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  1. 1. 1 What you need to know Immunization Prepared by Public Health Services 2011 Version 2.0 S:/Public Health/Teams/Immunization Program/School-Based Immunization/2011-2012/Resources & Forms 1
  2. 2. 2 Presented by Public Health Services 2011 2011-2012 Grade 7 Immunization Program  3 immunization clinics  6 month vaccination schedule For females & males: •Tetanus, Diphtheria, & Acellular Pertussis (dTap) •Meningococcal C •Hepatitis B For females only: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 2
  3. 3. 3 The importance of immunizations: Presented by Public Health Services 2011 Vaccines save lives and are part of a Public Health success story  Some diseases, like tetanus, are spread in the environment  Other diseases, like diphtheria, are spread through direct physical contact (touching) or through the air (breathing, coughing)  Travel can spread rare diseases quickly  For many diseases that are prevented by vaccines, there are no effective treatments 3
  4. 4. 4 Vaccine successes: Smallpox & Polio  Smallpox was one of the most deadly diseases in human history  The virus was transmitted through the air when an infected person breathed out, coughed or sneezed  Children are no longer vaccinated against smallpox  Other example: Polio  Virus causes paralysis and breathing problems  Eliminated in most of the world (Salk vaccine, 1955)  If all children are vaccinated, polio will be eradicated (wiped out) 4 Presented by Public Health Services 2011
  5. 5. 5 Smallpox  Smallpox is a serious, contagious, and sometimes fatal disease  Caused by the variola virus  Eliminated by vaccines 5 Presented by Public Health Services 2011
  6. 6. 6 How do vaccines work?  Vaccines are weakened/killed versions of bacteria or viruses  “Mimic” infection in the body  Immune system uses antibodies & white blood cells to develop an “immune memory” against the disease 6 Presented by Public Health Services 2011
  7. 7. 7 Can I get sick from a vaccine?  Vaccines are very safe  You cannot get tetanus, Diphtheria, pertussis, meningitis, HPV or Hepatitis B from a vaccine  Possible side effects:  pain, redness or swelling at the injection site  mild headache, fever, chills, diarrhea, nausea, body aches, low energy and sore joints 7 Presented by Public Health Services 2011
  8. 8. 8 Tetanus  Toxin affects the spinal cord  painful muscle spasm and seizures  Found in soil, rusty nails, animal bites, etc.  Even with treatment, tetanus can cause death  Last tetanus death in Canada was in 1991 8 Presented by Public Health Services 2011
  9. 9. 9 Diphtheria  Caused by a toxin made by a bacteria that infect the nose, throat or skin  Spread through touching, coughing, sneezing  A thick membrane blocks the airway  Can cause nerve and kidney damage  Before the vaccine was created in the 1920s over 1000 deaths/year occurred in Canada  Since 1983, less than 5 cases/year 9 Presented by Public Health Services 2011
  10. 10. 10 Pertussis  Also known as “whooping cough”  Germs (bacteria) are spread through coughing  Before vaccine: 30,000- 50,000 cases/year and 50-100 deaths  Today: 3,000 cases/year and 5 deaths/year 10 Presented by Public Health Services 2011
  11. 11. 11 Meningitis  Meningitis is an infection of the coverings around the brain and spinal cord  The infection occurs most often in children, teens, and young adults. 11 Presented by Public Health Services 2011
  12. 12. 12 Hepatitis B Hepatitis B is a virus that causes the liver to swell, and can lead to other liver problems such as cancer. There is no cure! You can get it through blood and body fluids Presented by Public Health Services 2011
  13. 13. 13 Presented by Public Health Services 2011 Human Papilloma Virus •HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) that affects both females and males •There are many types of HPV: •Some types of HPV are harmless •Some types of HPV lead to cervical cancer or genital warts •THERE IS NO CURE FOR HPV •HPV vaccine can prevent 2 types of viruses that cause cervical cancer and 2 types that cause genital warts 13
  14. 14. 14 Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) What is it? What does it do? How do you get it? Can it be treated and cured? HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) Caused by a virus One of the most common STI viruses Some types of HPV cause genital warts (growths in, on, or around the genitals or anal area) Other types can cause cancer of the cervix, penis, or anus Skin-to-skin contact with the genital area of an infected person There is no cure for HPV, but in some cases, over time, the virus goes away on its own Genital warts can be treated but may come back SEX? – A Healthy Sexuality Resource 14
  15. 15. 15 Clinic Day: The nurse’s role  Our Public Health team can answer questions and provide support  We will also give you a paper record following the completion of your vaccines 15 Presented by Public Health Services 2011
  16. 16. Presented by Public Health Services 2011 Clinic Day: Tips to make it better Eat a healthy breakfast Wear a short- sleeved T-shirt RELAX: Go to your ‘happy place’! Be a supportive friend for others 16
  17. 17. 17 Helpful Tips  Take slow deep Breaths  Sit up straight  Keep yourself distracted  Have a conversation with the nurse  Bring a comfort item to focus on
  18. 18. 18 Presented by Public Health Services 2008 VACCINES: A great way to defend yourself ANY QUESTIONS? 18

