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Health communiication

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Health communication :The art and technique of informing, influencing, and motivating individual, institutional, and public audiences about important health issues.

Veröffentlicht in: Gesundheit & Medizin
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Health communiication

  1. 1. By :AbrahamTamirat (BSc,MPH) Health Communication
  2. 2. Objectives 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)22 Define health communication Identify the components of the communication process Select the means of communication to reach individuals, groups/families List the barrier to effective communication Identify the qualities of effective communication
  3. 3. Contents 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)33 Definition Components of the Communication Process Functions, Stages and Types of Communication Methods and Means of Communication Communication with Individuals, Groups and Organizations Communication Barriers Common Approaches in Communication Major Qualities of Effective Communicator  
  4. 4. –  Communication 44 Definition a process by which an idea is transferred from a source to a receiver with the intent of establishing commonness or to change behavior. 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  5. 5. Definition - Health communication 55 The art and technique of informing, influencing, and motivating individual, institutional, and public audiences about important health issues. 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  6. 6. Relevance to Health Education 66 to mobilize the community, to implement HE programs & to coordinate with different agencies. The ultimate goal of all communication is to create behavioral change. 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  7. 7. Principles of communication 77  Perception  Sensory involvement Face to face  Feedback 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  8. 8. Components of communication Process 88 Sender Message Channel Receiver Feedback 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  9. 9. Communication approaches 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)99 Individual Group Mass
  10. 10. Methods in Health communication 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)1010 Individual approach  Personal contact  Home visits  Personal letters
  11. 11. Methods in Health communication 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)1111 Group approach  Lectures  Demonstration  Discussion methods Group discussion,Panel discussion, Symposium,Workshop, Conference Seminars, Role play
  12. 12. Methods in Health communication 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)1212 Mass approach  TV, Radio,Newspaper,  Printed materials, Direct mailing, Posters,  Exhibition, Museum,  Folk methods,Inter-net
  13. 13. Behavioral objectives of communication_ the receiver. 1313 Become aware of a certain idea Gain adequate knowledge about an idea Increase motivation to carry out a task Learn new skill to do something Change lifestyle to fit into new environment Maintain changed behavior 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  14. 14. Questions about the audience 1414 Educational factors Socio-cultural factors Patterns of communication 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  15. 15. Questions about the source 1515 Credibility: Educational status Position in the society Membership/closeness Empathy 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  16. 16. Characteristics of a good advice 1616   Epidemiogically correct  Affordable  Culturally acceptable  Realistic Meets a felt need Easy to understand 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  17. 17. Appeal 1717 the way we organize the content of the message to convince people. 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  18. 18. Types of appeals in health communication 1818 A/ Fear appeal The message is conveyed to frighten people into action by emphasizing the serious outcome from not taking action. Symbols such as dying persons, coffins, grave stones, skulls may be used. 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  19. 19. A/ Fear appeal … 1919 Evidence suggests that mild fear can arouse interest, create concern & lead to change. However too much fear can lead to people denying & rejecting the message. 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  20. 20. B/ Humour 2020 The message is conveyed in a funny,amayzing,cumic way such as cartoon.  a very good way of attracting interest & attention.  It can also serve a useful role to lighten the tension when dealing is serious subjects.  Enjoyment & entertainment can result in highly effective remembering and learning. 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  21. 21. B/ Humour… 2121 However, humour does not always lead to changes in beliefs & attitudes. Humour is also very subjective. What one person finds funny another person may not. 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  22. 22. C. Logical / factual appeal 2222 The massage is conveyed to convince people by giving facts, figures and information, e.g. on the causes of the disease.on the causes of the disease. 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  23. 23. D/ Emotional appeal 2323 The message is conveying to convince people by arousing emotions, images & feelings rather than giving facts & figures,  e.g. by showing smiling babies, wealthy families with latrine etc, and associating with FP education. 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  24. 24. Logical/factual compared with emotional appeal 2424 Persons with less education Many health educators feel factual information allows people to make informed-decision.  Be realistic about the limitations of relying on facts to persuade people. 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  25. 25. Types of appeals… 2525 F/ One sided message  Only presents the advantages of taking action &  does not mention any possible disadvantages. G/ Two sided message Presents both the advantages & disadvantages (pros’ & cons’) of taking action. 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  26. 