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  1. 1. ABDULHAMID MOHAMED 17.03.2016
  2. 2.  Biopolymers introduction  Types of biopolymers Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nucleic acids Contents
  3. 3. Biopolymers are polymers produced by living organisms; in other words, they are polymeric biomolecules. Since they are polymers, biopolymers contain monomeric units that are covalently bonded to form larger structures.
  4. 4. Types of Biopolymers BIOPOLYMER Polynucleotide Polypeptide polysaccharides There are three types of BIOPOLYMERS according to their monomeric units used and the structure of biopolymer formed.
  5. 5. Biorenewable biopolymers • Polymers of biological origin Carbohydrates…..starch Proteins……haemoglobin Nucleic acids….DNA Lipids…..
  6. 6. Nucleic Acids
  7. 7. Nucleic Acids • Large and complex organic molecules that store and transfer genetic information in the cell • Types of nucleic acids i. DNA =deoxyribonucleic acid ii. RNA = Ribonucleic acid
  8. 8. Building blocks of Nucleic Acids • Monomers of nucleic acids are nucleotides • Components of a nucleotide - nitrogen base - sugar - phosphate
  9. 9. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) • Double helix • Found in the nucleus • Stores hereditary information
  10. 10. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) • Is a single helix • Can be found in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of the cell • Helps build proteins • Can act as an enzyme
  11. 11. Polypeptide • A long chain of amino acids…POLYPEPTIDE • Proteins are composed of one or more polypeptides
  12. 12. Amino Acid Structure R Groups of amino acids • Difference in amino acids…….. R groups • R group……simple or complex • R groups…different shapes & characteristics
  13. 13. Peptide bond -COOH group of one amino acid joined with the -NH2 group of the next amino acid through condensation polymerization
  14. 14. Proteins
  15. 15. Proteins • Polymers of amino acids covalently linked through peptide bonds • Natural organic molecules….C, H, O, N • Monomers…….amino acids
  16. 16. Building blocks of proteins • There are 20 different amino acids • All 20 amino acids share the same basic structure • Every amino acid contains - an amino group - a carboxyl group - a hydrogen atom - a central carbon atom - R (alkyl/aryl) group
  17. 17. Role of Proteins • Structural roles…….cytoskeleton • Catalysts……enzymes • Transporter………ions and molecules • Hormones • Many enzymes are proteins • Biological catalysts • Lower the activation energy of chemical reactions • Increase the rate of chemical reactions
  18. 18. Structure of Proteins
  19. 19. Sensitivity of Proteins • Temperature • pH • Denature proteins
  20. 20. LIPIDS
  21. 21. Lipids • Large, nonpolar organic molecules • LIPIDS do NOT Dissolve in Water! • Have a higher ratio of carbon and hydrogen atoms to oxygen atoms than carbohydrates • Lipids store more energy per gram than other organic compounds
  22. 22. Categories of Lipids • Fatty Acids • Triglycerides • Phospholipids • Waxes and Oils • Steroids
  23. 23. Fatty Acids • Linear carbon chains • On one end of the carbon chain is a carboxyl group • On the other end of the carbon chain is a methyl group
  24. 24. Fatty acid chain • The carboxyl end is polar and is hydrophilic • The carboxyl end will dissolve in water • The methyl end is nonpolar and is hydrophobic • The methyl end will not dissolve in water
  25. 25. Types of Fatty Acids • Unsaturated fatty acids……carbon chain contains double bonds • Saturated fatty acids……carbon chain contains single bonds
  26. 26. Triglycerides One molecule of glycerol and three fatty acid chains Saturated triglycerides…butter, fats and red meat Unsaturated triglycerides….plant seeds
  27. 27. Phospholipids One glycerol + two fatty acids + one phosphate group Compose cell membranes
  28. 28. A long fatty acid chain joined to a long alcohol chain Waterproof Form a protective coating in animals & plants
  29. 29. Steroids Four fused carbon rings…..cholesterol Many animal hormones are steroid compounds
  30. 30. Carbohydrates
