feel compelled to volunteer for terrorist activities or organizations? 8. In addition to revising and updating international initiatives, how can Member States increase community and family responsibility on a local level as well?
  24. 24. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 24 - G. Recommended Readings Given the complexity of the background and current situation of the involvement of children in armed conflict, this study guide should serve only as your launching point in your research. In order to participate fully at conference, it is crucial that you develop a full understanding of the issue at hand by examining all aspects of the motivating factors and challenges that face the respective societies. Do note, however, that since the nature of this topic engenders many extremist viewpoints on both sides of the issue, be cautious in defining the scope of your resources. Many resources you come across may have a tendency to present their case in a biased manner. Thus while conducting your research, be critical of your sources and wary of sensationalist phrases and headlines that seem prejudiced or imbalanced. There are several effective ways to check the credibility of sources; you can either examine the variety and nature of the sources it cites, or check for reviews to see what other authors or organizations have to say about the source. Given the evolving and volatile nature of the terrorist organizations and activities, Internet resources are most helpful for staying up-to-date on the most recent developments. Particularly balanced and helpful websites include Human Rights Watch, the Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, BBC and its Special Report pages. Interviews are also incredibly insightful; many of the case studies in this research guide are excerpts from interviews conducted by various scholars, humanitarian workers and even doctors who provide expert analysis on the psychology of both the individual and community in societies harboring terrorist activity. To obtain a thorough foundation on the history of children in armed conflict, both web and print resources can be useful. An excellent and comprehensive overview of the problem of child soldiers and terrorists is provided by P.W. Singer’s Children at War, which describes in detail all elements of the issue and provides positive suggestions towards the end. Singer is a Senior Fellow of the Brookings Institution, and has served as an advisor on the child soldiers issue to the U.S. Marine Corps and the CIA. Another thoughtful report is written by expert (and ex-child-soldier) Graça Machel; first published in 1996 and updated in 2001, “The Impact of Armed Conflict on Children” is ground-breaking and has greatly influenced much of the following literature on child terrorists. This report was commissioned by the UN Secretary- General, and although only one section focuses specifically on child soldiers and terrorists, it provides a valuable commentary on how international authorities should address the dual responsibility and vulnerability of the child identity, and how children’s rights should be applied to situations of armed conflict. For a more personal portrait, Ishmael Beah’s A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier compellingly describes his experience as a child insurgent in Sierra
  25. 25. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 25 - Leone before he fled to the United States where he is now a world-renowned children’s rights advocate and an advisory member of the Human Rights Watch Children’s Rights Division Advisory Committee. The above selection are merely a few of resources that can give you a historical, legal, scholarly, and personal understanding of the internal challenges of the issue. For a more in-depth look into ethnic conflict and the psychology of suicide terrorism, delve into literature written by experts including William D. Hartung, Jeffrey Victoroff and Vamik Volkan; a detail list of their relevant work can be found in the bibliography below. Finally, United Nations sources may prove extremely helpful in understanding what role the U.N. has played in trying to halt the practice of recruiting children into terrorist organizations worldwide. Resolutions from the U.N. Security Council, mentioned in the Past Actions section, will provide valuable insight on past U.N. actions for the committee. The UN Documents website (http://documents.un.org) provides free online access to many resolutions and other documents published by the U.N.
