•PhD in Psychology – Brown University
•Professor, Connecticut College (1940-49)
•Professor, Penn State University (1945-46)
•Director, US Air Force Perceptual and
Motor Skills Laboratory (1949-58)
•Professor, Dept of Education Research,
Florida State University (1969-2002)
•Conditions of Learning (1965-1985)
• Gagne is considered to be an experimental
psychologist who is concerned with learning
• He’s known for the skills hierarchy which
present simple skills and builds to complex
• His learning theory is summarized as The
Gagne Assumption which consists of five
types of learning and nine events of
•Well known for theory of
•Consist of 3 distinct component :
Taxonomy of learning outcomes
- learning domain
Specific learning condition -
Hierarchy of Learning
9 instructional events
•Refers to a set of component skills that must
be learned before the complex skill of which
they are a part can be learned
•Classifying different types of learning in
term of the Degree of Complexity of the
•Higher orders of learning build upon the
•The lowest 4 orders tend to focus on the
more behavioural aspects.
•The highest 4 focus on the more cognitive
•Learn how to respond to a signal,like
Pavlov’s classical conditioned
•Usually the response is emotional
Stimulus(S) – Response(R) Learning
•Learn precise response to precise signal /
•Different from signal learning, signal learning
leads to involuntary responses, whereas the
responses in S-R learning are voluntarily
Psychomotor Connection Learning
•Occurs when a chain of stimuli and
responses are formed
•Lean to to follow procedures
•Able to chain 2 or more stimulus-response
Verbal Association Learning
•Use terminology in verbal chains
Multiple Discrimination Learning
•Learn how to distinguish between similar
•Make different responses to each type of
stimulus, even when they may be
•Singular / common response to an entire
class of stimuli
• Viewed as a chain of two or more
• Learn to apply rules
• Highest learning type which lead to the
discovery of higher order rules
• All other types of learning must have
been completed for it to be present.
•Use an “interest device” that grabs
Inform Learner of Objective
•Initiates the internal process of
expectancy and helps motivate the
learner to complete the lesson
Stimulate Recall Prior Knowledge
Associating new information with prior
knowledge / experiences can facilitate the
Present The Material
•New content is actually presented to the
• Content should be chunked and organized
meaningfully, and typically is explained and
Provide Guidance For Learning
•To help learners encode information for long-
term storage, additional guidance should be
provided along with the presentation of new
•Practice by letting the learner do something
with the newly acquired behavior, skills, or
•Show correctness of the learner's response,
analyze learner's behavior.
•Test / assessment to determine if the lesson
has been learned.
Enhance Retention & Transfer
Inform the learner about similar problem
situations, provide additional practice, put
the learner in a transfer situation, review the
•When the Events of Instruction occur,
internal learning processes take place that
lead to various learning outcomes.
•The Events of Instruction constitute a set of
communications to the student, which have
the aim of aiding the learning process.
•Instruction consists of a set of events
external to the learner designed to support
the internal processes of learning.
(Gagne, Briggs, & Wager, 1988)
•This theory outlines nine instructional
events and their corresponding processes.
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