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Architecture of Indus Valley Civilisation & Vedic Era

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Brief of Architecture of Prehistoric India. Anna University, Chennai, History of Architecture II Unit I- Part A

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Architecture of Indus Valley Civilisation & Vedic Era

  1. 1. SUBJECT CODE - AR 6202 HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & CULTURE - II
  2. 2. ANCIENT INDIA - 6 BUDDHIST ARCHITEC TURE - 10 EVOLUTION OF HINDU TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE -10 TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE – SOUTHERN INDIA - 12 TEMPLE ARCHITECTU RE NORTHERN INDIA - 7
  3. 3. S.NO TOPIC NO OF HOURS 1 INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION: CULTURE AND PATTERN OF SETTLEMENT 1 2 ARYAN CIVILIZATION – THEORIES AND DEBATES OF ORIGIN - ORIGINS OF EARLY HINDUISM 1 3 VEDIC CULTURE - VEDIC VILLAGE AND RUDIMENTARY FORMS OF BAMBOO AND WOODEN CONSTRUCTION 1 4 ORIGINS OF BUDDHISM AND JAINISM 1
  4. 4. ORIGIN
  5. 5. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION 3300 BCE - 2400 BCE
  6. 6.  EARLIEST ARRIVALS  ABOUT 7000 B.C.E., EVIDENCE OF AGRICULTURAL AND DOMESTICATED ANIMALS  BY 3200 B.C.E., PEOPLE FARMING IN VILLAGES ALONG INDUS RIVER INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
  7. 7. TIME PERIOD INDUS TRADITION EARLY FOOD PRODUCING ERA CA. 6500 - 5000 B.C. REGIONALIZATION ERA CA. 5000 - 2600 B.C. INDUS CIVILIZATION - HARAPPAN CULTURE INTEGRATION ERA 2600 - 1900 B.C. LATE HARAPPAN PERIOD 1900 - 1300 OR 1000 B.C. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
  8. 8. RIVER FROM MOUNTAIN SNOW MELT  INDUS AND GANGES RIVERS  FLOW ACROSS PLAINS, ALLOW AGRICULTURE  RICH SOIL FROM SILT  CONTINUOUS SUPPLY  FARMING GRAINS AND SURPLUSES  ALLOWS CITIES TO DEVELOP  2500-1500 BC INDUS RIVER CIVILIZATION  WELL PLANNED  MOHENJO-DARO AND HAPPARA ARCHAEOLOGISTS HAVE FOUND REMAINS OF OVER A THOUSAND SETTLEMENTS IN THIS AREA. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
  9. 9.  THE WHOLE PERIOD OF HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION IS IN FACT DIVIDED INTO THREE PHASES  EARLY HARAPPAN PHASE (3500 BC–2600 BC) – IT WAS MARKED BY SOME TOWN-PLANNING IN THE FORM OF MUD STRUCTURES, ELEMENTARY TRADE, ARTS AND CRAFTS, ETC.,  MATURE HARAPPAN PHASE (2600 BC–1900 BC) – IT WAS THE PERIOD IN WHICH WE NOTICE WELL DEVELOPED TOWNS WITH BURNT BRICK STRUCTURES, INLAND AND FOREIGN TRADE, CRAFTS OF VARIOUS TYPES, ETC., AND  LATE HARAPPAN PHASE (1900 BC–1400 BC) – IT WAS THE PHASE OF DECLINE DURING WHICH MANY CITIES WERE ABANDONED AND THE TRADE DISAPPEARED LEADING TO THE GRADUAL DECAY OF THE SIGNIFICANT URBAN TRAITS INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
  10. 10. CULTURE OF SETTLEMENT
  11. 11.  DEFINE CULTURE. INDUS VALLEY CULTURE
  12. 12.  THE MAJOR CITIES CONTAINED A FEW LARGE BUILDINGS INCLUDING  A CITADEL  A LARGE BATH  DIFFERENTIATED LIVING QUARTERS,  FLAT-ROOFED BRICK HOUSES, AND  FORTIFIED ADMINISTRATIVE OR RELIGIOUS CENTERS  ENCLOSING MEETING HALLS AND GRANARIES.  ESSENTIALLY A CITY CULTURE, HARAPPAN LIFE WAS SUPPORTED BY EXTENSIVE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND BY COMMERCE, WHICH INCLUDED TRADE WITH SUMER IN SOUTHERN MESOPOTAMIA. INDUS VALLEY CULTURE
  13. 13.  THE PEOPLE MADE TOOLS AND WEAPONS FROM COPPER AND BRONZE BUT NOT IRON.  COTTON WAS WOVEN AND DYED FOR CLOTHING.  WHEAT, RICE, AND A VARIETY OF VEGETABLES AND FRUITS WERE CULTIVATED.  A NUMBER OF ANIMALS, INCLUDING THE HUMPED BULL, WERE DOMESTICATED. INDUS VALLEY CULTURE
