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Microstrip patch antenna for wimax applications

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Microstrip patch antenna for wimax applications

  1. 1. DESIGN OF MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA FOR IEEE 802.16-2004 APPLICATIONS EHAB ESAM DAWOOD Department Of Electronic Faculty of Electronics Engineering University of Mosul Contact me: aburaneem3@gmail.com
  2. 2.  The IEEE 802 LAN/MAN Standards Committee develops Local Area Network standards and Metropolitan Area Network standards.  The most widely used standards are for the Ethernet family, Token Ring, Wireless LAN, Wireless PAN, Wireless MAN, Bridging and Virtual Bridged LANs. An individual Working Group provides the focus for each area.  The number 802 was simply the next free number IEEE could assign, though “802” is sometimes associated with the date the first meeting was held in February 1980. IEEE 802
  3. 3. IEEE 802.16 version
  4. 4. IEEE 802.16 version
  5. 5.  wireless communication means to transfer information over long or short distance without using any wires  An antenna is defined a usually metallic device (as a rod or wire) for radiating or receiving radio waves.  the antenna is the transitional structure between free- space and a guiding device  it is used to transport electromagnetic energy from the transmitting source to the antenna or from the antenna to the receiver, the antenna can be in a form of microstrip. INTRODUCTION
  6. 6.  Microstrip: is a type of electrical transmission line which can be fabricated using printed circuit board used to convey microwave frequency signals.  Microstrip Patch Antennas (MPA): These antenna comprises of planar layers including a radiating element, an intermediate dielectric laye r, and a ground plane layer. Microstrip antenna INTRODUCTION 6
  7. 7.  The radiating element may be square, rectangular, triangular, or circular and is separated from the ground plane layer Representative shapes of microstrip patch elements INTRODUCTION
  8. 8. TERM MEANING??
  9. 9.  Surface waves are guided waves captured within the substrate and partially radiated and reflected back at the substrate edges.  The ground plane of a printed antenna is always is finite in size, surface waves propagates until they reach an edge or corner.  The diffracted waves take up apart of energy of the signal thus decreasing the desired signal amplitude and contributing to deterioration in the antenna efficiency as well as increasing both side lobe and cross polarization Surface Waves
  10. 10.  The material of Printed Circuit Board (PCB) used in my design is FR4 utilize as substrate.  where "FR" means Flame Retardant, and Type "4" indicates woven glass reinforced epoxy resin.  Dielectric constant typically in the range (4.3-5.2), depends on glass resin ratio.  popular material and cost effective compared with other PCB material that make this PCB is preferred. FR4 Substrate Material
  11. 11.  The main drawback of microstrip patch antenna is suffer from narrow BandWidth. Antenna BandWidth (BW) can be improved by increasing the substrate thickness. The thickness of substrate increases surface waves, surface waves pass through the substrate and scattered at bends of the radiating patch which caused degrade the antenna performance.  To overcome this problem, the technique of air-gap that represents substrate layer which has the dielectric constant is 1, by using air substrate, the surface waves is not excited easily. Problem Statements: surface waves 0
  12. 12.  To increase the efficiency of the microstrip patch antenna by decreasing the loss of the reflection, it is executed by using air-gap as a substrate in microstrip patch antenna.  To reduce the cost in the fabrication of the antenna by using the cheap and popular FR4 material. The resonant frequency can adjusted without requiring new design by just varying the height of the air-gap also as well as the FR4 material this made the fabrications very cost effective. Project Objectives: 1
