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  1. A.R 2.6 HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE - 1 1.Ancient Civilisations (Egypt, Mesopotamia & Indus) - pre summer break 2.Classical Greeks - pre summer break 3.The Roman Empire - 17 & 24 June 2016 4.The Rise of European & Arabic Worlds - 22 July 2016 5. Clash of Ideologies Science vs Religion vs Faith - 28 July 2016 6.Pre Industrial Revolution - 5 August 2016 7. Activity - Field Trip?! LECTURE DATES 15 July 2016
  2. A.R 2.6 HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE - 1 1. Roman Architecture - grand scale of architecture, new materials & building technology, Public Infrastructure, different typology of buildings COURSE CONTENT: POST SUMMER BREAK • Roman Architecture has a rich typology that includes: • Religious building: temple • Civil buildings: –Public: basilicas, baths –Spectacles: theatre, amphitheatre, circus –Commemorative: Triumph arch, column –Domestic: house, village, palace –Funerary: tombs • Engineering works: –Bridges –Aqueducts
  3. Date: 15 July 2016 Abhinand Gopal THE MAJESTIC ROMANS - II
  4. THINGS TO LEARN ABOUT ROMAN ARCHITECTURE - II ▸ Vitruvius Concepts ▸ Concepts of Arches & Vaults - construction techniques ▸ Pantheon - plan, elevation, section, importance ▸ Column Orders: Composite & Tuscan ▸ Town Planning ▸ Public Infrastructure: Aqueducts, Baths, Roads ▸ Communications & Defences ▸ Theatres & Entertainment
  5. HOMINID SPECIES TIMELINE OF HUMAN CIVILISATION ▸ Palaeolithic age ‘old stone age’ (4.5 million years to 10000 BC) ▸ Mesolithic Age ‘middle stone age’ (10,000 BC - 6800 BC) ▸ Neolithic Age ‘new stone age’ (6800 BC - 3000 BC) ▸ Bronze Age (3000 BC - 1200 BC) ▸ Iron Age (1200 BC - 1 AD) ▸ Middle Ages (1 AD - 1453 AD) ▸ Renaissance (1453 - 1700 AD) ▸ Industrial Revolution (1700 - 1914 AD) ▸ Modern (from 20th century - 1990s) ▸ Digital Age (1990s to present)
  6. What’s the population of Earth?
  7. The largest city in the world with a population of 1 million
  8. present day international boundaries showing countries in Europe
  9. Population City Size Density (per sq. km) 1. Tokyo 3.4 crore 8,547 sq kms 4,300 4. Delhi + NCR 2.3 crore 1,943 sq kms 11,500 13. Mumbai 1.7 Crore 550 sq kms 30,900 16. Dhaka 1.5 Crore 360 sq kms 44,000 Taken from: DEMOGRAPHIA WORLD URBAN AREAS 2012 Edition Population v/s density v/s city size
  10. what did they possess to rule the vast territories?
  11. PLACES ITALY 1.Sicily 2.Rome 3.Florence 4.Pisa 5.Milan 6.Venice
  12. NATURAL FACTORS GEOGRAPHY & CLIMATE ▸ Mediterranean climate. ▸ Unique geography with multiple variations ▸ Apennines running all along the peninsula ▸ Hot-Dry summers & Rainy- cool winters ▸ Mainly consists of the peninsula & the seas ▸ best climate in the world
  13. Italy: a country in the E. Mediterranean Sea made of small islands and having a long indented coastline
  14. physical map of Italy
  15. Iron Age (1250 - 1 AD) characterised by 1. gender & social bias 2. building marvels & technology 3. economic divide, military regimes & colonisation
  16. development of Roman Republic- Imperial Empire between 27 BC to 300 AD
  17. FACTORS INFLUENCING HUMAN SOCIETY & ARCHITECTURE ▸ natural factors - geography, geology, climate ▸ civilisation factors - religion, social structure, technology & history of the group, economy geography: availability of water, fertile soil & natural barriers geology: building materials & construction climate: building design & orientation, presence of fenestrations (doors, windows)
  18. Jupiter: God of Sky; Juno: wide of Jupiter, councillor of Rome; Neptune: god of the Sea & horses; Minerva: daughter of Zeus & Hera; Apollon: Sun God; Diana: goddess of Hunting; Mars: God of War, Venus: Goddess of Love ROMANS WORSHIPPED A PANTHEON OF 12 GODS
  19. Roman Gods derived from Greek Myths
  20. Roman Social Hierarchy
  21. FACTORS INFLUENCING HUMAN SOCIETY & ARCHITECTURE ▸ natural factors - geography, geology, climate ▸ civilisation factors - history of the group, social structure,religion, building typologies & construction techniques
