00:00:20

• Jatropha, it’s quite an experience!!!!!

Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for ...
00:00:18

Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21...
00:00:58

Subjects to cover

Soil
Yields

Propagation

Products

Roots

Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustain...
00:00:18

Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21...
Yield prediction of Jatropha curcas accumulated over 7 years using various sources
kg per ha
40000
35000
30000
25000
20000...
Climatic growing conditions of Jatropha curcas L.
W.H. Maes, A. Trabucco, W.M.J. Achten, B. Muys
Katholieke Universiteit L...
00:00:58

SOILS
Lack of Phosphate is a problem in tropical soils
rem ar N= kg
k
N/ha

Country

Re ma rks

pH

Tha ila nd

...
00:00:58

SOILS
Lack of Phosphate is a problem in tropical soils
Solution

Result

•Fertilization

•More growth

•Mycorrhi...
Selection and propagation
Soft cuttings

Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Bas...
Selection and propagation

Selection field in Pakuwan, Indonesia

Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable S...
Breeding and selection
Total cumulative oil yield per ha over 5 seasons
4000
3500

336
4

Yield (kg/ha)

3000

314
6

313
...
Value of selection

12
Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in In...
Propagation
Benefit

Method

Limitation

Seed

• Quick/Easy
• Large numbers

Selecting populations
or hybrids takes time

...
Propagation
Seed

Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, ...
Propagation
• Hard cuttings

Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels...
Propagation
Soft cuttings

8 days

Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio...
Root systems
The way of propagation has a direct influence on the root system
Pictures
From
Research
In
India

Seedlings

...
Root systems
• The total apple and pear and citrus etc.
etc… industry relies on trees grafted on
a rootstock with known ch...
Root systems
Pinroot

• Erosion control
• Soil improvement
• Drought resistant

Influence of different root systems on yie...
Pruning
• Jatropha flowers at the top of the branch. So the
more branches you have, the more flowers you
have? Not true!!!...
Pruning
• Pruning therefore is a continuous process of
thinning and choosing the right branches.
Cutting back a Jatropha t...
Seed cake applications ?

Fertilizer
Fuel for cooking
Biomass for gazified energy production
Hard Board
Snail repellent
Fo...
Results in a mixed farming system with
Jatropha seedcake in Tanzania
Yield of maize intercropped with Jatropha
(Moshi/Tanz...
Seed cake applications ?

5.6 Molluscicidal properties of Jatropha curcas
against vector snails of the human parasites
Sch...
Design of chicken feeding trial with
neutralized seedcake
Variables in trial:
Gender of animals (3 repetitions of 4 Ross 3...
Weight gain in 7 day periods
for 3 diets and 2 genders
1,0

Male control
Male 25 %
Male 50 %
Female control
Female 25%
Fem...
Jatropha Soap
• Anti septic?
• Healing scars and fungus diseases ?

Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable...
Jatropha Soap

•With proper marketing based on research regarding the
pharmaceutical characteristics, Jatropha soap produc...
Large scale energy farming
• One or a few big farmers with large area's
growing monoculture Jatropha. (Volume by
property)...
• Small farmers are food producers by definition!
• They can only grow Jatropha as a living fence or
in combination with f...
00:00:30

Feasibility study fair trade
Jatropha
• Max Havelaar fair trade
• Eneco Energy
• ICCO
KCU

• Kagera Co-operative...
Feasibility
study on 3
locations
Bukoba
(Ruhanga)
Kilimanjaro
(Mbosho)
Mbinga
(Muhekela)
Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Pla...
Agricultural production in Tanzania
• is one of the lowest in the world due to:
– poor agronomic practices
– poor planting...
How to improve
Agricultural production in Tanzania
1. improve agricultural practices through
training
2. introduce better ...
00:22:21

Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21...
Introduction of Jatropha in a mixed
farming system in Tanzania
40% Jatropha curcas and 60% food crop
maize
sweet potato
gr...
Introduction of Jatropha in a mixed farming
system in Tanzania
• BENEFITS FOR JATROPHA