  31. 31.  Carbohydrates are organic compounds 1C:2H:1O Source of energy……..sugars Store of energy………..starch  Structural materials….polysaccharides  Components of other molecules e.g. DNA, RNA, glycolipids, glycoproteins
  32. 32. Tree of Carbohydrates Monosaccharide Disaccharide Oligosaccharide Polysaccharide
  33. 33. Monosaccharide  Single monomer of carbohydrate….glucose Simple sugar 1C:2H:1O A source of quick energy Glucose – main source of energy Fructose – fruits sugar/sweetest sugar Galactose – milk sugar Common MonosacchArides
  34. 34. Glucose Structural formula. Straight chain glucose H-C=O | H-C-OH | HO-C-H | H-C-OH | H-C-OH | CH2OH Glucose glucose bending Glucose Two ring-shape versions alpha-glucose beta-glucose Glucose bends itself into 4 different shapes millions of times a second 1 4 6 2 3 5 Used in making cellulose Used in making starch flips either waybends
  35. 35. Monosaccharide isomers Galactose Glucose Fructose Same molecular formula, but different structural formulas
  36. 36. Disaccharides • “Di” means two • Two monosaccharides combine • Common Disaccharides are - Lactose (found in milk) - Maltose - Sucrose (table sugar) Maltose Sucrose Lactose
  37. 37. Polysaccharides  Poly means……..many Large sugars Structural materials Examples • Glycogen • Starch • Chitin • Cellulose •Keratin •Gelatin
  38. 38. Cellulose Starch
  39. 39.  is a long-chain polymer of an N-acetyl glucosamine. a derivative of glucose, and is found in many places throughout the natural world. It is a characteristic component of the cell walls of fungi, the exoskeletons of arthropods such as crustaceans and insects, and other living cell organisms Chitin A close-up of the wing of a sap beetle; the wing is composed of chitin
  40. 40.  Chitin is a modified polysaccharide that contains nitrogen  it is synthesized from units of N-acetylglucosamine (to be precise, 2-(acetylamino)-2-deoxy-D-glucose).  These units form covalent β-1,4 linkages, (similar to the linkages between glucose units forming cellulose).  Therefore, chitin may be described as cellulose with one hydroxyl group on each monomer replaced with an acetyl amine group.  This allows for increased hydrogen bonding between adjacent polymers, giving the chitin-polymer matrix increased strength.  In its pure, unmodified form, chitin is translucent, pliable, resilient, and quite tough.  In most arthropods, however, it is often modified, occurring largely as a component of composite materials, such as in sclerotin, a tanned proteinaceous matrix, which forms much of the exoskeleton of insects.
  41. 41.  Combined with calcium carbonate, as in the shells of crustaceans and molluscs, chitin produces a much stronger composite. This composite material is much harder and stiffer than pure chitin, and is tougher and less brittle than pure calcium carbonate.  Another difference between pure and composite forms can be seen by comparing the flexible body wall of a caterpillar to the stiff, light elytron of a beetle (containing a large proportion of sclerotin ). •USES Chitin can be used in many different branches of: •Agriculture •Medicine •Industry •Biomedical researchs
  42. 42. Keratin filaments are abundant in keratinocytes in the cornified layer of the epidermis; these are proteins which have undergone keratinization. In addition, keratin filaments are present in epithelial cells in general. For example, mouse thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are known to react with antibodies for keratin 5, keratin 8, and keratin 14. These antibodies are used as fluorescent markers to distinguish subsets of TECs in genetic studies of the thymus. Silk fibroin, considered a β-keratin( glycine and alanine 75– 80% of the total, with 10–15% serine, with the rest having bulky side groups) The chains are antiparallel , with an alternating C → N orientation Keratın
  43. 43. the α-keratins in the hair (including wool), horns, nails, claws and hooves of mammals. the harder β-keratins found in nails and in the scales and claws of reptiles, their shells (Testudines, such as tortoise, turtle, terrapin), and in the feathers, beaks, claws of birds and quills of porcupines. Horns such as those of the impala are made up of keratin covering a core of live bone.
