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Surrealismo e neorealismo

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Surrealismo e neorealismo

  1. 1. OREGRESSOAO MUNDOVISÍVELREALISMO SOCIALISTANEORREALISMOSURREALISMO
  2. 2. O NEORREALISMORetorno a umalinguagem figurativaArte como reflexo da sociedade+Arte como instrumento de denúnciae de intervençãoRenato Guttuso, Ocupação de Terras porCamponeses Sicilianos, 1949-50
  3. 3. O NEORREALISMOCONTEXTO:- Crise política e económico-social depois da 1ª Guerra Mundial- Crescimento das ideologias de esquerda e dos movimentossindicalistasRevolução Socialista Soviética (1917):- Arte como atividade social- Artista como trabalhador especializadoartista ao serviço da comunidade
  4. 4. O NEORREALISMORevolução Socialista Soviética (1917):- Arte como atividade social- Artista como trabalhador especializadoartista ao serviço da comunidadeMensagem clara e diretaLinguagem figurativa e concretaREALISMO SOCIALISTA
  5. 5. O NEORREALISMO- Rejeição das vanguardas- Retorno ao rigor técnico-formal da arteneoclássica- Exaltação do trabalhador anónimo: tarefasquotidianas, vitórias do regime, propagandaREALISMO SOCIALISTAVera Múkhina, OOperário e aCamponesa, 1937
  6. 6. O NEORREALISMOREALISMO SOCIALISTAVera Múkhina, OOperário e aCamponesa, 1937
  7. 7. O NEORREALISMOSergei Gerasimov (1885-1964)
  8. 8. O NEORREALISMOA família alemã, de Adam WisselDitaduras nazi efascistaAdoção da linguagemrealista com finspropagandísticosArte ao serviço dapolítica
  9. 9. O NEORREALISMOO Realismo Social- Restantes países europeuse América- Tendência mais humanista,livre e pessoal- Intervenção político-social:- Críticas às injustiças dasociedade burguesa;- Exaltação dostrabalhadores;- Combate contra osregimes ditatoriais;- Defesa da paz e doanticolonialismo. Renato Guttuso, Ocupação de Terras porCamponeses Sicilianos, 1949-50
  10. 10. O NEORREALISMOFormas de concretizaçãoDiversidade pessoal+Cunho modernista- Cubismo- Expressionismo- Pós-Dadaísmo- SurrealismoPicasso, Guernica, 1937Ben Shahn, Prisioneiros de Guerra
  11. 11. O NEORREALISMOOtto Dix, Retrato dos Pais do Artista II,1924Renato Guttuso, Ocupação de Terraspor Camponeses Sicilianos, 1949-50Alemanha Itália
  12. 12. O NEORREALISMOBen Shahn, Trabalhadores, 1944 Ben Shahn, DesempregoEUA
  13. 13. O NEORREALISMOBrasilCândido Portinari, Colheita do Café, 1934
  14. 14. O NEORREALISMOMéxicoDiego Rivera, A Transportadorade FlorDiego Rivera, Sexta-feiraSanta no Canal de SantaAnita, 1923-24
  15. 15. O NEOREALISMOMéxicoDiego Rivera(1886-1957)Temática social, decunho marxista enacionalistaExaltação do povomexicano e das suasorigens pré-colombianasLink: Os murais deDiego Rivera
  16. 16. O NEORREALISMOJosé Clemente Orozco, Zapatistas, 1931
  17. 17. O NEORREALISMODavid Alfaro Siqueiros, A Marcha da Humanidade, 1971
  18. 18. O NEORREALISMODavid Alfaro Siqueiros (1898-1974)
  19. 19. O SURREALISMOSalvador Dali, A Tentação de Santo António
  20. 20. O SURREALISMO- Aparecimento:- França- 1917- Estendeu-se a várias manifestações artísticas:- Literatura: André Breton- Artes Plásticas: Max Ernst- Fotografia: Man Ray- Cinema: Dali e Buñuel - Un Chien Andalou, 1928; L’Âged’Or, 1931- Música: Eric Satie
  21. 21. O SURREALISMOO nome foi atribuído porApollinaire, em 1917,aquando da representaçãodo bailado Parade, de EricSatie, levado à cena peloBallets Russes, em Paris.