• BENEFITS FOR INTERCROP

• Pollin...
Introduction of Jatropha in a mixed
farming system in Tanzania
Nutrient values of seedcake
Sample nr.
232548
501065
501066...
Expected yield Bukoba
Bukoba Climate
400

4 MT/ha alley cropping
0.800 gr m2/hedges

23.5

350

23
22.5

250
200

22

150
...
Results in a mixed farming system with
Jatropha seedcake in Tanzania
Yield of maize intercropped with Jatropha
(Moshi/Tanz...
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Presentation about the Jatropha curcas value chain

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  1. 1. 00:00:20 • Jatropha, it’s quite an experience!!!!! Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012
  2. 2. 00:00:18 Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012 00:01:45
  3. 3. 00:00:58 Subjects to cover Soil Yields Propagation Products Roots Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012 00:02:18
  4. 4. 00:00:18 Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012 00:01:45
  5. 5. Yield prediction of Jatropha curcas accumulated over 7 years using various sources kg per ha 40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 Tanzania (Bukoba) India .Joil India. Joil Thailand.Q Paraguay Nicaragua best case* base case uinvita Vietnam (VBM) Mozambiq ue (Viridesco) Kenya (GTZ)* Reeks9 7 6000 3500 6370 4780 5220 7634 4875 1427 6 3643.75 6000 3000 5980 4000 4641 6567 4000 1189 5 2923.75 6000 2500 5240 3000 4062.5 5500 3000 991 4 2203.75 6000 2000 3080 2000 3484 4400 2000 793 3 1483.75 5000 1500 1530 950 2786 2200 1000 198.25 2 763.75 3500 1000 700 600 2327 1485 500 141.61 1 43.75 2000 500 230 100 500 165 0 6.66 0 D1 Oils plc 4363.75 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012
  6. 6. Climatic growing conditions of Jatropha curcas L. W.H. Maes, A. Trabucco, W.M.J. Achten, B. Muys Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, According to Celestijnenlaan 200 E Box 2411, BE-3001 Leuven, Belgium International Water Management Institute (IWMI), P.O. Box 2075, Colombo, Sri Lanka. 2009 Based on herbariums specimens in Central America The climatic conditions at worldwide plantations were different from those of the natural distribution specimens for all studied climatic variables, except average maximum temperature in the warmest month. Roughly 40% of the plantations were situated in regions with a drier climate than in 95% of the area of the herbarium specimens, and 28% of the plantations were situated in areas with Tmin below 10.5 C 6 Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012
  7. 7. 00:00:58 SOILS Lack of Phosphate is a problem in tropical soils rem ar N= kg k N/ha Country Re ma rks pH Tha ila nd unused la nd 4.4 very low 30 5.7 low 115 Indone sia a griculture land rema r k P=P-Al, m g P2O5/100gr low <3 ve ry low 32 low good 14 ve ry low 122 good rem ark K= mg K/kg remark Indone sia neglected construction site 4 very low 45 low <3 ve ry low 27 low Tanzania cleared bush, suitable for a griculture 7.6 high 251 high <3 ve ry low 139 good Cam bodia neglected agriculture 3.8 land very low 18 ve ry low 6 ve ry low 20 low Tha ila nd forme r a griculture a rea 4.4 very low 24 low <3 ve ry low 58 low 6.8 good 91 rather low <3 ve ry low 154 good Cam bodia cleared bush Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012
  8. 8. 00:00:58 SOILS Lack of Phosphate is a problem in tropical soils Solution Result •Fertilization •More growth •Mycorrhiza • More oil BUT To much P in pure Jatropha oil will lead to plugging of filters. It may also cause damage in the combustion chambers. More P in soil = More P in plant = More P in Seed= More P in oil?????? Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012
  9. 9. Selection and propagation Soft cuttings Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012
  10. 10. Selection and propagation Selection field in Pakuwan, Indonesia Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012
  11. 11. Breeding and selection Total cumulative oil yield per ha over 5 seasons 4000 3500 336 4 Yield (kg/ha) 3000 314 6 313 9 287 0 Total season 1 Total season 2 Total season 3 Total season 4 Subtotal season 5 284 6 2500 216 8 2000 1500 120 3 1000 836 500 0 3007 D1 Oils plc 3009 3001 05-0011 05-0002 AVER 05-0041 05-0038 11 Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012 00:06:57
  12. 12. Value of selection 12 Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012