  44. 44.  a translucent, colorless, brittle flavorless food derived from collagen obtained from various animal by-products.  Gelatin is an irreversibly hydrolyzed form of collagen.  Substances containing gelatin or functioning in a similar way are called "gelatinous".  Gelatin is a mixture of peptides and proteins produced by partial hydrolysis of collagen extracted from the skin, bones, and connective tissues of animals such as domesticated cattle, chicken, pigs, horses, and fish.  Gelatin readily dissolves in hot water, and sets to a gel on cooling and in most polar solvent.  The mechanical properties of gelatin gels are very sensitive to temperature variations.  The upper melting point is below human body temperature. gelatıne
  45. 45.  The worldwide production amount of gelatin is about 375,000 metric tons per year.  On a commercial scale, gelatin is made from by-products of the meat and leather industries.  The procedure of produce gelatin have many steps which are : pretreatment, extraction, recovery.
  46. 46.  Culinary uses : different types and grades of gelatin are used in a wide range of food and nonfood products ( gelatin desserts).  Technical uses : •Hide silver halides. •Gelatin is closely related to bone glue and is used as a binder in match heads and sandpaper. •Cosmetics may contain a nongelling variant of gelatin under the name hydrolyzed collagen. •Drugs capsules. And other uses
  47. 47. Natural synthesis of carbohydrates
  48. 48. Biomaterials Science for the benefit of life
  49. 49. Biomaterials Any material used to make devices to replace a part or a function of the living body in a safe, reliable, economic & physiologically acceptable manner OR Any material used to replace part of a living system or to function in intimate contact with living tissue OR A pharmacologically inert substance designed for implantation within or incorporation with living system Natural/synthetic/blend e.g. sutures, tooth fillings, bone replacements, artificial eyes etc.
  50. 50. Biomaterials market
  51. 51. Success of Biomaterial • Properties & biocompatibility • Health condition of recipient • Competency of the surgeon
  52. 52. Required characteristics of a Biomaterial 1. Biocompatibility 2. Pharmacologically acceptable 3. Chemically inert & stable 4. Adequate mechanical strength 5. Sound engineering design 6. Proper weight & density 7. Cost effective 8. Reproducible 9. Easy to process at large scale
  53. 53. Types of Biomaterials
  54. 54. Polymeric Biomaterials • Natural polymeric biomaterials Collagen, Chitosan, Alginate • Synthetic polymeric biomaterials PVC, PP, PS, PU • Degradable polymeric biometrials PLA, PGLA
  55. 55. Natural Polymers as Biomaterials  Polymers derived from living creatures “Scaffolds” grow cells to replace damaged tissue • Biodegradable • Non-toxic • Mechanically similar to the replaced tissue • Capable of attachment with other molecules  Natural polymers used as biomaterials – Collagen, Chitosan and Alginate
  56. 56. Collagen • Consist of three intertwined protein chains, helical structure • Collagen…..non-toxic , minimal immune response • Can be processed into a variety formats – Porous sponges, Gels, and Sheets • Applications – Surgery, Drug delivery, Prosthetic implants and tissue-engineering of multiple organs
  57. 57. Chitosan • Derived from chitin, present in hard exoskeletons of shellfish like shrimp and crab • Chitosan desirable properties – Minimal foreign body reaction – Mild processing conditions – Controllable mechanical – biodegradation properties • Applications – In the engineering of cartilage, nerve, and liver tissue, – wound dressing and drug delivery devices
  58. 58. Alginate (ALGINIC ACID) • A polysaccharide derived from brown seaweed -Can be processed easily in water -non-toxic -Biodegradable -controllable porosity • Forms a solid gel under mild processing conditions • Applications in Liver, nerve, heart, cartilage & tissue-engineering
