2. • India is the largest democracy in the world, the seventh largest
country and the second most populous.
• It has 29 states and 6 Union-territories.
• There are 22 official languages, 114 languages, 216 mother
tongues and 216 dialects in India.
• Four major religions of the world have originated from India:
Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Jainism.
3. • India is one of the oldest continuous civilisations. The story of
civilisation begins in India with the Harrapan civilisation
which was nurtured on the banks of Sindhu and Saraswati
rivers in the North-Western India in around 3000 B.C.
• In short we can say that India is a picture of diversity seen in
her people, cultures, colourful festivals, dresses and costumes,
religions, flora and fauna and varying landscapes.
5. Indus Valley Civilisation(2800 BCE – 1900 BCE)
Indus Valley Civilization is also known as
the Harappan Civilization, after Harappa, the first of
its sites to be excavated in the 1920s.
It was a bronze age civilisation which persisted for
700-1,000 years and covered an area of over half a
million square miles from Baluchistan in Pakistan to
the Ganga basin in the north east of Delhi.
This highly developed civilization of urban nature
was endowed with the art of writing and arts such as
dancing, extended even beyond the valleys of
the Ganges and the Yamuna.
Till now, over 1,056 cities and settlements had been
found, of which 96 have been excavated,mainly in the
general region of the Indus and the Saraswati Rivers
and their tributaries.
6. The Vedic Period(1500 BCE – 500 BCE)
It was during this period that India presented to human
culture one of its invaluable contributions – the Vedic
Literature. It was attributed to the Aryans who came from
Central Asia after the collapse of Indus Valley Civilisation
and flourished in India as a well-knit agricultural society.
It was during this period that the states called the
mahaajanapadas of northern India took shape.
The Vedic literature comprises mainly the four Vedas(The
Rig Veda, the Yajur Veda, the Sama Veda, and the Atharva
Veda). Then there were the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas, the
epics of Ramayana and the Mahabharata, and
the Upanishads that represent the culmination of the Vedic
7. The so-called chaturvarnya system or the four-layered arrangement of social order established the caste
system in India – the priestly class of brahmins, the warrior class of the kshatriyas, the trading and
farming class of the vaishyas, and the working class of the shudras.
The Aryan culture was basically pastoral and agricultural. The people worshipped the thunder and rain
god Indra, the fire god Agni, the earth and sea god Varuna, the sun god Surya, the air god Vayu.
The end of the Vedic period witnessed the rise of large, urbanized states as well as
of shramana movements (including Jainism and Buddhism) which challenged the Vedic orthodoxy.
Lord Mahavir and Gautam Buddha were the founders of Jainism and Buddhism respectively. Jainism
has historically been largely confined to India, whereas Buddhism originated in India but subsequently
flourished in other Asian countries. Buddhism separates itself from the Jain tradition by teaching an
alternative to "extreme asceticism".
8. Indian Rulers(322 BCE – 1192 CE)
Mahapadma Nanda, who has been described in the Puranas as
"the destroyer of all the Kshatriyas", defeated many kingdoms
and founded the Nanda Dynasty in 345 BCE. The rulers of this
dynasty were famed for the great wealth which they
The Nanda Empire was conquered by Chandragupta Maurya
with the help of Kautilya in 322 BCE, who founded the Maurya
Empire with its capital city as Pataliputra and became the
first emperor to unify most of Greater India into one state.
He became well known in the Greek world for defeating the
most powerful of Alexander's successors, Seleucus I Nicator, in
battle and thereby marrying his daughter.
His grandson Ashoka is said to be the greatest ruler India has
ever had. He conquered the state of Kalinga which none of his
ancestors could. The Empire experienced nearly half a century of
peace and security under him.
Mauryan India also enjoyed an era of social harmony,
religious transformation, and expansion of the sciences and of
9. After Ashoka, the Mauryan Empire fell rapidly and again small princely states began to form from it. The
kingdoms which succeeded the Mauryans were The Shunga Dynasty, Indo-Greek Kingdom, Indo-Scythian
Kingdom, the Indo-Parthian Kingdom and many more.