  13. 13. Propagation Benefit Method Limitation Seed • Quick/Easy • Large numbers Selecting populations or hybrids takes time Hard cuttings • Easy Low quality plants Soft cuttings Tissue culture • • • • Probably expensive True to type Easy True to type Good quality plants Grafting • True to type Root stock characteristics unknown Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012
  14. 14. Propagation Seed Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012 00:08:24
  15. 15. Propagation • Hard cuttings Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012
  16. 16. Propagation Soft cuttings 8 days Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012
  17. 17. Root systems The way of propagation has a direct influence on the root system Pictures From Research In India Seedlings Hard cuttings Grafting Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012
  18. 18. Root systems • The total apple and pear and citrus etc. etc… industry relies on trees grafted on a rootstock with known characteristics to improve: yield, taste , colour, frost hardiness etc. Influence of root systems on grafted scions ???? Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012
  19. 19. Root systems Pinroot • Erosion control • Soil improvement • Drought resistant Influence of different root systems on yield ???? Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012
  20. 20. Pruning • Jatropha flowers at the top of the branch. So the more branches you have, the more flowers you have? Not true!!!! Jatropha needs full sunlight to flower and with to many branches the Jatropha plant becomes to dense and a lot of branches will not flower at all. Pictures D1 Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012
  21. 21. Pruning • Pruning therefore is a continuous process of thinning and choosing the right branches. Cutting back a Jatropha tree completely will cost at least the total yield of one season and it will take years to build up a good yielding plant again. Days after pruning: 9-15-80-145 (Pictures from Jose Ines Bazan-Mota, Tecoman, Mexico) Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012
  22. 22. Seed cake applications ? Fertilizer Fuel for cooking Biomass for gazified energy production Hard Board Snail repellent Fodder 22 Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012 00:27:13
  23. 23. Results in a mixed farming system with Jatropha seedcake in Tanzania Yield of maize intercropped with Jatropha (Moshi/Tanzania long rains 2011 and 2012) mt/ha 7.00 6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 control= local farmer+6 zero jatropha cake 1 mt/ha jatropha cake 2 mt/ha 2011 2.46 2.08 3.40 2012 4.27 1.11 2.47 5.35 jatropha cake 5 mt/ha cow cow cow manure 1 manure 2 manure 5 mt/ha mt/ha mt/ha 2.95 6.46 3.61 3.89 4.03 Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012
  24. 24. Seed cake applications ? 5.6 Molluscicidal properties of Jatropha curcas against vector snails of the human parasites Schistosoma mansoni and S. japonicum M. Rug, F. Sporer, M. Wink, S.Y. Liu, R. Henning, A. Ruppel Would it be possible to use seedcake as a fertilizer and a snail control in rice????? 24 Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012 00:27:13
  25. 25. Design of chicken feeding trial with neutralized seedcake Variables in trial: Gender of animals (3 repetitions of 4 Ross 308 male or female animals tested) Protein source rations: 100% soybean meal + 0% JKM 75% soybean meal + 25% JKM 50% soybean meal + 50% JKM After 7 days adaptation of all animals to 100% soybean based feed ration, feeding for 28 days Measurement of feed intake, weight gain and calculation of Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR, i.e. intake/weight gain) Subsequent observations on individual animals for morphological and necrotic defects 25 Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012
  26. 26. Weight gain in 7 day periods for 3 diets and 2 genders 1,0 Male control Male 25 % Male 50 % Female control Female 25% Female 50% D1 Oils plc 0,9 0,8 W eight gain (kg) 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0,0 M 7-14 M 14-21 M 21-28 M 28-35 F 7-14 F 14-21 F 21-28 F 28-35 Age (days) 26 Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012
  27. 27. Jatropha Soap • Anti septic? • Healing scars and fungus diseases ? Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012 00:27:54