  13. 13.  To improve the BandWidth (BW) by increasing the thickness of dielectric substrate and dielectric constant with lower value.  To reduce the energy loss due to surface wave, the surface waves consume apart of energy of the signal thus decreasing the desired signal amplitude and contributing to deterioration in the antenna efficiency that weaken the microstrip antenna’s performance. Project Objectives: 2
  14. 14.  Use the resonant frequency 3.5 GHz for WiMax application, the resonant frequency is chosen from IEEE 802.16-2004 span of 2- 11GHz.  Choose the air as dielectric substrates that have the value of dielectric constant 1 in order to reduce the surface wave excisions.  Use the transmission Line model for calculation of patch Dimension. It’s the simplest of all and gives good physical insight.  Simulate and Verify antenna design performance by applying Computer Simulation Technology Software (CST) to design MPA.  Use AutoCAD software to open the DXF file that exported from CST software simulation. Project Scopes:
  16. 16.  Microstrip Line Feed : A conducting strip directly connected to the patch which is smaller in dimension as compare to patch. It is very easy to fabricate, very simple in modeling and match with characteristic impedance 50Ω or 75Ω. This type of feeding was not successful when using with air-gap substrate.  Coaxial Feed: Feed the inner conductor of coaxial extends through the dielectric and is soldered to the radiating patch, while the outer conductor is connected to ground plane, it is easy to fabricate and match. It has low spurious radiation, and it has narrow bandwidth. Coaxial FeedMicrostrip Line Feed Feeding method:
  17. 17.  Aperture Coupled Feed: is more complex and more difficult to fabricate as compare to others, High dielectric material is used for bottom substrate and thick and low dielectric constant material for the top substrate .  Proximity coupled Feed: Its fabrication is not easy as compare to other feed techniques, the advantage is eliminates spurious radiation and provides high bandwidth (as high as 13%), due to overall increase in the thickness of the microstrip patch antenna. Proximity coupled FeedAperture Coupled Feed Feeding method:
  19. 19.  Resonant frequency: The Resonant frequency was used in MPA for IEEE802.16-2004 is 3.5 GHz, and take the span (3 - 4) GHz used in reflection loss and BW calculations.  Dielectric Substrate: FR4 PCB material is used as a substrate. Reflection loss and BW are calculated when using singleFR4 PCB. Subsequently, air is used as the substrate between two PCB FR4 substrates that improves the BW as well as reduce the loss of the reflection. These are compared with the data when using singleFR4 PCB.  Thickness of Substrate: The thickness of Air substrate was designed and fabricated by using 2mm spacer, the thickness of the FR4 substrate is 1.6mm. Many factors were determined before begin the design
  20. 20.  FR4 Substrate Dimension:  λ » λ = 85.71 mm,  The width and the length of substrate is λ/2, FR4 substrate dimensions: SIDE VIEW TOP VIEW
  21. 21.  The effective dielectric constant is a function of a frequency.  Effective Patch Width (W)  Frings factor (ΔL) Transmission line model formula:
  22. 22.  Effective length (Leff):  Length:  The patch is actually a bit larger electrically than its physical dimensions due to the fringing fields and the difference between electrical and physical size is mainly dependent on the PC board thickness and dielectric constant of the substrate. Transmission line model formula(continued) :
  23. 23. The design and fabrication process included two case SECOND CASE Air-gap TECHNIQUE First Case SINGLE FR4 Board 1 2
  24. 24. First Case SINGLE FR4 Board Using As Substrate Material
  25. 25. Effective Dielectric Constant (εreff) is W=26.33 mm = 3.90 First Case (Single PCB-FR4 Only) as Substrate Material: Calculations for Patch Antenna Dimension: Width of the Patch (W) is resonant frequency f° =3.5 GHz, dielectric constant for FR4 substrate is εr= 4.3, height of substrate for Fr4 PCB is h=1.6 is the principle parameters must be decided.