  22. 22. O SURREALISMOApareceu como reação àcultura ocidental(racionalismo econvencionalismo)Defesa da liberdade e dairracionalidade, através dorecurso ao sonho, à metáfora,ao inverosímil e ao insólitoSeparação espírito/matéria René Magritte, Golconda, 1953
  23. 23. O SURREALISMOAfastamento das normas e dasconvençõesTransgressão sistemáticaBases teóricas:- 1º Manifesto do Surrealismo,1924- 2º Manifesto do Surrealismo,1929- Revista La Révolution SurréalisteYves Tanguy, Dia de Lentidão,final da década de 30
  24. 24. O SURREALISMO“O Surrealismo é autoemoçãopsíquica pura, através da qual seprocura exprimir oralmente, porescrita ou por qualquer outramaneira, o verdadeirofuncionamento da imaginação. Éo correr do pensamento desligadode todo e qualquer controloelaborado pela razão eindependentemente de quaisquerjuízos estéticos ou morais.”André Breton, 1º ManifestoSurrealista, 1924André Breton em 1924
  25. 25. O SURREALISMO- Obras de arte executadas àmargem da razão, sem quaisquermoralismos ou preocupaçõesestéticas racionalizadas- Associação livre de ideias, semsentido- Técnicas:- Estado semi-hipnótico- Discursos escritos ou ditadosdurante o sono ou relato desonhos- Junção de escritassimultâneas de várias pessoasAndré Breton em 1924
  26. 26. O SURREALISMOInfluências:- Romantismo e Simbolismo(final século XIX): GustaveMoreau e Odilon Redon- Pintura metafísica (Chirico)- Picasso- Paul KleeChirico, Love Song, 1914Moreau, AsMusas, 1895
  27. 27. O SURREALISMOPercursores:Bosch(1450-1516), Monstro comCabeça de Pássaro, pormenor deJardim das Delícias, 1480-1490)Arcimboldo (1537-1593),Terra, c. 1570
  28. 28. O SURREALISMOLinguagem plástica:- Desenho e pinturaautomáticos:correspondência entreinconsciente e ação sedesenrola sem controloda razão (AndréMasson)André Masson, Kitchen-maids, 1962
  29. 29. O SURREALISMOLinguagem plástica:- Colagem- frottage (papel sobre tábua demadeira, sobre o qual se passa umlápis de carvão)- assemblage (colagem dediversos materiais numa obra)- o dripping (gotejar da tinta eaproveitamento do movimentorepetido do braço)- a decalcomaniaMax Ernst, La Forêt Pétrifiée, 1929Mas Ernst, LAnge du Foyer ou LeTriomphe du surréalisme, 1937
  30. 30. O SURREALISMOLinguagem plástica:- Técnicas clássicas de desenho ede gradação cromática, aplicadasa formas fantasmagóricas ouincongruentemente associadas,em “trompe-l’oeil” ou “trompe-idée”Salvador Dali, A GirafaArdente, 1937
  31. 31. O SURREALISMOTemas:ErotismoSonhosForças ocultas doinconsciente+Libertação de tabus eimposições+Exaltação do mundo damagia e de tudo o que estejaafastado da racionalização Salvador Dali, O Grande Masturbador
  32. 32. O SURREALISMOFrancis Picabia (1879-1953), O OlhoCacodilato, 1921
  33. 33. O SURREALISMOMarc Chagall (1887-1985)
  34. 34. O SURREALISMOJuan Miró (1893-1983)
  35. 35. O SURREALISMOMan Ray (montagens fotográficas)
  36. 36. O SURREALISMOPablo Picasso(fase surrealista entre1925 e 1934), Mulher naPoltrona Vermelha
  37. 37. O SURREALISMOPaul Klee, Mural from the Temple of Longing, 1922
  38. 38. O SURREALISMOHans Arp (1886-1966)Alberto Giacometti (1901-1966)Henry Moore (1898-1986)ESCULTURAHans Arp, Pastor deNuvens, 1953Alberto Giacometti,Mesa Surrealista, 1933Henry Moore, Hill Arches,1972-73
  39. 39. FIM

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