1. Models serve as 1. In curriculum, there are
guidelines to action. models of curriculum as
opposed to models of
2. Models are found in curriculum dev’t
almost every form of 2. According to Oliver in
education. chapter five, 4 models of
3. The education curriculum development
profession has are presented.
models of instruction, 3. Using a model in
activities like curriculum
of administration, of development can result in
evaluation, of greater efficiency and
supervision etc. productivity.
The Four Models in the Chapter
Models as: Specification Belief
Hilda Taba Deductive/ Grass-root Cur sh’d be
Model approach to developed by
Inductive cur. Dev’t teachers
4 Taylor Deductive Special focus Process-
Model to the planning selecting
phase educational obj
3 Saylor , Deductive Planners begin Depicted
Alexander, & by major edu. elements of
Lewis Model Goals and cur. Dev’t
Didactic Comprehensiv From source of
Oliver Model e step-by-step cur to
Hilda Taba Model
1. Hilda Taba believed that there should be a clear definate
order to curriculum design and that teachers must be
involved in the process. There are 8 steps to the Taba
model of curriculum development:
a. Identify the needs of the students,
b. Develop objectives,
c. Choose content that matches the objectives,
d. Organize content considering the learners experiences and
e. Select instructional method that promote student engagement,
f. Organize learning experiences by sequencing content,
g. Evaluate to ensure mastery, and
h. Checking for the balance and sequence.
Application of the Taba Model
Taba model is currently used today in most
curriculum designs. The steps still used are:
a. Identifying the needs of the students
b. Developing objectives
c. Selecting instructional methods
d. Organizing learning experiences
1. From Tyler’s model of curriculum development,
there are four basic questions:
a. What is the purpose of the education?
b. What educational experiences will attain the
c. How can these experiences be effectively
d. How can we determine when the purposes are
Saylor, Alexander and Lewis
The curriculum planner must begin by setting educational goals and specific objectives
that they wish to accomplish. Saylor, Alexander and Lewis classified sets of broad goals
into four domains under which learning experiences may take place: personal
development, social competence, continued learning skills, and specialization.
a.Once the learning goals, objectives and domains have been established, the planners
can then move into the process of planning the curriculum.
b.The first step, curriculum designing, is made by the curriculum planning groups.
Here, the curriculum workers decide on the appropriate learning opportunities for
each domain and how and when these opportunities will be made available.
c.After the designs have been created, curriculum implementation begins. Teachers
select the methods through which the curriculum will be related to the learner.
Teachers identify the specific instructional objectives before selecting the strategies to
d.Finally, teachers and curriculum planners evaluate the curriculum. They evaluate the
total educational program and the evaluation program itself during this step of the
process. This process allows educators to determine whether or not the goals and
learning objectives have been met.
Oliva Model of Curriculum Dev
According to Oliva, a model curriculum should be simple, comprehensive and
systematic. The Oliva Curriculum development model is composed of 12
a.Component 1: Philosophical formulation, target, mission and vision of the
b.Component 2: Analysis of the needs of the community where the school is
c. Components 3 and 4: General purpose and special purpose curriculum
d. Component 5: Organizing the design and implement curriculum
e.Component 6 and 7: Describe the curriculum in the form of the formulation
of general objectives and specific learning
f.Component 8: Define the learning strategy
g. Component 9: Preliminary studies on possible strategies or assessment
techniques to be used
h. Component 10: Implement the learning strategy
i.Components 11 and 12: Evaluation of learning and curriculum evaluation
To make the Oliva Model more simplistic, it can
be set forth in 17 specific steps:
1. Specify the needs of the students in general.
2. Specify the needs of society.
3. Write a statement of philosophy and aims of education.
4. Specify the needs of students in your school.
5. Specify the needs of the particular community.
6. Specify the needs of the subject matter.
7. Specify the curriculum goals of your school.
8. Specify the curriculum objectives of your school.
9. Organize and implement the curriculum.
10. Specify instructional goals.
11. Specify instructional objectives.
12. Specify instructional strategies.
13. Begin selection of evaluation techniques.
14. Implement instructional strategies.
15. Make final selection of evaluation techniques.
16. Evaluate instruction and modify instructional components.
17. Evaluate the curriculum and modify curricular components.