  59. 59. Synthetic Polymers as Biomaterials • Advantages of Synthetic Polymers – Ease of manufacturability – process ability – reasonable cost • The Required Properties – Biocompatibility – Sterilizability – Physical Property – Manufacturability • Applications – Medical disposable supplies, Prosthetic materials, Dental materials, implants, dressings, polymeric drug delivery, tissue engineering products
  60. 60. Biodegradable Polymers as Biomaterials • Advantages on biodegradable polymer – Didn’t leave traces of residual in the implantation – Regenerate tissue • Desirable properties are - greater hydrophilicity - greater reactivity - greater porosity Most widely used Polylactide (PLA), Polyglycolide (PGA), Poly(glycolide-co- lactide) (PGLA) Applications Tissue screws, suture anchores, cartilage repair Drug-delivery system
  61. 61. Biodegradable • Natural polymers Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) Cellulose composites/membranes Polylactide acid (PLA)/Starch blends • Synthetic polymers Polyesters Polyvinyl alcohol Polycaprolactone
  62. 62. Biocompatibility of biomaterials • The ability of a material to elicit an appropriate biological response in a specific application without producing a toxic, injurious, or immunological response in living tissue – Strongly determined by primary chemical structure • When an object is incorporated into the body without any immune responses it is said to be BIOCOMPATIBLE
  63. 63. Standardization of Biomaterials  FDA (united states food and drug administration)  Biocompatibility tests • acute systemic toxicity………denoting the part of circulatory system • Cytotoxicity…….toxic in living cell • Haemolysis….dissolution of erythrocytes in blood • Intravenous toxicity • Mutagenesis….permanent genetic alteration • Oral toxicity • Pyrogenicity….products produced by heat • Sensitization…making abnormally sensitive
  64. 64. Guidance on biocompatibility assessment  Material characterization • Chemical structure of material • Degradation products • Residue level  Toxicological data • Biological tests based on clinical trial
  65. 65. Guidance on biocompatibility assessment  Supporting documents • Details of application…shape, size, form, contact time etc. • Chemical breakdown of all materials involved in the product • A review of all toxicity data • Prior use and details of effects • Toxicity standard tests • Final assessment including toxicological significance
  66. 66. Types of biomaterials based on surgical uses Muscular skeletal system…joints in upper & lower extremities & artificial limbs Permanent implants Cardiovascular system …valve, pacemaker, arteries, veins Digestive system…tooth filling, oesophagus, bile duct Nervous system…. Dura, hydrocephalus shunt Cosmetic implants…..nose, ear, teeth, eye
  67. 67. Types of biomaterials based on surgical uses Transient implants Extracorporeal assumption of organ function….heart, lung , kidney Orthopaedic fixation devices….screw, hip pins, bone plates, suture, surgical adhesives External dressings & partial implants….artificial skin, immersion fluids Aids to diagnosis….catheters, probes
  68. 68. Performance of Biomaterials • Fracture • Loosening • Infection • Wear r = 1-f r is reliability of implant f is failure
  69. 69. Future challenges • To more closely replicate complex tissue architecture and arrangement in vitro. • To better understand extracellular and intracellular modulators of cell function. • To develop novel materials and processing techniques that are compatible with biological interfaces • To find better strategies for immune acceptance
  70. 70. Properties of Biopolymers • Renewable • Sustainable • Biodegradable • Non-Toxic • Non-Immunogenic • Non-Carcinogenic • Non-Thrombogenic • Carbon neutral
  71. 71. Applications of Biopolymers • Coatings • Fibers • Plastics • Adhesives • Cosmetics • Oil Industry • Paper • Textiles/clothing • Water treatment • Biomedical • Pharmaceutical • Automotive • Rubber
  72. 72. REFERENCES : •https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chitin •https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keratin •https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gelatin •https://www.o2.org > ideas > cases > biopolymers
  73. 73. Thank you for your attention!!!!