  23. acquired major territories from Macedonian Wars (against Greek states) & Punic Wars (against Carthage) Roman Republic (500 BC - 27 BC): establishment of Rome to rule of Augustus Caesar (known as Octavius Caesar), nephew of Julius Caesar Roman Empire (27 BC - 311AD): ruled in the name of Emperor till the split of Roman Empire into west & east empires. East headed by ‘Constantinople’ TIMELINE OF ROMAN CIVILIZATION
  26. NEW BUILDING MATERIALS “AUGUSTUS CHANGED ROME FROM A CITY OF STONE TO MARBLE” ‣ The first use of concrete in Rome is credited to the discovery of Pozzolona sand near Naples ‣ It acts a cement for it’s binding properties
  27. Vitruvius explaining to Emperor Augustus about building public infrastructure using his own concepts Vitruvius, was a Roman author, architect, civil engineer and military engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled De architectura.
  28. D’ ARCHITECTURA BEAUTY - STRUCTURE- FUNCTION ‣ first discusses the classical orders of the Greek civilisation ‣ the need for system of proportions ‣ "triad" of characteristics associated with architecture: utilitas, firmitas and venustas (commodity, firmness and delight) ‣ beauty (section): to understand aesthetics of the time ‣ structure (elevation): building materials used & construction technique ‣ function (plan): to understand the spaces better
  29. Archamedian Screw Principle
  30. PROPORTIONS fibonacci series || Golden Ratio
  31. • Cities were the centre of Roman life – Need for infrastructures • Water and sewer system • Transport and defence • Public spaces and markets – Psychological effect: power and control • There was a need of linking them throug paved roads • The rest of the space was divided into squares in which insulae or blocks of flats were built
  32. TEXT
  33. • The most important part of the city was the forum, where political, economic, administrative, social and religious activity were centred. • Main buildings were in this forum • In big cities there were theatres, circuses, stadiums, odeons.
  34. • Forums were cultural centres in cities. • They were often placed at the crossroads of important urban ways: cardo maximus and decumanus. • A great porticated square was the centre of a group of buildings around it. • They were communicated through it. • Temples for Imperial worship, schools, basilicae, markets or even termae had a direct access through forum. • In many cases even buildings for spectacles -circus, theatres and amphitheatres- were communicated so. • Forums were a way in for important persons to tribunals. 

  35. Houses: Insulae • There are urban houses • In order to take advantage from the room in cities, buildings up to four floors were constructed. • The ground floor was for shops -tabernae- and the others for apartments of different sizes. • Every room was communicated through a central communitarian patio decorated with flowers or gardens.
  36. TEXT
  37. Houses: Domus • It was the usual housing for important people in each city. • It was endowed with a structure based on distribution through porticated patios: – the entry -fauces- gives access to – a small corridor -vestibulum-. – It leads to a porticated patio -atrium-. – Its center, the impluvium, is a bank for the water falling from the compluvium. – At both sides -alae- there are many chambers used as rooms for service slaves, kitchens and latrines. – At the bottom, the tablinum or living-room can be found, and close to it, the triclinium or dining-room. – This atrium gave also light enough to next rooms. – At both sides of the tablinum, little corridors led to the noble part of the domus. – Second porticated patio peristylium, was bigger and endowed with a central garden. – It was surrounded by rooms -cubiculum- and marked by an exedra used as a chamber for banquets or social meetings.
  38. Religious: Temple • It copied the Greek model • It has only one portico and a main façade • It tends to be pseudoperiptero • The cella is totally closed • It is built on a podium • Instead of having stairs all around, it only has them in the main façade
  39. Religious: Temple • There were other kind of temples: • Circular: similar to the Greek tholos • Pantheon: combined squared and circular structures and was in honour of all gods.