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • dTap is three vaccines in one and prevents diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis
    dTap is given in a single needle
    The HPV vaccine is given as a series of 3 needles over 6 months
    Hepatitis B Vaccine is given as a series of 2 needles over 6 months
    Meningococcal C is a single needle
  • Smallpox is an acute, contagious, and sometimes fatal disease caused by the variola virus (an orthopoxvirus), and marked by fever and a distinctive progressive skin rash. In 1980, the disease was declared eradicated following worldwide vaccination programs.
    Smallpox can be prevented through use of the smallpox vaccine.
    The picture of smallpox above (from a medical textbook) shows what smallpox looks like on the skin
    There is no proven treatment for smallpox.
    POLIO: The polio virus may affect the nerves governing the muscles in the limbs and the muscles necessary for breathing, causing respiratory difficulty and paralysis of the arms and legs.
    Vaccines is the best success in decreasing diseases
  • From the US CDC:
    Smallpox is a serious, contagious, and sometimes fatal infectious disease. There is no specific treatment for smallpox disease, and the only prevention is vaccination. The pox part of smallpox is derived from the Latin word for “spotted” and refers to the raised bumps that appear on the face and body of an infected person.

    The last naturally occurring case in the world was in Somalia in 1977. After the disease was eliminated from the world, routine vaccination against smallpox among the general public was stopped because it was no longer necessary for prevention.

    Smallpox is caused by the variola virus that emerged in human populations thousands of years ago.

    Generally, direct and fairly prolonged face-to-face contact is required to spread smallpox from one person to another. Smallpox also can be spread through direct contact with infected bodily fluids or contaminated objects such as bedding or clothing. Rarely, smallpox has been spread by virus carried in the air in enclosed settings such as buildings, buses, and trains. Humans are the only natural hosts of variola. Smallpox is not known to be transmitted by insects or animals.