  14. 14.  HARAPPAN CULTURE WAS CONSERVATIVE AND REMAINED UNCHANGED FOR CENTURIES.  WHENEVER CITIES WERE REBUILT AFTER PERIODIC FLOODING, THE NEW LEVEL OF CONSTRUCTION CLOSELY FOLLOWED THE PREVIOUS PATTERN.  IT IS UNCLEAR WHO WIELDED AUTHORITY, WHETHER AN ARISTOCRATIC, PRIESTLY, OR COMMERCIAL MINORITY. INDUS VALLEY CULTURE
  15. 15.  HARAPPAN ARTIFACTS UNEARTHED TO DATE ARE STEATITE SEALS FOUND IN ABUNDANCE AT MOHENJO-DARO.  THESE SMALL, FLAT, AND MOSTLY SQUARE OBJECTS WITH HUMAN OR ANIMAL MOTIFS PROVIDE THE MOST ACCURATE PICTURE THERE IS OF HARAPPAN LIFE. INDUS VALLEY CULTURE
  16. 16. INDUS VALLEY - ARTIFACTS
  17. 17. PATTERN OF SETTLEMENT
  18. 18. • BOTH HARAPPA AND MOHENJO- DARO, TWO OF THE LARGEST AMONG 500 SITES, WERE THREE MILES IN CIRCUMFERENCE WITH AROUND 40,000 PEOPLE. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
  19. 19. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION CITADEL
  20. 20. VIEW OF THE “CITADEL” INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
  21. 21. THE “GREAT BATH” INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
  22. 22. THE “GREAT BATH” - RECONSTRUCTION INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
  23. 23. THE “GREAT BATH” - REMAINS INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
  24. 24. THE “GREAT GRANARY” - REMAINS INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
  25. 25. THE “GREAT GRANARY” - RECONSTRUCTION INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
  26. 26. THE “FIRE ALTAR” - REMAINS INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
  27. 27. CITY PLANNING
  28. 28. • THE TOWN PLAN WAS REGULAR. • EVEN FIRE-BAKED BRICKS WERE UNIFORM IN SIZE AND SHAPE. • THE REGULARITY OF PLAN AND CONSTRUCTION SUGGESTS A GOVERNMENT WITH ORGANIZATION AND BUREAUCRATIC CAPACITY. • NO MONUMENTAL ARCHITECTURE CLEARLY MARKS THE PRESENCE OF A PALACE OR TEMPLE. • THERE IS LITTLE SIGN OF SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IN THE PLAN OR BUILDINGS. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
  29. 29. GRID MAP OF MOHENJO-DARO INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
  30. 30. MOHENJO-DARO : AERIAL VIEW INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
  31. 31. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
  32. 32. • THE LOWER CITY WAS LAID OUT IN A GRID IRON WITH THE MAIN STREETS ABOUT 14M WIDE. • PRIVATE HOUSES HAD THEIR OWN WELL, BATHING SPACE, AND TOILET CONSISTING OF A BRICK SEAT OVER A DRAINAGE AREA. • BRICK-LINED DRAINS FLUSHED BY WATER CARRIED LIQUID AND SOLID WASTE TO SUMPS. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
  33. 33. VIEW OF A SMALL, SIDE STREET INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
  34. 34.  HOUSES WERE ONE OR TWO STORIES HIGH, MADE OF THICK, BAKED BRICK WALLS, WITH FLAT ROOFS, AND HIGH CEILINGS TO KEEP THE ROOMS COOL DURING THE HOT SUMMERS.  EACH WAS BUILT AROUND A COURTYARD, WITH WINDOWS OVERLOOKING THE COURTYARD. THE OUTSIDE WALLS HAD NO WINDOWS. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
  35. 35. A BATHROOM IN A PRIVATE RESIDENCE INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
  36. 36. A LARGE DRAIN OR SEWER INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
  37. 37. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION - DECLINE
  38. 38. THEORIES AND DEBATES OF ORIGIN
  39. 39. THE ARYANS – ORIGIN • WHO WERE THE ARYANS? • DID THEY INVADE INDIA? • WHERE DID THEY COME FROM? • WHAT WAS THEIR PROFESSION? • WHERE DID THEY SETTLE DOWN? • DID THEIR SETTLEMENT IMITATE THE INDUS VALLEY SETTLEMETS? WHY?