26. One sided compared with two sided messages 2626 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  27. 27. 2727 H/ Positive appeals ask people to do something,  e.g. breast feed your child, use a latrine. I. Negative appeals  ask people NOT to do something,  e.g. do not bottle feed your child, do not defecate in the bush. 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  28. 28. Positive compared with negative appeals 2828 Negative appeals use terms such as “avoid” or “don’t” to discourage people from performing harmful behaviors.  But most health educators agree that it is better to be positive & promote beneficial behavior. 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  29. 29. Models of Communication 2929 1. One-way model Sender → message → Channel → Receiver.  Linear type of communication.  No feedback.  No opportunity to clear up misunderstanding  Meaning is controlled by a receiver  what message  how much communicated 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  30. 30. One-way… 3030  No input from the receiver  Motivation of the sender may be personal gain or public good  Quick if the message is simple and needs quicker communication e.g. date & time of meeting  may be less effective 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  31. 31. 3131 Two-way communication Sender Message Channel Receiver Feedback 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  32. 32. Two-way communication… 3232 Advantages Suitable for more complex messages Feedback is added Allows the sender to find out how much the message is received - can be monitored Can be adapted to suit the receiver’s needs Sender can affect the quality and quantity of the feedback through the type of question chosen and the way it is asked. 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  33. 33. Communication stages 3333 Sender ============>receiver Reaches senses ⇓ Gains attention ⇓ Message understood ⇓ Acceptance /change ⇓ Behavior change ⇓ Change in health11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  34. 34. Methods of communication 3434 There are two main groups of methods; Face-to-face (‘interpersonal’) Mass media. 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  35. 35. Interpersonal methods 3535  forms of communication involving direct interaction between the source & receiver. In most instances the decisive criterion for personal communication is. Communication at the same time & Communication at the same place. 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  36. 36. Advantages 3636 1. Dynamic or bi-directional 2. Feed back 3. Multisensory (channel) 4. Useful in all stages of adoption of innovation 5. useful when the topic is taboo or sensitive. 6. Can fit to local needs 7. Can be highly selective 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  37. 37. Limitations 3737 Easily distorted – as we mostly rely on word-of-mouth. Often needs multi-lingual Needs personal status/ credibility acceptability Needs professional knowledge & preparation 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  38. 38. For effective interpersonal communication 3838 Exchange of ideas with clients;  1st impression lasts long (primacy effect) Recent information is better memorized(Recency effect) Learn to observe the person & drive useful information. perception is highly subjective.  action speaks more than words. 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  39. 39. Mass media 3939 is a means of transmitting messages, on an electronic or print media, or a large segment of a population. 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  40. 40. Advantages 4040 1. They can reach many people quickly. 2. They are accurate and believable e.g. article on a newspaper, or “voice” of highly respected person. 3. They can provide continuing reminders and reinforcement. 4. Useful to communicate new ideas to early adopters (opinion leaders). 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  41. 41. Limitations 4141 1. One sided/poorly organized 2. Does not differentiate the target 3. Only provides non-specific information 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  42. 42. For an effective mass media communication 4242 The message should be realistic and pre-tested It has to be followed by individual & group approach for an effective feedback & in turn for attitudinal & behavioral change. A carefully chosen mix of both approaches to exploit their different advantages. 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  43. 43. Barriers to effective communication 4343 1. Physical Difficulties in hearing, seeing In appropriate physical facilities 2. Intellectual The natural ability, home background, schooling affects the perception of the receiver for what he sees & hears. The ability of the facilitator/ education/ instructor. 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  44. 44. Barriers… 4444 3. Emotional Readiness, willingness or eagerness of the receiver Emotional status of the educator 4. Environmental Noise, invisibility, congestion 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  45. 45. Barriers… 4545 5. Cultural  Customs, beliefs, religion, attitudes, economic and social class differences, language variation. 6. Status of the source 7. Inconsistencies between verbal & non- verbal communication 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  46. 46. Qualities of communication 4646 The communicator should be knowledgeable, positive attitude, skilled and have credibility. The message should be simple (or brief & clear) meaningful, appropriate, relevant, and timely (SMART). The channel should be familiar, appropriate, available & accessible.  The receiver should also be responsible with proper attitude to receive the information. 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)
  47. 47. Seven Cs of effective communication: 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)4747 1. Command attention 2. Clarify the message 3. Communicate a benefit 4. Be consistent 5. Carter to the heart and head 6. Create trust 7. Call to action
  48. 48. 4848 Thank you! 11/23/1511/23/15By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)By:Abraham Tamirat (BSC,MPH)