• Types of marine structures and basics
• Technical features / aspects
• Gujarat’s Maritime footprints
• Scope of Marine Civil Engineering In Gujarat
• Marine Civil Engineering is a specialised
construction technology branch, it covers Civil
construction, repair and maintenance projects
of structures like Jetties, Berths, Dry Dock,
Wharves, Slipways, Marinas, Shiplift, Marine
railways, Shipways, Navigational Aids, Sea Link
Bridges, offshore yard, shore protection works
and other specialist foundation works in or
4. Types of Marine facilities
• Port and Harbor – Bulk goods / Gaseous goods
• Port and Harbor – Container goods
• Port and Harbor – Combined
• Ship Dismantling yard
• Sea Link Bridges
• Floating Structures
• Fishing ports
• Special Structures
5. Port and harbor
• A Port is town or city with a harbor where
ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to
or from land.
• Port locations are selected
– To optimize access to land and navigable water for
– for shelter from wind and waves.
– In area of growing goods transport through
• The waterway serve as the road for the vessel to enter the
harbor. A harbor may be located in shallower water then
Vessel’s draft. For this reason the area should be dredged
for harbor basin to enable a vessel to arrive in the basin, a
channel shall be dredged to connect basin with deeper
water if required.
8. Wharf, Pier and Jetty
• All the above are landing places where ships may tie
up (moored) and may load / unload.
• A pier is a platform extending from a shore over
water and supported by piles or pillars, used to
secure, protect, and provide access to ships or boats.
• A quay or wharf usually built parallel to the
shoreline, often of concrete. It is pronounced, 'key'.
• A jetty is a structure, such as a pier, that projects into
a body of water to influence the current or tide or to
protect a harbor or shoreline from storms or
10. What is a Dock?
Dry / Graving Dock
Is a rectangular basin dug into the shore of a body of water and
provided with a removable enclosure wall or gate on the side
toward the water, used for ship building, major repairs and
overhaul of vessels.
is a trough-shaped cellular structure, used to lift ships out of
the water for inspection and repairs.
is a rectangular basin dug into the shore of a water body
without removable enclosure or gate and always open to the
sea but protected from three sides in high tide, else dry.
A marine railway is a set of tracks which are used with a cradle
to bring ships up out of the water.
It consists of a structural platform that is lifted and lowered
exactly vertical, synchronously by a number of hoists. First, the
platform is lowered underwater, then the ship is floated above
the support, and finally the platform with ship support and ship
is lifted and the ship is brought to the level of the quay.
A slipway is a ramp on the shore by which ships or boats can be
moved to and from the water. They are used for building and
repairing ships and boats.
13. Shipyard facilities
• Dock / Slipway
• Gate to dock
• Mooring and Hauling in facilities
• Berth, Pier
• Workshop and stores
• Stack yard
16. Marine Project consists of..
• Area Development by Dredged material
• Ground Improvement by various methods
• Piling and its types
• Diaphragm wall
• Sheet pile wall
• Retaining / counter fort wall
• Rock / Soil Anchors
• Precast / In-situ concrete
• Dredging is an excavation activity or operation
usually carried out at least partly underwater, in
shallow seas or fresh water areas with the
purpose of gathering up bottom sediments and
disposing of them at a different location. This
technique is often used to keep waterways
23. What is pile?
• Piling is a type of ground treatment - driving a column into
the ground below weak strata to transfer the load to the
sustainable ground. It’s used to strengthen the soil to make
the ground able to support the load of the building.
• Driven piles
• Bored piles
• Steel pile
• Timber pile • End bearing pile
• Concrete pile • Friction pile
• Composite pile • Dual bearing pile
24. Making of a quay
• Installation of piles by Gantry / Barge
• Casting of precast pile cap, beam, slab
• Placing precast pile cap / Muff
• Placing of Longitudinal / transitional beams
• In-situ concreting
• Placing Precast slab
• In-situ concreting and various installations.
26. Diaphragm wall
• It is a reinforced concrete wall constructed
underground using slurry rotation technique. It
involves excavation of a trench which is kept full of
designed slurry, installing steel cages and replacing
slurry with concrete to form a wall. Width ranges
from 300 – 1200 mm and depth up to 45 m.
– Insitu cement bentonite RCC wall
– Insitu RCC Vertical wall
– Precast RCC Vertical Wall
28. At Pipavav Shipyard
• Installation of app.. 2.5 km length T section
diaphragm wall for Two wet docks, one of which
was later converted in Dry Dock.
• More then 1200 BCIS piles for Crane foundations,
quay and other purposes.
• Stone columns, Soil and rock anchors (vertical,
horizontal and inclined),
• Record 55000 Cu. m. In-situ concrete in a month
• 6.0 km 30 m wide 350 MT / Sq m capacity
dedicated road with 200 m bridge and various size
32. Indian Maritime History
• As a peninsular sub continent with over 10000
km coast line, India is a maritime nation from
post Ice age, i.e. about 10,000 B.C.