  40. 40. THE ARYANS – ORIGIN • APPROXIMATELY 1500 B.C.E. A NOMADIC AND PASTORAL PEOPLE WHO SPOKE THE INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGE PASSED THROUGH THE HINDU KUSH MOUNTAINS. • THEY CALLED THEMSELVES “ARYANS” OR “NOBLE PEOPLE.” • THEY ESTABLISHED SMALL HERDING AND AGRICULTURAL COMMUNITIES THROUGHOUT NORTHERN INDIA. • THEIR MIGRATIONS TOOK PLACE OVER SEVERAL CENTURIES.
  41. 41. ARYAN/ VEDIC CIVILIZATION
  42. 42. • ARYAN MIGRATIONS TOOK PLACE OVER SEVERAL CENTURIES. • THEIR ARRIVAL WAS NOT AN INVASION OR ORGANIZED MILITARY CAMPAIGN. • IT IS LIKELY THAT INDO-EUROPEAN MIGRANTS CLASHED WITH DRAVIDIANS (PEOPLE SETTLED IN THE HARAPPAN AREA.) • BY THE TIME ARYANS ENTERED INDIA, INTERNAL PROBLEMS HAD ALREADY BROUGHT HARAPPAN SOCIETY TO THE POINT OF COLLAPSE. • DURING THE CENTURIES AFTER 1500 B.C.E., DRAVIDIAN AND INDO-EUROPEAN PEOPLES INTERMARRIED AND LAID SOCIAL AND CULTURAL FOUNDATIONS THAT INFLUENCED INDIAN SOCIETY TO PRESENT DAY. ARYAN INFLUENCE ON HARAPPAN SOCIETY
  43. 43. • THE ARYANS SURVIVED ON PASTORAL ECONOMY, SHEEP AND GOATS. • THEY ESPECIALLY PRIZED THEIR HORSES AND CATTLE, BUT HORSES DID NOT BREED WELL IN INDIA SO THEY HAD TO IMPORT ANIMALS FROM ASIA. • THE ARYANS CONSUMED BOTH DAIRY PRODUCTS AND BEEF. • CENTURIES LATER CATTLE WOULD BECOME SACRED. ARYAN/ VEDIC CIVILIZATION
  44. 44. • THE ARYANS ALSO COMPOSED THE RELIGIOUS TEXTS THE VEDAS. • THE VEDAS WERE COLLECTIONS OF RELIGIOUS AND LITERARY POEMS AND SONGS TRANSMITTED ORALLY. • THERE WERE FOUR PARTS. • THE MOST IMPORTANT PART WAS THE RIG VEDA, A COLLECTION OF 1,028 HYMNS ADDRESSED TO THE ARYAN GODS. • ARYAN PRIESTS COMPILED THE RIG VEDA BETWEEN 1400 AND 900 B.C.E. • IT WASN’T PUT INTO WRITING UNTIL ABOUT 600 B.C.E. ARYAN/ VEDIC CIVILIZATION
  45. 45. • FOUR MAIN VARNAS OR CASTES: • PRIESTS (BRAHMINS) • WARRIORS AND ARISTOCRATS (KSHATRIYAS) • CULTIVATORS, ARTISANS, AND MERCHANTS (VSAISHYAS) • LANDLESS PEASANTS AND SERFS ( SHUDRAS) • UNTOUCHABLES (PEOPLE WHO PERFORMED DIRTY TASKS) ADDED MUCH LATER THE CASTE STYSTEM
  46. 46. ORIGIN OF HINDUISM • THE CHIEF DEITY WAS INDRA, A WAR GOD, WHO WAS PARTIAL TO FIGHTING AND DRINK. • VARUNA WAS A GOD WHO PRESIDED OVER THE SKY FROM HIS HEAVENLY PALACE. HE OVERSAW BEHAVIOR OF MORALS AND PRESERVED ORDER. • CATTLE, SHEEP, GOATS, AND HORSES FROM ARYAN HERDS WERE SACRIFICED TO GAIN DIVINE SUPPORT, LARGE FAMILIES, LONG LIFE, AND ABUNDANT HERDS.

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