PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN
The organization of the various elements
of the visual arts is govern by different
principles of design.
Through these principles the artist can form
more beautiful and interesting color harmonies
and more beautiful combinations of shapes,
texture and lines.
Design makes it easier for an artist to express
his ideas in such a way that the observer
becomes interested in is work.
It also makes objects in our environment
The design of an art object makes it
possible for an observer to tell its
Through the combination of lines, colors
ad forms, an artist can give the observer
new, varied and satisfying experiences.
Essential to beauty
Visual Arts: it is achieved by establishing a
pleasing relationship between the various
There is harmony if the various parts of the
design will give an appearance of belonging
together. In other words there must be
REPETITION of angles and curves, shapes,
lines and colours will give a harmonious
To relieve monotomy, there must be VARIETY.
-the spice of life and of art.
-it may be achieved by the diversity of
materials used and slight contrast in color,
texture, shape and space arrangements.
Painting and interior decoration:
complementary hues when used will give contrast.
Sculptor: variety may obtain through the
use of contrast of texture, such as smooth and
rough, in his work.
Architect: instead of using a long line of
windows, may group the windows and introduce
space between the groups.
Monotony produced by vertical lines of columns
in buildings may be relieved by transition lines.
If the wall paper in room is figured, the use of
plain curtains will make it more beautiful and
Artist must be careful that the variety he
introduces does not destroy the harmonious
All parts are equally distributed around a
Weights are equally distributed on each side
of a center of fulcrum, as in see-saw.
Gives a feeling of stability and rest.
Makes an object or room not only
interesting but also pleasant to look at.
FORMAL OR SYMMETRICAL BALANCE
Achieved by making both sides exactly
Objects of the same size and shape, when
arranged on two sides of a center, will
produce formal balance.
Gives an atmosphere of dignity and
INFORMAL OR ASYMMETRIAL BALANCE
More difficult to achieved than formal
balance; however, the results are more
Achieved when objects of unequal weights or
unequal attractions are placed at the correct
distances from the center as when a large
object or an object of stronger attraction is
placed near the center, while the smaller
object or one with less striking attraction is
Generally use when we want to attract the
attention of observers and set them thinking
about the object under observation.
-Active Balance: it suggests spontaneity
and movement and also gives an impression of
Determined by a comparison of the sizes of
different parts of an object or of an
Harmonious proportion achieved when one part
of an object does not seem too big or too small
for other parts.
Painting: the principle of good proportion is
useful in combining colors successfully and in
determining the margins for mounting.
To produce more pleasing harmony
here should be more of one color than
Avoid using equal amounts of two or
Avoid also a great deal of one color
and only atiny bit of another.
Achieved by the regular or harmonious
recurrence of lines, forms, and colors.
Organized movement, a beat, a repetition.
Through the repetition of lines or forms, a
pattern is produced, which the eye follows
as it moves from the right to left.
A series of units repeated one after another
also produced rhytmic.
Through the use of color, charming patterns
will be formed that will carry the eye from one
part of a room to another. Repetition of color
in different parts of the room produces a
rhythmical effect which is not only charming
Rhythmical patterns help the eye to move
easily from one part of the room to another or
from one part of a design to another.
Rhythm is used as the most effective way of
creating aesthetic unity in prose, music,
dance, painting, architecture, and sculpture.
Space Arts: rhythm is used in repetition,
alternation, and gradation of the elements of art ,
line, form, color and texture.
EMPHASIS / SUBORDINATION
Produced by the design or form that
catches our attention while the rest are
The pattern emphasized usually forms
the center of interest.
It may be defined by giving the proper
importance to the parts or to the whole.
Emphasis is important in all art forms and this is
most noticeable in the art of advertising.
Emphasis in the visual arts may be secured in
several ways. It may be secured through size
Color is also used to create emphasis.
Emphasis is important because it relieves
monotomy. It can also used to call attention to
pleasing centers of interest.