2. How do knowledge, cognitive strategies, and
knowledge about the use of cognitive strategies get
into our heads in the first place?
And once this content gets there, what happens to it?
How does it get organized and sorted?
Where exactly is the information stored?
How is it retrieved?
All these questions have to do with how the mind
works—the processes involved in good thinking.
3. Basic Teachings
Definition of information processing
Atkinson and Shiffrin Model of Memory.
Educational Implications of Information Processing
4. “The mind as computer” (How?)
Based on a model of memory and storage
The brain contains certain structures that
process information much like a computer
The human mind has three kinds of memories
5. Human information processing is an approach to the study
of human thought and behavior developed, beginning in the
1950s as an alternative to the behavioral approaches that were
popular at that time.
o The central tenet of the information-processing approach is
that the human can be characterized as an information-
processing system, which encodes input, operates on that
information, stores and retrieves it from memory, and
produces output in terms of actions
6. Information processing model:
A model of learning that examines how we learn
using the “mind as computer” metaphor.
The “Information-processing Model” represents
what happens when information flows through
various internal structures which are supposed
to exist inside the learner.
7. 1. Both use electrical signals to send messages.
2. Both transmit information.
3. Both have a memory that can grow.
4. Both can adapt and learn.
5. Both have evolved over time.
6. Both need energy.
7. Both can be damaged.
8. Both can change and be modified.
9. Both can do math and other logical tasks.
10. Both brains and computers are studied by scientists.
8. The Brain The Computer
The brain uses chemicals to transmit
The computer uses electricity
Brains search memories using cues. Computers access information in memory
by polling a memory address
Memories in the brain grow by stronger
Computer memory grows by adding
The brain does some multitasking using the
autonomic nervous system.
For example, the brain controls breathing,
heart rate and blood pressure at the same time it
performs a mental task.
The computer can do many complex tasks
at the same time ("multitasking") that are
difficult for the brain.
For example, try counting backwards and
multiplying 2 numbers at the same time
The brain needs nutrients like oxygen and
sugar for power.
The computer needs electricity to keep
The brain is a self-organizing system Computers are designed, built and are of
9. The Brain
There are no new or used parts for the brain. It is easier to fix a computer - just get new
There are many diseases that affect the brain.
The brain has "built-in back up systems" in
A computer can get a "virus"
The brain is always changing and being
There is no "off" for the brain - even when an
animal is sleeping, its brain is still active and
The computer only changes when new
hardware and software are added or
something is saved in memory.
There is an "off" for a computer.
When the power to a computer is turned
off, signals are not transmitted
The brain is better at interpreting the outside
world and coming up with new ideas.
The brain is capable of imagination
The computer is faster at doing logical
things and computations.
11. Multi Store Model of Human Memory
• In 1968, Atkinson and Shiffrin proposed a model
of human memory which posited two distinct
memory stores: short-term
memory, and long-term memory.
• Later a third memory store (actually the first in
sequence) was added: sensory memory.
13. R. Atkinson and R. Shiffrin (1968) proposed that our memories are not just
stored in one place but actually memory consists of several ‘stores’.
Memory is made up of a series of parts, working together as a process.
14. Information enters the human information
processing system via a variety of
channels associated with the different
15. There is a sensory memory for vision, called iconic memory
There is a
19. Some properties of STM:
• Capacity: 7 +/- 2 "chunks" of information
• Duration: About 18-20 seconds (average).
• Processing: Auditory encoding
(visuals are transferred into sounds)
20. • The low capacity of STM was first noted by
George Miller in a famous paper entitled The
Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two.
• Miller concluded that about seven (plus or minus
two) "chunks" of information could reside in STM
21. • Information in STM can be held in STM via a
method called maintenance rehearsal- that is,
repeating the information silently or aloud so that it
is recalled immediately when needed.