In 240 CE Sri Gupta starts the Gupta Empire in Magadha, with its capital in Pataliputra. The peace and
prosperity created under the leadership of the Guptas enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic endeavours.
This period is called the Golden Age of India and was marked by extensive inventions and discoveries
in science, technology, engineering, art, dialectic, literature, logic, mathematics, astronomy, religion,
and philosophy that crystallized the elements of what is generally known as Hindu culture. Chandra Gupta
I, Samudra Gupta, and Chandra Gupta II were the most notable rulers of the Gupta dynasty. The Gupta period
produced scholars such as Kalidasa, Aryabhata, Varahamihira, Vishnu Sharma and Vatsyayana who made great
advancements in many academic fields.
In 450 CE the Hunas attacked the empire and subsequently it fell after the death of Skandgupta in 554 CE. After
this the notable ruler was Harshvardhan who defeated the Hunas in 606 CE.
Meanwhile, in the southern India, Chola Dynasty under the leadership of Rajaraja Chola was growing as one of
the most powerful dynasty of that time. The other notable ruler of this dynasty was Rajendra Chola under whom
Kannada Literature flourished in the south.
Mahmud of Ghazni invades India for the first time in 1000 CE and later invades it again seventeen times
between 997 and 1030. The most notable ruler of that time was Prithviraj Chauhan , a Rajput king, who ruled
kingdoms of Ajmer and Delhi. He was the last independent Hindu King to sit on the throne of Delhi from 1179-
1192 and was subsequently defeated by Muhammad Ghori in the second battle of Tarain.
10. The Delhi Sultanate(1206 CE-1526 CE)
The Delhi Sultanate was a Muslim kingdom based mostly
in Delhi and the Punjab region that stretched over large parts of
theIndian subcontinent for 320 years .
Qutb-ud-din Aibak, a former slave of Muhammad Ghori, was
the first sultan of Delhi and his Mamluk dynasty conquered
large areas of northern India. Afterwards the Khilji dynasty was
also able to conquer most of central India, but both failed to
unite the Indian subcontinent. This sultanate also is noted for
being one of the few states to repel an attack from the Mongol
Empire, and enthroned one of the few female rulers in Islamic
history, Razia Sultana from 1236 to 1240. The Delhi Sultanate
reached its peak in terms of geographical reach, during the
Tughlaq dynasty, covering most of Indian subcontinent. The
sultanate declined thereafter, with continuing Hindu-Muslim
wars, and kingdoms such as Vijayanagara Empire re-asserting
their independence as well as new Muslim sultanates such
as Bengal Sultanate breaking off. The other dynasties of the
sultanate were Sayyid and Lodi dynasties. The last ruler of the
Delhi Sultanate was Ibrahim Lodi who was defeated and killed
by Mughal king Babur in the first battle of Panipath on April
21, 1526 .
11. The Mughal Dynasty(1526 CE – 1857 CE)
On August 21, 1526 the Mughal emperor, Babur
establsihed the Mughal dynasty in India.
During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur,
the empire was briefly interrupted by the Suri Empire
under Sher Shah Suri. The "classic period" of the
Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of
Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar
and his son Jahangir, India enjoyed economic progress
as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were
interested in local religious and cultural traditions.
Akbar was a successful warrior. He also forged
alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms.
The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the
local societies during most of its existence, but rather
balanced and pacified them through new
administrative practicesand diverse and inclusive
ruling elites,leading to more systematic, centralised,
and uniform rule.
12. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628–58 was the Golden Age of Mughal Architecture. He
erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid,
Agra, the Red Fort, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort.
Meanwhile, in western parts of India, Sikhism, founded by Guru Nanak Saheb spreads. Other Sikh gurus also
attract many followers from their teachings.
The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its
terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Shivaji Bhosale.
By the mid-18th century, the Marathas had routed Mughal armies, and won over several Mughal provinces from
the Punjab to Bengal, and internal dissatisfaction arose due to the weakness of the Mughal Empire's administrative
and economic systems, leading to the break-up of the empire and declaration of independence of its former
provinces by the Nawabs of Bengal, Oudh, the Nizam of Hyderabad, Shah of Afghanistan and other small states.