  26. 26. ΔL = 0.74 mm L = 20.22 mm Length of the patch is: Fringing Field Length Extension (ΔL) is: Length of the patch is:
  27. 27. (13.16, 3.41) mm Location of the feed Design location of the coax line feed x
  29. 29.  By using the same formula for case 1, and substitute f° =3.5 GHz, εr = 1, Air h= 2mm Will get W=42 mm ΔL = 1.41mm L =40 mm Second Case (Air-gap with two PCB-FR4) as Substrate Material W=42 mm ΔL = 1.41mm Edge Impedance = 120.11 Position of the feed (21, 8.93) Second Case (Air-gap with two PCB-FR4) as Substrate Material
  30. 30. Design structure & Simulation Result with Single patch antenna Using CST Software
  31. 31.  The ground plane is made of copper have thickness 0.07 for the patch Structure of Design single patch antenna Design, Simulation, Fabrication and Measurement Result 61
  32. 32. Structure design simulation of single FR4 board Structure design of Single patch antenna using CST software
  33. 33. (Operating frequency and S11) Simulation of single patch antenna S11 for single Patch Antenna Without air-gap 1D Results:
  34. 34.  At resonant frequency 3.5 GHz is exhibit S11 equal (-10.38 dB) simulated by CST, the BandWidth (BW), the simulated BW is exhibit 36 MHz that become clear when using FR4 only without Air-gap have narrow BW. Bandwidth Simulation of single patch antenna Bandwidth Simulation of Single Patch Antenna without air-gap
  35. 35. The plot displays some important properties of the coaxial mode such as TEM mode type, line impedance. Input impedance simulation with single patch antenna 2D Results: Design, Simulation, Fabrication and Measurement Result
  36. 36. Design structure & Simulation Result with Air-gap Technique Using CST Software
  37. 37.  The ground plane is made of copper have thickness 0.07 for the patch Structure Design with Air-gap technique Design, Simulation, Fabrication and Measurement Result 2
  38. 38. Structure design simulation with air-gap technique Structure design of Single patch antenna using CST software
  39. 39. (Operating frequency and S11) Simulation with air-gap technique 2D Results: Simulation Result for Patch Antenna with Air-gap
  40. 40.  At resonant frequency 3.499 GHz is display S11 equal (-42.87 dB) simulated by CST, The BW that getting by using Air-gap that have value is 96 MHz Bandwidth Simulation with air-gap technique Bandwidth Simulation with air-gap technique
  41. 41. Input Impedance simulation with air-gap technique 2D Results: Design, Fabrication, Measurement and Result
  42. 42. Fabrication Measurement
  43. 43. MPA with air-gap technique MPA With air-gap Technique 81
  44. 44. S11 Measurement Reflection Loss of Fabrication 7
  45. 45.  Resonant frequency 3.5 GHz is exhibit reflection loss (-27.650 dB) measured by VNA. The BW for MPA with Air-gap fabrication is (158 MHz), calculation is achieved by subtract the value 3.589 GHz of M3 from M2 that have value 3.431GHz. measured microstrip patch antenna with air-gap results Measurement Parameter Measured MPA Results Resonant Frequency (fo GHz) 3.5 GHz Reflection loss (S11 dB) -27.650 dB Input Impedance, (Zin ohm) 54.270 ohm BandWidth (BW MHz) 158 MHz
  46. 46. Smith Chart Smith chart
  47. 47. Smith Chart display the resonant frequency 3.5 GHz and it exhibit impedance matching is 54.270 ohm which is actually closer to the 50ohm. The Smith Chart Parameter Smith chart parameter The parameter measurement Resonant Frequency (M 1) Frequency measured 3.5 GHz Input Impedance measured 54.27 ohm
  48. 48. Analysis Result
  49. 49. Compare between Measurement and Simulations with Air-gap and without air-gap Analysis Result 1 3 Exel
  50. 50. Comparison between the Simulated Result of the MPA without Air-gap and simulated as well as measured results of MPA with Air-gap Comparison Table of Simulated and Measured Results: Parameter Microstrip Patch Antenna without Air-gap Microstrip Patch Antenna with Air-gap Simulated Simulated Measured Resonant Frequency (fo GHz) 3.5 3.5 3.5 Reflection loss (S11 dB) -10.38 -42.87 -27.650 Input Impedance (Zin ohm) 46.16 45.63 54.270 BandWidth (BW MHz) 36 (1.02 %) 96 (2.74 %) 158 (4.51 %) 3
  51. 51. Fabrication process
  52. 52. Fabrications process Flow chart for fabrication process
  53. 53. Fabrications process Dry film printed Fixing dry film on PCB 1 2
