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Ecological model

  1. 1.  Analyze and understand Ecological Model of Health Behavior Analyze and understand four core principle of Ecological Model of Health Behavior Analyze and describe applications Ecological Model of Health Behavior Understand how Ecological model can be guided in research. Understand strengthen and limitation Ecological Model of Health Behavior Objectives
  2. 2. History of Ecological Model  Ecological models have a long history as they emerged from developments in many disciplines and fields (e.g., public health, sociology, biology, education, psychology), which in turn converged to form the ecological and behavioral foundations of health promotion
  3. 3. History of Ecological Model  Ecology (derived from the biological sciences): Describes the complex interrelationships among organisms and the environment in which they are embedded Social Ecology The study of the influence of the social context on behavior, including institutional and cultural variables (Sallis & Owen, 2002)
  4. 4. History of Ecological Model  Ecological models, have evolved in behavioral sciences and public health, focus on the nature of people’s transactions with their physical and socio cultural surroundings that is environments.
  5. 5. History of Ecological Model   In the past two decades, there has been a dramatic increase in interest in, and application of ecological models in research and practice, due in part to their promise for guiding comprehensive population wide approaches to changing behaviors that will reduce serious and prevalent health problems.
  6. 6. History of Ecological Model Models designed to explain  behavior Kurt Lewin (1951) Kurt Lewin (1951) “Ecological psychology” Roger Barker (1968) Environmental Psychology Rudolph Moos (1980 Social Ecology Urie Bronfenbren ner (1979) Systems Theory Thomas Glass and Matthew McAtee (2006) Ecosocial Model Models designed to guide behavior interventions B. F. Skinner (1953) Operant Learning Theory Albert Bandura (1986) Ecological Model of Health Behavior Kenneth McLeroy and others (1988) Ecological Model of Health Behavior Daniel Stokols (1992, 2003) Social Ecology Model for Health Promotion Deborah Cohen and others (2000) Structural-Ecological Model Brian Flay and Genes and J. Petraitis (1994) Theory of Triadic Influence Karen Glanz and others (2005) Model of Community Food Environments Edwin Fisher and Resources and Skills
  7. 7. What is the Ecological Model,,,?  Ecological models of health behavior is a Model which emphasize the environmental and policy contexts of behavior, while incorporating social and psychological influences. Ecological models lead to the explicit consideration of multiple levels of influence, thereby guiding the development of more comprehensive interventions
  8. 8. What is the Ecological Model,,,?  Ecological models are believed to provide comprehensive frameworks for understanding the multiple and interacting determinants of health behaviors. More important, ecological models can be used to develop comprehensive intervention approaches that systematically target mechanisms of change at each level of influence
  9. 9. What is the Ecological Model,,,?  The core concept of an ecological model is that behavior has multiple levels of influences, often including intrapersonal (biological, psychological), interpersonal (social, cultural), organizational, community, physical environmental, and policy.
  10. 10. Five levels in Ecological Model  Intr aper sona l Inter perso nal Organi zationa l Comm unity Public Policy What level aren’t here,,,?
  11. 11. Five levels in Ecological Model Level of influence Description  Intrapersonal Individual, personal Individual characteristics that influence behavior: Knowledge, skills, self-efficacy Interpersonal Family, friends, peers Interpersonal processes and groups providing identity and support Organizational Churches, stores, community orgs Rules, regulation, policies, structures constraining or promote behaviors Community Social networks Community norms (community regulations) Public policy Local, state, federal Policies and laws that regulate or support healthy practices/actions
  12. 12. What is the Ecological Model,,,? 
  13. 13. Four core principles of ecological models of health behavior are proposed:   There are multiple influences on specific health behaviors, including factors at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, community, and public policy levels.  Influences on behaviors interact across these different levels.  Ecological models should be behavior-specific, identifying the most relevant potential influences at each level.  Multi-level interventions should be most effective in changing behavior
  14. 14. Four core principles of ecological models of health behavior are proposed:   The ultimate purpose of ecological models of health behavior is to inform the development of comprehensive intervention approaches that can systematically target mechanisms of change at several levels of influence.  Behavior change is expected to be maximized when environments and policies support healthful choices, when social norms and social support for healthful choices are strong, and when individuals are motivated and educated to make those choices
  15. 15. Applications Ecological Model to Health Behavior Interventions: Tobacco Control  Level of influence Description Intrapersonal (Individual) 1. Brief advice and enlighten or counseling the effect of smokers, complete with the ample evidence. 2. Use telephone counseling approach. 3. Self help pamphlet, books, videotape, web resources Interpersonal Family, friends, peers Organizational Churches, stores, community orgs 1. Program restricting smoking at the workplace. 2. Program that emphasize community participation 3. Promoting smoke free environment, limiting access, and increasing tobacco prices through excise taxes 4. Policy promoting not smoking (proportion of smoke free-workplace). Community Social networks Public policy Local, state, federal
  16. 16. Applications Ecological Model to Health Interventions: Diabetes self management 
  17. 17.
  18. 18. How ecological model can be guided in research  To use ecological model in research we should involved 5 levels and concern to the core principles of ecological model which behavior become the main target on each level. Many research funding told us that it’s useful to change the behavior in society, so we will see later how the ecological model implemented in research.
  19. 19. What is the Ecological Model,,,? 
  20. 20. Strengthen and limitation ecological model  Strengthen Focus on multiple levels of influence that broadens options for interventions. Policy and environmental interventions can establish setting and incentives that can persist in sustaining behavior changes. Helping to solve the problem that the effects of many individually directed interventions are poorly maintained.
  21. 21. Strengthen and limitation ecological model   Weakness  Lack of specificity about the most important hypothesized influences.  Lack information about how the broader levels of influence operate or how variables interact across level.  The model has broaden perspectives without identifying specific variables or providing guidance about how to use ecological model to improve research or interventions.  Need sophisticated operational models that lead to testable hypotheses and useful guidance for intervention.
  22. 22. Conclusion   Ecological models help us to understand how people interact with their environments.  That understanding can be used to develop effective multi-level approaches to improve health behaviors  Motivation and skill in individual can not be effective if environment and policies unsupported.  Make environment and policies convenient, attractive and economical then motivate and educate people.
  23. 23.  Thank you for your attention

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • There are many interpretations of what is meant by health, but we choose to believe that good
    health is not merely the absence of disease or symptoms. Health is active, alive, and vital. It
    is the presence of well being and dignity in the lives of individuals, communities, and cultures.
    It is the holistic integration of the six dimensions of wellness - physical, emotional,
    intellectual, social, spiritual, and environmental. The positive aspects of health depend on the
    quality of the interactive relationships between an individual and his or her environments.
    This is more inclusive than traditional definitions of health that focus on the absence of
    disease, the delivery of health and counseling services, and systems of health care. This focus
    is on the good health of the whole person and his or her environments. Just as an individual
    may impact his or her environment, the environment also impacts the individual. Healthy
    people need healthy communities to thrive, and healthy communities need healthy people to
    thrive

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