  26. 26. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 26 - Bibliography  Beah, Ishmael. A long Way Gone: memoirs of a Boy Soldier. 1st Ed. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007.  Berko, Anat. The Path to Paradise: The Inner World of Suicide Bombers and their dispatchers. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Security International, 2007.  Bloom, Mia. Dying to Kill: The allure of Suicide terror. New York: Columbia University Press, 2005.  Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers. “DDR.”10 July 2007 <http://www.child- soldiers.org/childsoldiers/ddr>.  Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers. “Extract From: Child Soldier Use 2003: a Briefing for the 4th UN Security Council Open Debate on Children and Armed Conflict.” London: International Secretariat.2003 <http://www.child- soldiers.org/document_get.php?id=702>.  Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers. “International Standards.” 10 July 2007 <http://www.child-soldiers.org/childsoldiers/international-standards>.  Cohen, Jared. Children of Jihad: a Young American’s travels among the Youth of the middle east. New York: Gotham Books, 2007.  Costigan, Sean S., and David Gold. Terrornomics. Aldershot, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2007.  Lemish, Dafna, and Maya Gotz, eds. children and media in times of War and conflict. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, Inc., 2007.  Machel, Graça. “Children in War.” Journal of the Society for International development 1.42 (1996).  Mount, Mike. “Khalid Sheikh Mohammed: I Beheaded American Reporter.” CNN news 15 March 2007. <http://www.cnn.com/2007/US/03/15/guantanamo.mohammed/index.html> (July 2008)  Obaid Sharmeen terror’s children. Prod. Obaid, Sharmeen, Jay Keuper, and Mo Naqvi. DVD. Discovery Times Channel, 2003.  Singer, P. W. children at War. New York: Pantheon Books, 2005  Somasundaram, D. “The Tragedy of War.” World psychiatry: official Journal of the World Psychiatric association (WPA) 5.1 (2006): 36-8.  United Nations. “Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War.” Geneva. 12 August 1949. <http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/FULL/380?OpenDocument>.
  27. 27. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 27 -  United Nations General Assembly. Resolution 1386(XIV). “Declaration of the Rights of the Child.” 20 November 1959 <http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/25.htm>.  United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). CLOSED - Occupied Palestinian Territories: Consolidated Appeal Process 2007. Dir. Issa, Rima, and Eran Torbiner. Prod. Afadila Mamdouh.  Werner, Emmy E. reluctant Witnesses: children’s voices from the civil War. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1998.
  28. 28. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 28 - Topic B – Peacebuilding in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Introduction to the Topic The turbulent history of the Democratic Republic of the Congo continues to challenge the country, the United Nations and the international community. Often the focus has been solely on the military situation. The cycle of conflict and violence warrants a new approach: it is necessary for the United Nations to take a concerted look at peacebuilding activities in the DRC. The issues facing the country are rooted in history and have plagued the nation since it’s foundation. The United Nations must bring together all the stakeholders in order to end the cyclical conflict. The United Nations has been heavily involved in the conflict, primarily through peacekeeping. It must capitalise on the current relative stability and seek to create a sustainable peace in the DRC.
  29. 29. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 29 - A. Statement, analysis of the problem and past action Statement of the problem Since 1996 there has been continuing conflict in the DRC, particularly in the East. The scale of this conflict has ranged from sporadic rebel attacks to a war involving nine countries that was seen as one of the worst since World War II. Large swathes of the country were occupied by foreign powers, the government had little control and millions died - the DRC came to be seen as a failed state. The situation has improved: the government has regained control some and fighting is less regular and less intense. The DRC’s history has been one of violence and exploitation, with the ultimate victims being the ordinary citizens. The origins of the conflict are many multi-faceted - they include the natural resources of the country, its colonial history and struggle with subsequent dictatorship. The origins do not lie neatly within geographic borders - many of the issues stem from situations in neighbouring countries, particularly Rwanda, and from other external phenomena such as the cold-war. Support of a more militaristic nature has been more forthcoming, as evidenced by the large peacekeeping force in the country. However peacebuilding efforts have been less successful. The root causes of the conflict must be tackled and a partnership approach to creating a lasting peace must be developed.
  30. 30. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 30 - Analysis of the problem It is necessary to chart some of the historical developments of the DRC in order to understand the conflict and it’s cyclical nature. Delegates need to be familiar with the root causes of the conflict, the national, regional and international factors at play and the impediments that exist to the creation of a lasting peace. Colonialism: The territory of the Congo became a personal possession of King Leopold II of Belgium in the late part of the 19th century. Natural resources were heavily exploited, slave-labour was widespread and millions of people died due to the harsh treatment. After these practices were exposed there was international outcry and the region became a Belgian colony in 1908, under the control of the Belgian government rather than the monarch. The policies of the Belgian government were not as draconian as those of the King. However, the key motive of exploiting resources for profit remained. Slave labour continued in many respects, though not in such a manner as to incite international outrage, as was previously the case. Improvements and investment in the country itself was never a priority and the quality of life of the Congolese people improved little and slowly. Independence: The Congo gained independence from Belgium in 1960. In comparison with other nations that became independent at this time, the Congo was ill prepared. The Congolese who took over had no experience of governance. Patrice Lumumba became Prime Minister in the first democratic elections. His call for economic independence from Europe and overtures to the USSR, alarmed Western powers. Removed from power by political rivals only a few months into his premiership, Lumumba was eventually assassinated by forces linked to Belgium and the US. Lumumba’s death only worsened the political crisis in the Congo, with instability and weak government persisting for the next five years.