During the following century Mughal power had become severely limited and the last emperor, Bahadur Shah II,
had authority over only the city of Shahjahanabad. He issued a firman supporting the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and
following the defeat was therefore tried by the British East India Company for treason, imprisoned and exiled
13. The Company Rule in India(1757 CE - 1857 CE)
This rule commenced in 1757, after the Battle of Plassey,
when the Nawab of Bengal Sirajuddaulah surrendered his
dominions to the Company under Robert Clive.
In 1765 the Company was granted the diwani, or the right
to collect revenue, in Bengal and Bihar. In 1773 the Company
established a capital in Calcutta, appointed its first Governor-
General, Warren Hastings, and became directly involved in
The East India Company was a private company owned by
stockholders and reporting to a board of directors in London.
Originally formed as a monopoly on trade, it increasingly
took on governmental powers with its own army and
The Company's rule lasted until 1858, when, after
the Indian rebellion of 1857, it was abolished. With
the Government of India Act 1858, the British
government assumed the task of directly administering India
in the new British Raj.
14. The British Rule in India(1857 CE – 1947 CE)
The region under British Raj included areas directly administered by Britain as well as the princely states ruled by
individual rulers under the paramountcy of the British Crown. The Empire of India was officially created by
Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli for Queen Victoria in 1876.
Historical events like formation of Indian National Congress(1885), Partition of Bengal(1905), Social reforms
under Moderates and Extremists(up to 1907), formation of the Muslim League(1906), shifting of Capital from
Calcutta to Delhi(1911), Rabindranath Tagore won the Noble Prize in Literature(1913), First World War(1915-
1919), Home rule movement(1916), the Rowlatt Act of 1919 which led to Jallianwalla Bagh massacre, took
place. Leaders like Dadabhai Nauroji, Gopal Krishna Gokhle, Lala Lajpatrai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin
Chandra Pal, Annie Besant, etc. took an active part in the movements against the British Rule during this period.
The era from 1915-1947 is also known as the Gandhian era as the Indian Independence movement of this period
was largely influenced by the thoughts and activities of Mahatma Gandhi. He started the Satyagrah
movement(1917), Swadeshi and Non-cooperation movement(1920), Civil disobedience movement(1930) and the
Quit India Movement(1942). Leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Patel, Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, Rajguru,
Chandrashekhar Azad, Subhash Chandra Bose took an active part in the freedom movement at that time.
With the decline of British Power after the Second World War(1939-1945) and the impact of freedom
movements on the whole country, the British Raj finally divided the country into two sovereign dominion states:
the Union of India (later the Republic of India) and the Dominion of Pakistan (later the Islamic Republic of
Pakistan)and ended it’s reign on 15th August, 1947.
16. Post Independence(Up to 1950)
There were officially 565 princely states, in India at the time
of independence in August 1947, apart from thousands
of zamindaris and jagirs.
The Indian Independence Act of 1947 passed by Lord Louis
Mountbatten, the last Viceroy of British India gave freedom to
every princely state to either join India/Pakistan or stay as an
independent state. This created a big problem for the fathers of
the Modern India as how to stop the country from getting
Meanwhile, the Governor General of Pakistan, M.A. Jinnah
was trying his best to pursue the kings of princely states of
western India to join Pakistan at any condition. Here, it was
Pandit Nehru, the first Prime Minister of Independent India and
Sardar Patel who prevented 557 states from joining Pakistan and
thereby submitting their kingdoms and powers to the government
The accession process was largely peaceful except in the case
of Jammu & Kashmir (whose king decided to accede to India,
but only after an invasion by Pakistan-based tribal
militia) and Hyderabad. Because of his thinking and policies,
Jawaharlal Nehru is called as The architect of modern India.
17. Independent India(Disputes with Pakistan)
India-Pakistan war of 1947: Fearing that the state of Jammu & Kashmir might also accede to India like other states,
the Pakistani Governor General M.A. Jinnah ordered his troops to annex the state in 1947. The Indian government
protested against this and there started a war between the two. Finally, the United Nation Organisation had to interfere
and a Line of Control was established.
