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Processing of Tea
Tea processing -leaves from the tea plant
Camellia sinensis are transformed into
the dried leaves for brewing tea
starts with freshly-plucked leaf and ends
with ‘finished’, or ‘made’ tea.
There are some classes of tea (green,
yellow, white, oolong and black)
Come from same plant
The different types are the result of
differences in the tea manufacturing
process, and not due to different
types of tea plants.
Although each type of tea has different
taste, smell, and visual appearance, tea
processing for all tea types consists of a
very similar set of methods with only
Scientific name :Camellia sinensis.
Family : Camelliaceae.
It is a method in which the leaves and
flushes from camellia sinensis are
transferred into the dried leaves for
Tea leaves and flushes, which includes a
terminal bud and two young leaves, are
picked from Camellia sinensis bushes
Collected twice a year during early spring
and early summer or late spring.
Picking is done by hand when a higher quality
tea is needed, or where labour costs are not
The tea leaves begin to wilt soon after
Withering is used to remove excess water
from the leaves and allows a very slight
amount of oxidation.
The leaves can be either put under the
sun or left in a cool breezy room to pull
moisture out from the leaves.
The process is also important in promoting the
breakdown of leaf proteins into free amino
increases the availability of freed caffeine, both
of which change the taste of the tea.
the tea leaves are bruised or torn in order to
promote and quicken oxidation.
The leaves may be lightly bruised on their
edges by shaking and tossing in a bamboo
tray or tumbling in baskets
More extensive leaf disruption can be done
Tea leaves are passed on to the Withering
trough, Where it gets crushed and goes to
the Rotor Vane
and other instrument used for crushing tea
Rolling / Shaping
The damp tea leaves are then rolled to be
formed into wrinkled strips, by hand
or using a rolling machine which causes the tea
to wrap around itself.
This rolling action also causes some of the sap,
essential oils, and juices inside the leaves to
ooze out, which further enhances the taste of
For teas that require oxidation, the leaves are
left on their own in a climate-controlled room
where they turn progressively darker.
This is accompanied by agitation in some cases.
oxidation occurs during the manufacture of
white, oolong, and black teas.
Green and yellow teas are prevented from
oxidizing by steaming, drying and/or frying
During the manufacture of tea, both
spontaneous and controlled oxidation occurs
Oxidation in tea manufacture officially begins
during the withering stage as spontaneous
then accelerates gradually during the
subsequent steps necessary to transform fresh
leaf into finished black tea
Oxidation process is often incorrectly
termed as “fermentation”
In traditional oxidation, sieved leaf is
spread out in a thin layer (2-3 inches or 5-8
cm) on the floor of factory , on tables or
Several flavor compounds produced by reaction with
sugars and amino acids
Green Tea - no oxidation
Yellow Tea -no oxidation
White Tea slight, spontaneous oxidation occurs (8-15%)
Oolong Tea- partial oxidation
Black Tea fully oxidized
Puerh always fermented, not always oxidized
Fermentation is important in manufacture
The leaves must be exposed to bacteria ( or
have bacteria present inherently) in order for
fermentation to occur
exposure to oxygen during tea manufacture is
often reduced or eliminated after the withering
stage for fermentation
bacteria required to both initiate and
maintain fermentation are potentially present
during several aspects of its production:
1. On the surfaces of the leaf of the old-
growth plants themselves
2. In the controlled environment of the tea
production rooms in which the ‘Raw’ is
Fixation / Kill-green
is done to stop the tea leaf oxidation at a
This process is accomplished by moderately
heating tea leaves, thus deactivating their
Drying is done to "finish" the tea for sale. This can
be done by panning, sunning, air drying, or baking.
The drying of the produced tea is responsible for
many new flavour compounds particularly
important in green teas
Aging / Curing
some teas required additional aging,
secondary fermentation, or baking to
reach their drinking potential
. Packing is the process of preserving the
product using the cheapest but most
appropriate material taking in to account
the product properties.
Before packing tea is passed under
powerful magnets to prevent possible
pieces of iron mixing with the tea
Nutritional benefit &
1) Packed with Antioxidant
2) Fight Cancer
3) Burns Fat
4) Prevent heart Disease
5) Slow Memory lose
6) Boost Immune System
7) Relieves Stress
8) Corrects digestive issues
Main Component of Tea
2) Phenolic compound
3) Amino acids
Orthodox tea is made of the two top leaves
of each plant, thus giving the best quality
of tea, rich of taste and capable of
multiple infusions. These leaves are
carefully handpicked, hand-rolled and
dried. Leaves processed in this way are
later sold as loose leaf tea.
2. CTC Method
The CTC method (for crush, tear, and
curl) uses machines to process the tea.
The leaves, buds and stems are crushed
and torn by several cylindrical rollers with
sharp “teeth”. This produces finely ground,
low quality tea used mostly for bagged
tea, highly recommended for one infusion
Different types of teas
Green tea is made from the leaves from
Camellia sinensis that have undergone
minimal oxidation during processing.
These varieties can differ substantially due to
variable growing conditions, horticulture,
production processing, and harvesting time.
The processing of oolong tea requires only
a partial oxidation of the leaves.
Here only 50% fermentation is done.
Black Tea is a type of tea that is more
oxidized than oolong, green and white
Black tea is generally stronger in flavour
than the less oxidized teas.
Instant teas are produced from black tea by
extracting the liquor from processed leaves,
tea wastes, or undried fermented leaves,
concentrating the extract under low pressure,
and drying the concentrate to a powder by
freeze-drying, spray-drying, or vacuum-drying.
Low temperature used to
minimize loss of flavour
“herbal teas” are single or blended
infusions of leaves, fruits, bark roots or
flowers of almost any edible, non-tea
Most herbal teas are naturally caffeine-