  31. 31. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 31 - Dictatorship: In 1965, General Mobutu, who had been heavily linked to the assassination of Lumumba, seized power in a coup d'etat. An ally of the United States in the Cold War, Mobutu was to hold power for over thirty years. Mobutu renamed the country the Republic of Zaire. He consolidated power through nepotism and the execution of opponents. Mobutu’s Congo was a classic kleptocracy and over his time in power he amassed a fortune of over $4 billion. With the end of the Cold War, Mobutu became a less important ally for Western powers. He promised democratic reforms but little materialised. As the economic situation deteriorated, unrest fermented - particularly when the military went unpaid. He was overthrown in 1997 following a Rwandan led invasion. Road to war: Much of the recent conflict in the DRC has been linked to Rwanda and the Rwandan genocide. Though just one factor, it is an important one. The Rwandan genocide of 1994 saw large numbers of refugees fleeing to the Kivus provinces of eastern DRC. Initially it was Tutsis that fled to the DRC. However, following the overthrow of the Hutu regime in Rwanda, many of the génocidaires themselves fled to the DRC. These Hutus began to attack Congolese Tutsis and Mobutu’s government did little to intervene. Fighting broke out in the eastern provinces between Tutsi militias backed by Rwanda and Uganda, and Hutu militias backed by Mobutu. The militia backed by Rwanda and Uganda ousted Mobutu and installed Laurent Kabila as President. It wasn’t long before Kabila’s backers turned against him and Rwanda, Uganda and Burundi backed militias and sent troops in an effort to oust him. Kabila succeeded in getting support from a number of African nations including Zimbabwe, Namibia, Angola, Chad and Sudan. The conflict quickly escalated and became known by many as Africa’s World War - the death toll reached millions. Kabila remained in power but had little control over the East of the country.
  32. 32. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 32 - Path to Peace: Efforts were made to secure a peace deal and a UN force for the country was approved. However, Kabila was proving an obstacle to peace. He was assassinated in 2001 and replaced by his son Joseph Kabila. The younger Kabila was more amenable to peace and in 2002 a peace agreement was signed in Sun City, South Africa. Most foreign troops left the country and Joseph Kabila remained as president but militia violence continued in the East. Transitional institutions were set up which involved representatives of different groups. A new constitution was approved and elections were held in 2006. Despite violence, the elections were deemed to be relatively free. Joseph Kabila was elected President. Continued Unrest: The DRC joined forces with neighbours in an effort to root out rebel groups in the east of the country. Operation Lightning Thunder was launched in 2008 by the DRC, South Sudan and Uganda in an effort to destroy the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA). The operation failed and there were numerous reprisals against Congolese civilians. Further operations against the Hutu rebel group, FDLR, though more successful, failed to eliminate the group. Kabila was re-elected in 2011, though these elections were labelled as “seriously flawed” by the United States. There was a serious rebellion by M23, a group of rebels that had been incorporated into the Congolese army, in 2012. They succeeded in capturing the city of Goma but the rebellion ended in 2013.