India-Pakistan war of 1965: This war started in 1965 following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, which was designed
to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against rule by India. India retaliated by
launching a full-scale military attack on West Pakistan. The seventeen-day war witnessed the largest tank battle since
World War II. The hostilities between the two countries ended after a ceasefire was declared following diplomatic
intervention by the Soviet Union and USA and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration.
India-Pakistan war of 1972: People of East Pakistan were revolting for the declaration of Independence of
Bangladesh from the state system of Pakistan. India intervened in the ongoing Bangladesh liberation movement in 1972.
Within two weeks of intense fighting, Pakistani forces in East Pakistan surrendered to the joint command of Indian and
Bangladeshi forces following which the People's Republic of Bangladesh was created.
India-Pakistan war of 1999: During early 1999, Pakistani troops along with Kashmiri insurgents infiltrated across
the Line of Control (LoC) and occupied Indian territory mostly in the Kargil district. India responded by launching a
major military and diplomatic offensive to drive out the Pakistani infiltrators.Fearing large-scale escalation in military
conflict, the international community, led by the United States, increased diplomatic pressure on Pakistan to withdraw
forces from remaining Indian territory.
18. Notable instances up to 2000
On 26, Januray,1950 the Constitution of India was passed by the parliament of India and Dr. Rajendra Prasad was
elected as the first president of the Republic India.
In 1974, India explodes first nuclear device in underground test.
In 1975, Indira Gandhi declares state of emergency after being found guilty of electoral malpractice.
In 1980, first satellite earth station for domestic communications was established at Sikandarabad, U.P.
In 1983, the Indian Cricket Team under the captaincy of Kapil Dev won the cricket World Cup for the first time.
In 1984, Troops storm Golden Temple - Sikhs' most holy shrine (after Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale amasses weapons
inside this Holy Shrine)- to flush out Sikh terrorist pressing for self-rule, called Operation Blue Star. Later, that year,
Indira Gandhi was assassinated by Sikh bodyguards, following which her son, Rajiv, takes over.
In 1987, India deploys troops for peacekeeping operation in Sri Lanka's ethnic conflict.
In 1991, Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated by a suicide bomber sympathetic to Sri Lanka's Tamil Tigers.
In 1992, Babri Mosque in Ayodhya was demolished, triggering widespread Hindu-Muslim violence.
In July,1995, West Bengal Chief Minister Jyoti Basu made the first call from Kolkata to inaugurate the cellular
services in India. In the same year Internet was also introduced in India in Laxmi Nagar, New Delhi.
In the General Elections of 1996, Congress suffers worst ever electoral defeat as Hindu nationalist BJP emerges as
largest single party.
In 1998, India carries out nuclear tests, leading to widespread international condemnation.
In February, 1999, Vajpayee made historic bus trip to Pakistan to meet Premier Nawaz Sharif and to sign bilateral
Lahore peace declaration.
In May, 2000, India marked the birth of its billionth citizen, and many more...
19. From 2000 - 2014
In January, 2000, a high-powered rocket was launched, adding India to the club of countries able to fire big
satellites deep into space. In the same month, massive earthquakes hit the western state of Gujarat, leaving at least
In December 2001, suicide squad attacked parliament in New Delhi, killing several police. The five gunmen died
in the assault.
In January 2002, India successfully test-fired a nuclear-capable ballistic missile - the Agni - off its eastern coast.
Same year Inter-religious bloodshed broke out after 59 Hindu pilgrims returning from Ayodhya were killed in a train
fire in Godhra, Gujarat. More than 1,000 people died in subsequent riots.
In December, 2004, Thousands were killed when tsunami tidal waves, caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean
earthquake off the Indonesian coast which led to the devastation of the coastal communities in the south and in
the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
In April,2007, India's first commercial space rocket was launched, carrying an Italian satellite.
In October, 2008, India successfully launched its first mission to the moon, the unmanned lunar
probe Chandrayaan-1.Next month, nearly 200 people are killed and hundreds injured in a series of coordinated
attacks by gunmen on the main tourist and business area of India's financial capital Mumbai.
On November 5, 2013, Mars Orbiter Mission, was successfully launched into Mars orbit by the Indian Space
Research Organisation (ISRO), and many more...
