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Cumulative learning theory

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Cumulative learning theory

  1. 1. Cumulative Learning Theory By Robert M. Gagné
  2. 2. •PhD in Psychology – Brown University (1940) •Professor, Connecticut College (1940-49) •Professor, Penn State University (1945-46) •Director, US Air Force Perceptual and Motor Skills Laboratory (1949-58) •Professor, Dept of Education Research, Florida State University (1969-2002) •Conditions of Learning (1965-1985)
  3. 3. • Gagne is considered to be an experimental psychologist who is concerned with learning and instruction. • He’s known for the skills hierarchy which present simple skills and builds to complex ones • His learning theory is summarized as The Gagne Assumption which consists of five types of learning and nine events of instruction.
  4. 4. •Well known for theory of conditional learning •Consist of 3 distinct component : Taxonomy of learning outcomes - learning domain Specific learning condition - Hierarchy of Learning 9 instructional events
  5. 5. •Refers to a set of component skills that must be learned before the complex skill of which they are a part can be learned •Classifying different types of learning in term of the Degree of Complexity of the mental involved. •Higher orders of learning build upon the lower levels. •The lowest 4 orders tend to focus on the more behavioural aspects. •The highest 4 focus on the more cognitive aspects
  6. 6. Hierarchy of Learning
  7. 7. Signal Learning •Learn how to respond to a signal,like Pavlov’s classical conditioned response •Usually the response is emotional Stimulus(S) – Response(R) Learning •Learn precise response to precise signal / stimulus •Different from signal learning, signal learning leads to involuntary responses, whereas the responses in S-R learning are voluntarily controlled.
  8. 8. Psychomotor Connection Learning •Occurs when a chain of stimuli and responses are formed •Lean to to follow procedures •Able to chain 2 or more stimulus-response Verbal Association Learning •Use terminology in verbal chains
  9. 9. Multiple Discrimination Learning •Learn how to distinguish between similar stimuli •Make different responses to each type of stimulus, even when they may be perceptually similar. Concept Learning •Singular / common response to an entire class of stimuli
  10. 10. Principle Learning • Viewed as a chain of two or more concepts. • Learn to apply rules Problem Solving • Highest learning type which lead to the discovery of higher order rules • All other types of learning must have been completed for it to be present.
  11. 11. Nine Instructional Events
  12. 12. Gain Attention •Use an “interest device” that grabs learner’s attention Inform Learner of Objective •Initiates the internal process of expectancy and helps motivate the learner to complete the lesson
  13. 13. Stimulate Recall Prior Knowledge Associating new information with prior knowledge / experiences can facilitate the learning process Present The Material •New content is actually presented to the learner. • Content should be chunked and organized meaningfully, and typically is explained and then demonstrated.
  14. 14. Provide Guidance For Learning •To help learners encode information for long- term storage, additional guidance should be provided along with the presentation of new content Elicit Performance •Practice by letting the learner do something with the newly acquired behavior, skills, or knowledge
  15. 15. Provide Feedback •Show correctness of the learner's response, analyze learner's behavior. Assess Performance •Test / assessment to determine if the lesson has been learned.
  16. 16. Enhance Retention & Transfer Inform the learner about similar problem situations, provide additional practice, put the learner in a transfer situation, review the lesson.
  17. 17. •When the Events of Instruction occur, internal learning processes take place that lead to various learning outcomes. (Campos, 1999) •The Events of Instruction constitute a set of communications to the student, which have the aim of aiding the learning process. •Instruction consists of a set of events external to the learner designed to support the internal processes of learning. (Gagne, Briggs, & Wager, 1988) •This theory outlines nine instructional events and their corresponding processes.
  18. 18. Five categories of learning
  19. 19. Verbal Information Intellectual Skills Motor SkillsAttitudes Cognitive Strategies

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