  33. 33. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 33 - Many obstacles remain to a lasting peace in the DRC. The government’s inability to establish lasting control in the east of the country being one of the primary obstacles. The legacy of war continues to haunt the country; there are an estimated 2.6 million internally displaced people and almost 500,000 refugees who have fled the country. Democracy does not have a firm root in the DRC and there are fears about what the next elections may bring. Economy The DRC is one of the most mineral rich countries on earth yet the potential of this wealth has never been realised for its inhabitants. The country’s wealth was not invested in the country but taken by the colonial powers and later Mobutu. Transparency around the issuing of contracts for mineral extraction has been a concern for many years. Indeed, IMF support was suspended because of it. China has been involved in large mineral for infrastructure deals with the government. For the most part however, complex issues around the control of mineral sites has discouraged foreign investment. There has been economic growth in past years and this must be capitalised on; infrastructure must be improved economic returns must be invested in public programmes and peace building and not used to enrich individuals. Worryingly, the DRC remains one of the worst ranked countries on the Corruption Perception Index. Peacebuilding Efforts There have been very generous donors towards peacebuilding efforts in the DRC and many projects undertaken. However, a lack of harmony between different projects and a lack of understanding about the history of the country and the causes of the conflict, have blunted the effectiveness of peacebuilding attempts. The lack of government authority in the East of the country has severely hampered peacebuilding efforts. Promises of institution building have never materialised. A lack of services and sporadic pay for government employees has diminished trust in the central government.
  34. 34. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 34 - In a country recovering from major conflict and with millions of displaced people, a sophisticated and competent justice system is essential. However, this is not the case. Perpetrators of war crimes and gross violations of human rights have been able to act with impunity. A lack of clear, enforced laws surrounding land and property rights has been a source of tension and conflict in communities. This issue is sure to get worse as displaced people attempt to return to their former homes. Rape and sexual violence was used as a weapon during conflict in the DRC. It continues to be perpetrated by militias in the east. However, there is a high rate of sexual violence throughout the country and government soldiers have been implicated in numerous cases. There is little justice for victims as convictions are rare. Demobilization of armed groups and and reintegration into society has met with limited success. Demobilized groups were integrated into government forces. Many armed groups treated individuals who wished to demobilize as deserters with terrible consequences. Further progress in this area must ensure protection for former combatants and their families and adequately incentivise individuals to give up weapons.
  35. 35. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 35 - Past action The United Nations was involved in the DRC during the 1960s and again since the 1990s. Initially limited to an observer mission, the DRC now has the largest number of peacekeepers of any UN mission, including an intervention brigade which is considered the first offensive UN force. The United Nations has also been involved in humanitarian and peacebuilding works in the country. The United Nations Operation in the Congo (ONUC) took place between 1960 and 1964. It was initially set up under UNSC 143. The key mandate of the mission was to secure the withdrawal of Belgian troops from the country and assist the government in maintaining stability. It was largely successful in its goals. The mission was the most ambitious undertaken by the UN to date, in terms of manpower, area to be covered and challenges. The mission also had to deal with the attempted secession of the mineral-rich province of Katanga. Once Katanga was secured as part of the national territory and Belgian troops and withdrawn, the mission was scaled down and ultimately ended in 1964. The United Nations once again became embroiled in the Congo in the 1990s. The UN Mission on the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC) began in 1999 to monitor the Lukasha ceasefire between the DRC, Angola, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Rwanda and Uganda. Before long the missions mandate expanded to enforcing the ceasefire. The mission helped organise the 2006 elections and was involved in a number of peacebuilding activities. In 2010’s UNSC Resolution 1925 the mission was renamed United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO). In 2013, by Resolution 2098, the Security Council authorised the establishment of an “intervention brigade”
  36. 36. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 36 - in the DRC. This force is a new departure for the UN and is permitted to carry out targeted offensives. Although this force has helped with the security situation, it is not a sustainable solution to issues in the country. In 2014, the Security Council extended the mandate of MONUSCO, including the intervention brigade, until March 2015. The United Nations Peacebuilding Fund has been involved in projects in the DRC. Between 2009 and 2012 the fund worked quite well and was involved in four key areas: protection of civilians; demobilization and reintegration of combatants; strengthening of state authority; and local reconciliation. However, the M23 rebellion led to a suspension of many projects what shows the fragility of peacebuilding in the DRC. Many of the major UN agencies are involved in the DRC including: Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Office of High Commissioner for Human Rights, UN Development Programme, UN Population Fund, UN Refugee Agency, UN Children's Fund, World Food Programme, World Health Organization.