22. :Three Major Concepts For Getting
Information Into STM
First, pay attention to a stimulus if it has an
Second, pay attention if the stimulus activates a
(Call to mind relevant prior learning)
Third, Point out important information
23. Two Major Concepts For Retaining
Information In STM
Organization And Repetition.
Repetition must be done after forgetting
Researchers advise that the learner should not
repeat immediately the content (or skill), but
wait a few minutes and then repeat.
26. Some properties of LTM:
• Capacity: Virtually unlimited
• Duration: Up to a lifetime
• Processing: Information is organized according to
meaning and is associatively linked.
• Encoding: semantic, visual and auditory
29. LTM and the Retrieval Process
How quickly and reliably we recall information
1.Activation: How long since we last used the
information? ( summaries, taking lecture
notes & outlines)
2. Strength: How well we have practiced it?
3. organization, elaboration and rehearsal.
31. 1. Making multiple connections with existing
The more connections there are, the easier it will be
to remember and retrieve the information at well.
2. Learning information to mastery --
The more we are able to master a piece of
information, the easier it is to recall it at well and
the faster it becomes automatized.
Factors Affecting Retrieval
32. 3. Using information frequently -- the more we use
or do something, the better we get at it. Practice is
always beneficial to learning and mastery of skills &
knowledge. Frequent use eventually leads to
automaticity. (Practice makes Perfect)
4. Having a relevant retrieval cue -- whatever we use
to help us retrieve information must be relevant or
we will have difficulty in retrieving.
34. Strategies to Improve Reading
• . The goal : Train learners not how to say words
but how to get meaning out of them.
• Comprehension monitoring is a term applied to a
host of strategies learners can use to derive
meaning from what they read. Specific examples of
comprehension strategies include:
• SQ3R(Robinson, 1946);
• PQ4R (Thomas & Robinson, 1972 )
37. These comprehension strategies have in
common the following skills:
1. Setting goals for reading: Learners learn to ask
themselves “What do I have to do?” and “Why am I
reading this story?”
2. Focusing attention: Learners learn to prompt
themselves with questions such as “What am I
supposed to do as I read?”
3. Self-reinforcement: Learners learn to say to
themselves “Great, I understand this. Keep up
the good work,” or “This strategy really
4. Coping with problems: When they encounter
difficulties, learners learn to say to themselves
“I don’t understand this. I should go back and
read it again,” or “That’s a simple mistake. I
can correct that.”
39. when you’re studying for an exam, you might refer
to previous exam papers to find out what sort of
questions have been asked in the past.
• This helps you to identify what information you will
need to know.
• It also indicates what you will be asked to do with
the memorised information.
41. Principle Examples
1. Gain the students'
Use cues to signal when you are ready
Move around the room and use voice
2.Bring to mind
relevant prior learning.
Review previous day's lesson.
Have a discussion about previously
3. Point out important
Provide handouts. ·
Write on the board or use
4. Present information in
an organized manner
Show a logical sequence to concepts
Go from simple to complex when
42. Principle Examples
5.Show students how to use
coding when memorizing
Use mental imagery techniques such as
the keyword method
· Make up silly sentence with first
letter of each word in the list. ·
6.Provide for repetition of
· State important principles several
times in different ways during
presentation of information (STM).
Have items on each day's lesson from
previous lesson (LTM).
Schedule periodic reviews of
previously learned concepts and skills
7.Show students how to
categorize (chunk) related
Present information in
Teach inductive reasoning
43. Atkinson, R., & Shiffrin, R. (1968). Human memory: A
proposed system and its control processes. In K Spence & J
Spence (Eds.). The psychology of learning and motivation:
Advances in research and theory (Vol. 2). New York:
Hinweis der Redaktion
Information from all around us comes into our sensory memory. Some of the information we may be interested in and pay attention to. All the other information is lost. The information we have paid attention to is then transferred to our short-term memory. Our short term memories can only hold a certain amount of information for a short time after this new memories push out the others and they are lost. Information that is rehearsed will be transferred to long term memory where it is available for use indefinitely and can be retrieved for use at a later time.