  28. 28. Jatropha Soap •With proper marketing based on research regarding the pharmaceutical characteristics, Jatropha soap production could become an important (local) industry. Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012 00:33:48
  29. 29. Large scale energy farming • One or a few big farmers with large area's growing monoculture Jatropha. (Volume by property) • Many small farmers with many small area's growing many crops including Jatropha. (Volume by co-operation) Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012 00:16:21
  30. 30. • Small farmers are food producers by definition! • They can only grow Jatropha as a living fence or in combination with food and other cash-crops Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012 00:16:58
  31. 31. 00:00:30 Feasibility study fair trade Jatropha • Max Havelaar fair trade • Eneco Energy • ICCO KCU • Kagera Co-operative Union Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012
  32. 32. Feasibility study on 3 locations Bukoba (Ruhanga) Kilimanjaro (Mbosho) Mbinga (Muhekela) Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012 00:18:49
  33. 33. Agricultural production in Tanzania • is one of the lowest in the world due to: – poor agronomic practices – poor planting material, – lack of fertilization – exhausted and eroded soils – irregular rain pattern Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012 00:20:00
  34. 34. How to improve Agricultural production in Tanzania 1. improve agricultural practices through training 2. introduce better planting material, 3. stimulate fertilization 4. improve soil fertility and soil stability 5. improve water use efficiency Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012 00:21:08
  35. 35. 00:22:21 Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012
  36. 36. Introduction of Jatropha in a mixed farming system in Tanzania 40% Jatropha curcas and 60% food crop maize sweet potato ground nut beans sesame seed wheat pigeon peas sunflower Increase of food yield of 66% should compensate for loss of 40% production area Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012
  37. 37. Introduction of Jatropha in a mixed farming system in Tanzania • BENEFITS FOR JATROPHA • BENEFITS FOR INTERCROP • Pollination • Weed control • Input of nutrients • Protection from wind etc • Jatropha seedcake input BENEFITS FOR THE FARMER Higher income Soil improvement through higher input resulting in higher yields Local oil=energy production Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012
  38. 38. Introduction of Jatropha in a mixed farming system in Tanzania Nutrient values of seedcake Sample nr. 232548 501065 501066 20109567676 19201 Internet average Country Indonesia India Indonesia Tanzania India Mali Mali Laboratory Sucofindo (Indo) BLGG (NL) BLGG (NL) BLGG (NL) South Africa SRCVO Mali Henning Seedcake Cattle dung EFB Palm Chicken manure Date 01/05/2007 01/06/2007 01/06/2007 18/08/2010 01/06/2007 01/06/1990 01/06/1990 Org. matter N gr/kg dry Phosphate P2O5 gr/kg dry mat. m. gr/kg dry m. 3.7 1.1 85.6 4.1 1.9 81.3 4.2 0.2 84.3 4.4 4.1 3.5 0.3 4.1 0.5 5.7 2.6 83.7 4.2 1.5 25.5 1.2 0.2 43.11 0.8 0.2 35 3 2.7 Potassium K2O gr/kg dry m. 1.6 1.9 2.3 1.2 2.4 1.2 0.9 1.6 1.1 2.6 1.5 Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012 00:24:26
  39. 39. Expected yield Bukoba Bukoba Climate 400 4 MT/ha alley cropping 0.800 gr m2/hedges 23.5 350 23 22.5 250 200 22 150 21.5 centigrades mm rain 300 Total area= 5500 ha total mm av temp Maximum seed yield after 5 years 100 21 50 p O ct N ov D ec Se Ju l Au g Ja Ju n 20.5 n Fe b M ar Ap r M ay 0 22000MT seeds = 5500 MT oil Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012 00:19:12
  40. 40. Results in a mixed farming system with Jatropha seedcake in Tanzania Yield of maize intercropped with Jatropha (Moshi/Tanzania long rains 2011 and 2012) mt/ha 7.00 6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 control= local farmer+6 zero jatropha cake 1 mt/ha jatropha cake 2 mt/ha 2011 2.46 2.08 3.40 2012 4.27 1.11 2.47 5.35 jatropha cake 5 mt/ha cow cow cow manure 1 manure 2 manure 5 mt/ha mt/ha mt/ha 2.95 6.46 3.61 3.89 4.03 Ab van Peer, Global Knowledge Platform for Sustainable Solutions for Jatropha Based Bio-Fuels in India, Delhi 21/12/2012

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