  37. 37. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 37 - B. Proposed Solutions The situation in the DRC is multi-layered and is the result of decades of conflict and abuse - as such there is no simple solution. Strengthen government & institutions A strong central government is essential to peacebuilding in the DRC. The country is vast - around the size of Western Europe - and in some areas there is little or no government control. Government control is vital for many reasons. Militias in the east of the country cannot be eradicated until there is a strong and consistent government presence in the region. The lack of control allows terrorist groups to operate from the DRC into neighbouring countries. The lack of government control also inhibits the ability to deliver vital services. With an estimated one million people in the DRC living with AIDS, such services are vital. Weak government also hinders economic growth. Some of the most mineral rich areas of the country are those where the government has a weak presence. If the DRC is to strengthen its economy to the benefit of its citizens it needs to be in control of these regions. Corruption must also be tackled if foreign investment is to be tackled. The strengthening of the government must also be balanced against the need to maintain democracy in the country. Kabila is constitutionally barred from seeking a third term as president, though some fear he may attempt the amend the constitution. The next elections will be a serious test of the fragile peace in the country. The lack of a functioning judiciary is also a barrier to lasting peace. There is little of no justice for victims of rape and war crimes. Furthermore, disputes over land and property are causing serious disputes, often along ethnic lines, and inhibit the process of reconciliation. One proposed solution has been mobile courts, which have been deployed in relation to sexual crimes. While they have been effective in some cases, they are often under-resourced. It is also questionable whether such courts could adequately deal with property disputes which often require in depth understanding of the locality.
  38. 38. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 38 - Co-ordinate projects & donors While funding for projects in the DRC has often been forthcoming, it has not always been put to the best use. There have also been many peacebuilding projects undertaken in the country, though few have sought to tackle the underlying issues. Many different projects without adequate communication has led to a scattering of effort and reduced impact- a focused approach would lead to far higher yields for the time and money invested. A proposed solution to this problem is to identify key causes of unrest and a number of targeted solutions. Government and international effort could then be directed at such projects, with the necessary military back-up, to ensure success. Education Education is an essential and often overlooked element of peacebuilding. Funding of education by the government has fluctuated depending on the economic situation. Many international agencies are involved in education in the DRC. Major conflict in the 1990s led to a lost generation - millions of children never received any form of schooling. A well thought out, well-funded education strategy for the DRC would help immensely with peacebuilding efforts. It would allow a greater understanding of the conflict which would help minimise its recurrence. Education around the law and rights would also help the growth of the judiciary and bring about an end to the culture of impunity. Health education is also vital to help stop the spread of AIDS. If the DRC is to realise its full economic potential and to prevent a return to violence, education is essential and all possible attempts must be made to reclaim the lost generation. Regional Co-operation Regional co-operation is vital to a lasting peace in the DRC. Significant tensions between the DRC and Rwanda remain. The issues of refugees and militias are ones that cannot be tackled by either country in isolation.
  39. 39. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 39 - Ethnic tensions, war and mistrust have severely damaged the relationship between the two countries. The international community has a role to play in ensuring communication between the countries and the rebuilding of trust. This is no small task with continued accusations of Rwandan support for militias operating in the DRC. Wider regional collaboration between the DRC, South Sudan, Uganda and the Central African Republic is needed to tackle military groups such as the Lord’s Resistance Army. C. Bloc Positions Nations have differing views on the military situation in the DRC and the best way to achieve stability. However, there is little argument that lasting peace in prosperity in the DRC is in the interests of Africa and the international community. While most nations talk of a commitment to peacebuilding, the implementation of that commitment varies. It is necessary to be aware of other countries history with the DRC and what interests, other than altruistic ones, they have in a peaceful DRC. United States The United States has a complicated history with the DRC. The DRC became an important part of the cold war struggle. The USA was involved in the assassination of Lumumba and supported Mobuto for most of his reign. Indeed in American diplomatic circles Mobutu was known as “our man in Kinshasa.” The USA was willing to ignore the autocratic regime and robbery of state funds in return for stability and opposition to soviet influence. With the fall of the USSR, the USA has attempted to redefine its role in central Africa - opposition to Islamic extremism playing a central role. Mobuto became a less useful ally and his