20. 2014 and Onwards(Current Scenario)
On 16 May, 2014 Narendra Modi was elected as prime minister of India and the Congress was routed in
the general elections.
Now Barack Obama and China supports India’s bid for permanent UNSC seat.
Australia is set to sign a Nuclear Power deal with India to supply around 500 tonnes of Uranium to India
French National Railways has agreed to co-finance an execution study for a semi- high speed project on
upgradation of the Delhi-Chandigarh line to 200 kmph
India will build 4 Hydroelectric power stations + Dams in Bhutan (India will get lion’s share in Green
energy that will be produced in future from these projects)
Satya Nadella (Microsoft), Indra Nooyi (Pepsico), Sunder Pichai (Google), Jeff Bezos (Amazon), Mark
Zuckerberg (Facebook) and other big brands discusses possible investments in Digital India Project.
India will build Biggest ever dam of Nepal (China was trying hard to get that) – India will get 83%
Green energy produce from that hydro power station for free – in future.
India managed to bring back 4,500+ Indians from War zone in Yemen and also brought foreign
nationals of 41 different countries, which put India’s name onto the highest platform globally in
conducting that rescue mission and many more...
22. India in 2020: Will it be as Dr. Kalam expected
it to be?
In his book India 2020 Kalam strongly advocates an action plan to develop India into a strong nation by
the year 2020. He regards his nation as a knowledge superpower and developed nation by 2020. He has
set up a target for all the youth in India on how to make India developed by 2020.
Here are some top predictions from around the world of what India will look like in 2020:
India will overtake China as the fastest-growing economy in the world.
In the 2000s, India finally gained entry into the nuclear club, and sanctions against it were lifted. By
2020, Indian companies will be major exporters of nuclear equipment, a vital link in the global supply
chain. So, India will be in a position to impose nuclear sanctions on others.
India, along with the US and Canada, will develop new technology to extract natural gas from gas
hydrates - a solidified form of gas lying on ocean floors. India has the largest gas hydrate deposits in the
world, and so will become the biggest global producer.
More and more regions of India will demand separate statehood. By 2020, India will have 35 states
instead of the current 29 and a population of nearly 1.5 billion.
The US will withdraw from the regions of Pakistan and Afghanistan, leaving India to bear the brunt of
consequences. Terrorism will rise in India, but the economy will still keep growing.
23. India by 2050
35 years from now, nobody knows how the world will look like. Yet, here
are some top predictions about India by that time:
By 2050, India will overtake People's Republic of China to top the list of the most populous countries, and
these two countries represent about 50% of world population (as against 37% today).
World class education in India with an overall literacy rate of 95%.
100% electrified and Electricity/Power surplus country with a world class infrastructure. Touch Screens
everywhere from Classroom Board to Voting Machine.
India will grow to be the third most powerful country on earth – marginally behind China and USA, but well
ahead of Japan, Russia and Europe.
Advancements in medical sciences will increase the average human life span to be more than 120 years.
The year 2050 is quite far from now. The predictions that are being done
about this distinct future may vary from the reality. The changing
environment, drastic increase in population, industrialisation can lead
anything to happen by that time.
24. India in the 22nd Century and beyond
The biggest prediction about the 22nd Century is that by 2200, that Earth will become a Type I civilization(Type I
civilization uses complete resources available on its home planet) on the Kardashev scale.
Other predictions that are made all around the world are :
Due to climatic changes the map of India will change. The islands of Andaman, Nicobar, Lakshadweep and some
part of southern India will get submerged into the sea.
The temperature will change drastically from -50⁰ C to 80 ⁰C. Humans will find out ways to tackle such changes.
Due to population outburst people will start migrating to Moon and Mars.
All the living beings will evolve to get adapted to the environmental changes.
Humans will have mono-ethnicity, Weakened immune systems, increased heights, no hair, small teeth and brain
rewiring(As technology becomes more and more advanced, our brains will adapt in order to maximize efficiency).
Well, these are just predictions which are made on the basis of past
and present scenario. Anything can happen in the near or far future
that will bring either an extraordinary development or complete
Nobody Knows... !!