  54. 54. UV exposure process 3 4 The FR4 PCB after exposed to UV light 5 UV exposure machine Removing the transparent layer
  55. 55. Developing process 7 6 Developing machine FR4 after developing process
  56. 56. Etching process 8 9 10 Etching machine
  57. 57. Etching process 11 Ground Front Face
  58. 58. Stripping process 12 13 Stripping machine The FR4 board after stripping process
  59. 59. Dry Process 14 15 The FR4 board after stripping and Dry process Dry machine
  60. 60. PCB Cutter Machine 16 17 PCB Cutter machine 18 The FR4 board after stripping and dry process
  61. 61. Drilling Machine 19 20 PCB Cutter machine 21 Make hole for location of probe
  62. 62.  The spacer between two FR4 boards is cylinder wood material; the diameter for the standing is 6mm. Spacer between the Substrate Layers Spacer
  63. 63. FR4 Substrate Material:  The joining between the Fr4 substrate layers with spacing is doing by SUPA GLUE implement at 10 seconds. Supa Glue Stick
  64. 64.  Technique design with air-gap, use two FR4 PCB substrate each layer have thickness is 1.6mm, the first board is consist of FR4 substrate have radiating patch but it strip from ground plane, the second board is consist of radiating patch and ground plane separated by FR4 substrate, the separation between two layers is air-gap. FR4 Substrate with Air gap Separation MPA with Air-gap technique
  65. 65. CST Simulations
  66. 66. CST Microwave Studio:  Computer Simulation Technology (CST) develops and markets software tools for the numerical simulation of electromagnetic fields. CST was founded in 1992 in Darmstadt, Germany. Select Template  Create a new CST microwave studio project after open CST design environment. CST Microwave Studio
  67. 67. CST Microwave Studio:  Antenna Template CST Microwave Studio
  68. 68. CST Microwave Studio:  Draw the Substrate Brick Creation Brick CST Microwave Studio
  69. 69. CST Microwave Studio:  continue with the same thing by drawing the air-gap and second layer for substrate-2, but only change the material in air-gap substrate to air from material library list The Air-gap with Two Layers Substrate CST Microwave Studio
  70. 70. CST Microwave Studio:  Draw the ground plane, this perform by choose the pick face and clicking to the surface of substrate FR4-2 and pick to the surface of substrate CST Microwave Studio
  71. 71. CST Microwave Studio:  By using extrude tool to create the ground plane for the second layer of FR4 substrate. Ground Plane Extrude Face CST Microwave Studio Ground Plane Extrude Face CST Microwave Studio
  72. 72. CST Microwave Studio:  Construct the dual patch first is stacked patch antenna and the second is the probe fed patch, stacked patch antenna probe fed patch antenna CST Microwave Studio
  73. 73. CST Microwave Studio:  Model the Coaxial Feed Outer Inner Feed Feed , CST Microwave Studio
  74. 74. CST Microwave Studio:  Common Solver Setting: Define Waveguide Port  Wave guide port consist of add the excitation port Solve →Waveguide Ports Waveguide Port Excite Port CST Microwave Studio
  75. 75. CST Microwave Studio:  Define the Frequency Range and Boundary Conditions + Frequency Range Boundary Conditions CST Microwave Studio
  76. 76. CST Microwave Studio:  Define Farfield Monitor Farfield Monitor CST Microwave Studio
  77. 77. Network Analyzer
  78. 78. Network analyzer 4
  79. 79.  The VNA device is divided into two parts, the first is screen and the second is control button. The screen is used for display the graph, this graph represent the S11and BW that will be measured and analysed. The control button consists of seven sections arranged from top to bottom and from left to right is (TRACE, NAVIGATION, CHANNEL, SUPPORT, DISPLAY, DATA ENTRY, SYSTEM). The start of the frequency range and the stop span on VNA device, its accomplished by selecting CHANNEL section from control button. Then, checking the resonant frequency and it was 3.5 GHz, and the span 1 GHz. Network analyzer 4
  80. 80. Calibration of VNA
  81. 81. Calibration of VNA
  82. 82. MPA connect with VNA 41
  83. 83. MPA with Air-gap Measurement 7
  84. 84. Related Slide
  85. 85. Air gap technique 0
  86. 86. VNA 4
  87. 87. Improvement of bandwidth 2 Single patch antenna simulation Air–gap technique simulation
  88. 88. Coax line feed Coax line feed location x