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  41. Civil Buildings: Baths • There were spaces for public life • They consisted of different rooms: • Changing rooms – Different temperature rooms: • Frigidarium (cold) • Tepidarium (warm) • Caldarium (hot) – Swimming pool – Gymnasium – Library
  42. BATHS
  43. Caracalla´s Bath House
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  46. waterducts • Roman engineers were true masters building them, since constructions were essential elements for reaching places and cities often situated at the bank of rivers. • This location was due to defensive and infrastructural reasons -supply and drainage. • They are characterised by: – Not pointed arches. – Constructions of ashlars masonry often with pad shape. – Route of more than 5 m. wide. – Route of horizontal or slightly combed surface "few curved". – Rectangular pillars from their basis with lateral triangular or circular cutwaters that end before the railings.
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  49. • Aqueducts were built in order to avoid geographic irregularities between fountains or rivers and towns. • Not only valleys were crossed by superposed cannels, but also mountains were excavated by long tunnels, pits and levels of maintenance. • They were used to bring water to cities.
  50. Communications & Defenses
  51. CIVILISATION FACTORS REPUBLIC & MILITARY ▸ believed in polytheism ▸ primary worship of triad Gods ▸ managed the affairs of the Republic through represented officials ▸ change from military primitive army strategies which were successful on plains to the formation of legions, to fight in hilly regions. ▸ every citizen were given basic rights to raise up hierarchy if showed talent
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  55. PEOPLE BEYOND THE WALL HADRIAN’S WALL ▸ First wall to create a long barrier ▸ Like Great Wall of China made by the Ming dynasty majorly.
  56. • Material combinations in walls: • Walls were made in one of these ways: Ashlar Masonry Brick
  57. • Defence of cities has been one of the capital problems that civilizations had to solve in order to project the future of their citizens, goods, culture and ways of life. • Romans were the first in the technique of improving different kinds of defence, using walls.
  59. Ports and Lighthouses
  60. • Roman ships and those for commercial trade should travel from port to port with the speed and security adequate to the life of a great Empire. • In these ports every necessity for the execution of the usual works in a port ensemble should be found: – gateways with stores and bureaux, – shipyards for stationing ships, – roads for taking ships to earthly ground, – drinkable water fountains and – machinery for loading and downloading merchandises. • Indeed, a system of indication was necessary in order to mark the right access and exit to the port. 

  61. • Paved roads were needed to reach to any point of the empire • They facilitated both communication and political control
  62. • The roads were not completely flat • They consisted of several parts – The central and highest was the most important, it was convex to conduct the water to the – Ditches that were built in the sides Paved Roads • The roads were made with strong foundations • Different materials were put into different layers • To meassure the distance they created the Milliarium or stones located in the sides Section of a Roman paved road
  65. Spectacles: Theatre • It is similar to the Greek but it is not located in a mountain but it is completely built • It has a semicircular scenery • The doors to facilitate peoples’ movement are called vomitoria • It does not have the orchestra because in Roman plays was not a chorus • The rest of the parts are similar to those of the Greek theatre
  66. Merida’s Roman Theatre
  67. Spectacles: Amphitheatre • It comes from the fusion of two theatres • It was the place for spectacles with animals and fights (gladiators) • There could be filled with water for naval battles.
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  69. Spectacles: Circus • It was a building for horse races and cuadriga competitions. • It has the cavea, the area and a central element to turn around, the spina.
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  73. Sketches Required for UNIT 3 Roman Architecture: Buildings of Roman Civilisation: 1. Map of Italy & major important cities/regions 2. Etruscan Temple: plan, elevation & section 3. Tuscan Order with details and compare analysis with Greek Column 4. Find out about Composite Order and draw the column with necessary details 5. Study briefly about the ten books of Architecture written by Vitruvius 6. Explain Roman Roads & Aqueducts through sketches. 7. Draw architectural sketches of any 4 building typologies Mode of Submission: A3 sketch books Submission Date: 22 July 2016 Movies recommended for better visual understanding of Roman Civilisation: Gladiator, Rome (tv series), Spartacus, Ben Hur, Julius Caesar (Novel), Cleopatra, Asterix & Obelisk, Passion of the Christ etc.
  74. INFERENCES ▸ aquaducts: 2012/12/10/aqueducts-of-rome/ ▸ ▸ ▸ ▸ p=2446#sthash.yWi70Na2.dpbs ▸ the-gioi/