• Indian Ships dominated the vast ocean around
our peninsula from over 4000 B.C. till 17th
• Indian Ocean is the only ocean named after a
• ASI excavated Lothal site from 1955 to 1961, they
found township and market, factories and public
• But the Burnt Brick basin built in 2400 B.C. was an
amazing and unique discovery.
• This is assumed to be world’s first Dock for ship
building, berthing, loading / unloading and
• Ships from Lothal traded to China, coasts of Africa,
Babylon and Mediterranean areas through red sea
and Persian Gulf.
• Lothal Scientists used Shell compass to divide sky in
8-12 parts, 2000 years before Greeks
35. Lothal Dockyard
• The dominant sight at Lothal is the massive
dockyard which has helped make this place so
important to international archaeology.
Spanning an area 37 meters from east to west
and nearly 22 meters from north to south, the
dock is said by some to be the greatest work
of maritime architecture before the birth of
37. Technical aspects
• The dock was connected to sea through old
course of Sabarmati river.
• Dock was located away from currents of the sea
to reduce silt deposition to avoid dredging costs
• Unearthed trenches working as inlet chambers
working as connecting dock to the river were
• Some believe that this is a dumping pit for
sewage of the city of Lothal.
38. Gujarat – on Maritime Map
• Gujarat, From Lothal till today, remained as an
important player on World Maritime Map.
• Mundra, Kandla, Alang, Dahej, Jamnagar are
on this map since ages leaving their
impressions as Important waterfront places.
• Pipavav, India’s first Public Private partnership
• Pipavav Shipyard is India’s largest and world’s
third largest Shipyard today. It will be world’s
largest shipyard facility by 2014.
39. Upcoming Projects in Gujarat
These are more then infra projects in any developed country.
Scale and magnitude of these confirms huge requirement of
Civil Engineers working for Marine Construction Projects. In
addition to the projects below, many major ports and
Shipyards of Gujarat are in expansion mode and will need Civil
engineering backup for the same.
• Dholera SIR as a part of DMIC
• Pipavav Shipyard’s World’s Biggest Dry Dock
• Kalpasar Project in Gulf of Khambhat
• Sardar Patel statue in Narmada river
• Ro-Ro ferry service from Ghogha to Dahej
• SP Shipyard in Mahuva and Power project at Chara, Kodinar
41. Dholera SIR
• Total Area : 903 sq. kms, developable area: 547 sq. kms.
• High Access Corridor: City Centre, Industrial, Logistic,
Knowledge & IT, Recreation & Sports, Entertainment
• World-class infrastructure & connectivity: within & outside,
Central spine express way & Metro Rail to link the SIR with
mega cities, Airport & Sea Port in the vicinity
• Benefit of sea coast, nature park, golf course
• Capable to cater to both International & Domestic Market
• Close to Gujarat International Finance TechCity (GIFT)
• Close to Petro-chemicals and Petroleum Inv. Region (PCPIR)
• Benefits of the high impact Delhi Mumbai Industrial
43. Dholera Port and SEZ
• The Port with 6-km long waterfront, natural draught of 15
to 18 m at 200 m away from the shore, Channel draught of
8 to 11 m - is sufficient to bring largest vessels. The total
cost of the project is Rs. 3,000 crores.
• As a part of Dholera SIR, Dholera Port is being jointly
developed by J.K. and Adani Group, as an all-weather
• Dholera Port is expected to handle six million tonnes of
general cargo per annum. DPL has obtained all the
clearances from the State and Central Govt.
46. Benefits - Kalpasar
• Irrigation benefit
• Transportation Benefit
• Land Reclamation benefit
• Port development on Downstream
• Non Conventional Energy generation
• Fisheries benefit
• Proposed 10 lane road for Ahmadabad-Bhavnagar route
• 2000 sq. km world’s biggest fresh water reservoir (in sea)
with 6-lane periphery road of 270 km long
• Solar and Wind power, Tourism, Bio-fuel park,
Transportation, Fisheries etc. project components /
47. Value addition of Land
Projects in vicinity of Kalpasar project
• Dholera SIR
• Fedara International Airport
• PCPIR at Dahej
• SEZ, GIDC etc.
• Delhi- Mumbai Industrial Corridor
49. Concluding Remarks
• Marine project involves many Civil engineering Sub
categories like Structural, Geotechnical, Hydraulics,
Transportation, Water resources and environmental
Engineering and hence scope remains for each and every
• Marine project execution needs hard work and being away
from City and Society its least preferred job type, but is a
very specialized experience and market has scarcity of such
• Technically it’s a very satisfying experience to design and
execute such projects.
• Scope of Marine engineering was, is and will remain always.
50. References and Mentions
• Gujarat Pipavav Port Limited
• Pipavav Defense and offshore engineering company limited