3. waste management
Waste is defined as unwanted and
unusable materials and is regarded as a
substance which is of no use. Waste that
we see in our surroundings is also known
as garbage. Garbage is mainly considered
as a solid waste that includes wastes from
our houses (domestic waste), wastes from
schools, offices, etc (municipal wastes)
and wastes from industries and factories
What is Waste?
4. WASTE MANAGEMENT
A waste management system is the strategy an organization uses to
dispose, reduce, reuse, and prevent waste. Possible waste disposal
methods are recycling, composting, incineration, landfills,
bioremediation, waste to energy, and waste minimization.
6. Causes of poor waste management
Improper disposal of waste
This is when wastes are disposed indiscriminately in illegal places. Some dispose their waste by the road
side, on the highway, waterway, lake side, etc.
Inefficient collection method
Some of the vehicles used in collecting waste in some places are not in good working condition, thereby
making some of them to dump part of the waste along the road.
Increased in population is one of the reasons why the governments of some countries have sidelined proper
waste management. And this is one of the causes of poor waste management in such countries.
7. Inadequate funding by the government
Inadequate funding by the government is one of the reasons why some countries are facing
poor waste management. There must be an adequate provision from the point of collection,
transportation to the point where it disposed.
8. Control measures of urban and industrial wastes:
An integrated waste management strategy includes three main
1. Source reduction
This is the first and leading principle that tells us to refuse anything we
don’t really need. Even if it’s free, if you don’t really need it, say no.
Politely decline knick-knacks and other promotional freebies, single-use
items like utensils, cups and food ware, and anything else that isn’t truly
essential in our lives. This is the first step to cutting down on our waste.
10. REDUCTION OF WASTE
Reduction in use of raw materials: Reduction in the use of raw materials will
correspondingly decrease the production of waste. Reduced demand for any
metallic product will decrease the mining of their metal and cause less production of
Reuse of waste materials: The refillable containers which are discarded after use can be reused.
Making rubber rings from the discarded cycle tubes which are used by the newspaper vendors, instead
of rubber bands, reduces the waste generation during manufacturing of rubber bands. Because of
financial constraints poor people reuse their materials to the maximum.
Recycling of materials: Recycling is the reprocessing of discarded materials into new useful
products. For e.g. formation of some old type products e.g. old aluminium cans and glass bottles
are melted and recast into new cans and bottles. Formation of new products: Preparation of
cellulose insulation from paper, preparation of fuel pellets from kitchen waste. Preparation of
automobiles and construction materials from steel cans.
Rot means creating a valuable resource from food waste
and organics by home composting. Recycle your fruits,
vegetables, and yard trimmings into a nutrient-rich soil
fertilizer that helps your garden grow while reducing waste
to the landfill.
14. Waste segregation and disposal
Sanitary landfill: In a sanitary landfill, garbage is spread out in thin layers, compacted and
covered with clay or plastic foam. In the modern landfills the bottom is covered with an
impermeable liner, usually several layers of clay, thick plastic and sand. The liner protects the
ground water from being contaminated due to percolation of leachate.
When landfill is full it is covered with clay, sand, gravel and top soil to prevent seepage of water.
15. Composting: Due to shortage of space for landfill in bigger cities, the biodegradable yard waste
(kept separate from the municipal waste) is allowed to degrade or decompose in an oxygen rich
medium. A good quality nutrient rich and environmental friendly manure is formed which improves the
soil conditions and fertility.
Vermicomposting or worm composting is a simple technology for converting biodegradable waste
into organic manure with the help of earthworms.
Incineration: Incinerators are burning plants capable of burning a large amount of materials at high
temperature generally more than 900°C. The required heat comes from oxidation of organically
bound carbon and hydrogen present in the waste material or the added fuel.