  40. 40. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 40 - involvement with extremists and American guilt over failure to intervene in the Rwandan genocide, led to the USA supporting his overthrow. The USA’s desire for stability in the DRC can conflict with its support for Rwanda. This came to a head when it emerged that Rwanda was supporting the M23 rebels. This resulted in the USA cutting finding to Rwanda. The United States has yet to decide what role it wishes to play in the DRC and the wider region; while it wants to see stability in the region, anything short of major conflict is unlikely to draw major attention from a country embroiled in serious conflict elsewhere. European Union For the European Union and most EU countries, the priority in relations with the DRC is ensuring stability and avoiding a return to large scale hostilities. Certain EU countries, in particular France and Belgium, have more complex relations with the DRC for historical reasons. The EU contributed roughly 540 million euros to the DRC between 2008 and 2013. These funds were used for humanitarian assistance, improving governance and supporting state agencies. The EU also deployed a security and defence mission to the country in 2005 to help the police maintain order during the transition to democracy. Many EU countries give aid to the DRC through their own national programmes. EU donors suspended aid to Rwanda over support for rebels in the DRC. Rwanda Rwanda continues to have a turbulent relationship with the DRC. Rwandan forces were heavily engaged in fighting in the DRC following the genocide and were instrumental in the overthrow of Mobuto.
  41. 41. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 41 - The relationship improved in the past few years with both countries undertaking joint military exercises against militia groups. However, alleged Rwandan support for the M23 rebels has led to a sharp deterioration in relations. Co-operation between both nations is vital to ensure stability in the east of the country and prevent militias operating with impunity - it remains to be seen whether such lasting co- operation can be fostered. France France’s role in the DRC and other African nations has been characterised by its desire to remain a major international player. France supported the Hutu regime and Mobuto, even when other western nations had severed ties. The fall of Mobuto greatly diminished France’s political influence in the region. France attempted to gain economic influence and large French companies announced that they would be entering the DRC market for uranium mining, cement and telecommunications. However, little has materialised in these areas. As a Francophone country, there will always be a tie between the DRC and France but it remains to be seen whether France will regain influence in the region, be it political or economic. China The People’s Republic of China’s interest in the DRC is largely economic. Instability and corruption threatens China’s ability to do business in one of the mineral richest places on earth. China has entered large mineral for infrastructure deals with China which sees the building of much needed roads, hospitals and schools. These deals have been delayed by corruption and instability which has made China more cautious. China and the USA are both vying for the DRC’s minerals but China’s infrastructure deals and no insistence on human rights or democracy can make Beijing a more attractive business partner than Washington.
  42. 42. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 42 - D. Thinker’s - Questions that our resolution must answer 1. How can donors tackle root causes of conflict and instability in the DRC? 2. How can state institutions be strengthened while avoiding a return to autocratic rule? 3. How can resources be used to the benefit of the Congolese people and not simply exploited by individuals or foreign powers? 4. What funding and policy is needed to ensure adequate education? 5. How can a relationship of co-operation be fostered between the DRC and its neighbours, in particular Rwanda? 6. How can demobilization of armed groups and their reintegration into the community be completed?
  43. 43. Rotaract Global Model United Nations | September 4-7, 2014 | Westminster www.RotaractMUN.org | - 43 - E. Recommended readings Hochschild, A. (1998). King Leopold's ghost. 1st ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Kent, J. (2010). America, the UN and decolonisation. 1st ed. London: Routledge. Labda, A. (2011). EVALUATION OF CONFLICT PREVENTION AND PEACE BUILDING IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO. Belgium. Monusco.unmissions.org, (2014). [online] Available at: http://monusco.unmissions.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=aJTREZ0tqT0= [Accessed 27 Jul. 2014]. Turner, T. (2013). Congo. 1st ed. Malden, Mass.: Polity. Unpbf.org, (2014). Congo, The Democratic Republic – United Nations Peacebuilding Fund. [online] Available at: http://www.unpbf.org/countries/congo-the-democratic-republic/ [Accessed 27 Jul. 2014]. UN Security Council Resolution 1279 UN Security Council Resolution 1925 UN Security Council Resolution 2098 UN Security Council Resolution 2147

×