    A person with smallpox is sometimes contagious with onset of fever, but the person becomes most contagious with the onset of rash. At this stage the infected person is usually very sick and not able to move around in the community. The infected person is contagious until the last smallpox scab falls off.
  • Preservatives that are used in vaccines are found naturally in the body already.
    There is no proof that these preservatives lead to any problems.
  • Tetanus is caused by a toxin (nerve poison) and is NOT contagious person-to-person
    20-30% cases result in death (even with treatment)
    Tetanus germs have a reputation for hanging out on rusty nails, but the spores (dormant forms of the bacteria) can be found almost anywhere -- and they are extremely hardy. Tetanus is more common when it's warm and humid, but can be found in all climates. The spores are common in soils around the world, especially in areas with lots of people or animals, including farms, jungles, and your own backyard. The germ is found in the intestines of people as well as cats, dogs, and other domestic animals, and you can get it from an animal bite.
  • The word diphtheria is Greek for “leather scrolls” – probably because of the leathery membrane that develops in the mouth and throat and obstructs the airway
    If the infected person doesn’t have antibodies, the toxin kills many of the cells lining the nose and throat. The tissue becomes damaged and a thick leathery membrane forms. The toxin can also be absorbed into the body.
    In cases that progress beyond a throat infection, diphtheria toxin spreads through the bloodstream and can lead to potentially life-threatening complications that affect other organs of the body, such as the heart and kidneys. The toxin can cause damage to the heart that affects its ability to pump blood or the kidneys' ability to clear wastes. It can also cause nerve damage, eventually leading to paralysis. Up to 40% to 50% of those who don't get treated can die.
    Diphtheria is highly contagious. It's easily passed from the infected person to others through sneezing, coughing, or even laughing. It can also be spread to others who pick up tissues or drinking glasses that have been used by the infected person.
  • Pertussis (whooping cough) is an infection caused by a bacteria.
    The infection usually begins with a runny nose and a cough. Soon, the cough may end in gagging, vomiting or trouble breathing. Sometimes after a coughing attack, the child may give a loud "whoop" when breathing in, which is why the infection has been called "whooping cough". The "whooping" symptom does not always occur.
    It takes a long time for children to get over pertussis. They are usually sick for 6 to 10 weeks. The disease is most severe in infants younger than one year of age. Many of these infants become so sick that they have to be cared for in hospital.
    Pertussis spreads very easily from person to person in the same household or day nursery.
    The germs are spread through the air when a person coughs. People with pertussis can spread germs from the time they have the first symptoms (runny nose then cough) until three weeks after the coughing attack starts.
    More adult cases in recent years
  • Meningitis is an infection of the coverings around the brain and spinal cord.

    The infection occurs most often in children, teens, and young adults. Also at risk are older adults and people who have long-term health problems, such as a weakened immune system.

    There are two main kinds of meningitis: Viral meningitis is fairly common. It usually does not cause serious illness. In severe cases, it can cause prolonged fever and seizures. Bacterial meningitis is not as common but is very serious. It needs to be treated right away to prevent brain damage and death.

    What causes meningitis?
    Viral meningitis is caused by viruses. Bacterial meningitis is caused by bacteria. Meningitis can also be caused by other organisms and some medicines, but this is rare. Meningitis is contagious. The germs that cause it can be passed from one person to another through coughing and sneezing and through close contact.

    What are the symptoms?
    The most common symptoms among teens and young adults are:
    A stiff and painful neck, especially when you try to touch your chin to your chest.
    Trouble staying awake.
  • Hepatitis B is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV is found in the blood, semen, and vaginal secre­tions of an infected person.
    HBV is a hardy virus that can exist on almost any surface for up to one month. You can get infected with HBV through contact with an infected person’s blood or body fluids. HBV can be spread in the following ways:
    • unprotected vaginal or anal sex
    • living in a household with a person with chronic (life-long) HBV infection
    • sharing personal care items such as toothbrushes, razors, or nail clippers
    • sharing needles or paraphernalia (works) for illegal drug use
    • tattooing or body piercing with unsterile equipment. Tattoo and piercing shops are not regulated in Nova Scotia. So their needles could be dirty!
    • human bites
    You do not get hepatitis B from sneezing, coughing, kissing, or holding hands.

    Promote safe and healthy sex practices
  • HPV is the most common STI (almost everyone gets HPV t some time in their life)
    Often, the body gets rid of HPV on its own and the infected person never knows about it
    There are many different types of HPV. Some are harmless and other types lead to cervical cancer or genital warts.
    There is no cure for HPV, but the HPV vaccine prevents the two types of HPV that cause 70% of cervical cancer
    Tests have shown that the HPV vaccine works best when given to girls between the ages of 9 and 15; this is why it is offered to grade 7 girls.
    Nova Scotia has very high Cervical Caner rates compared to the rest of the country.
    Gardasil is the vaccine offered
  • You will be asked some Questions and all your answers will be kept confidential
    Immunization line:481-4956