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Intro, personality, attitude edited

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it is about the personality perception and motivation of a person along with the theories of the personality and traits of different personality organisational behavior is the subject and it will help you prepare for the presentation for free

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Intro, personality, attitude edited

  1. 1. Organisational Behaviour 1 Organisational behavior
  2. 2. Organisational Behaviour 2 Objectives of the subject  To introduce the basic processes and principles that underline human behavior  To create an understanding of how people behave in organization and focus on ways to enhance organizational effectiveness through people.  To understand how to effectively recognize and resolve human issues in organizational settings.  To develop an ability to catalyze harmonious relationship amongst employee groups.  To inculcate learning spirit, constant innovation and concern towards people and environment.
  3. 3. Organisational Behaviour 3 Course content  Fundamentals  Perception  Attitude  Personality  Motivation  Learning  Reward system  Group dynamics  Interactive conflict & negotiation skills  Transaction analysis  Leadership  Managing change
  4. 4. Organisational Behaviour 4 Managers role  Interpersonal role – figurehead, liaison, leader  Information role – recipient, disseminator, spokes person  Decision role – entrepreneurial, disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator.  Management skills: Technical, human, conceptual skills
  5. 5. Organisational Behaviour 5 Meaning  Is the study and application of knowledge about how people- as individuals and as groups – act within organizations.
  6. 6. Organisational Behaviour 6 Definition  The understanding, prediction, and management of human behaviour.
  7. 7. Organisational Behaviour 7 THEORETICAL Organizational Theory (OT) Organizational Behaviour (OB) APPLIED Organizational Development (OD) Personnel/ Human resources (P/HR) MACRO MICRO
  8. 8. Organisational Behaviour 8 Contribution from other disciplines  Psychology  Sociology  Socio Psychology  Anthropology  Political science
  9. 9. Organisational Behaviour 9 Importance  Smooth conduct of organizational activities  Coordination  Efficiency
  10. 10. Organisational Behaviour 10 Goals of organizational behaviour  Describe  Understand  Predict  Control
  11. 11. Organisational Behaviour 11 Characteristics  Interdisciplinary nature- integrate the behavioral science with other social sciences.  Emerging bases of research knowledge and conceptual framework
  12. 12. Organisational Behaviour 12 Elements of Organizational behaviour  People  Structure  Technology  Environment Organization People TechnologyStructure Environment Environment Environment
  13. 13. Organisational Behaviour 13 Evolution  Plato –Leadership qualities  Aristotle -persuasive communication.  Niccolò Machiavelli (Italian philosopher ,6th century) - Contemporary work on organizational power and politics.  Adam Smith (In 1776) -Organizational structure based on the division of labour.  Max Weber(German sociologist) -charismatic leadership.  Robert Owen (1800)- -emphasized the human needs  Frederick Winslow Taylor(1900- Father of Scientific Management) -goal setting and rewards to motivate employees.  Elton Mayo , 1920 and his colleagues conducted productivity studies at Western Electric's Hawthorne plant in the United States.
  14. 14. Organisational Behaviour 14  Though it traces its roots back to Max Weber and earlier, organizational studies is generally considered to have begun as an academic discipline with the advent of scientific management in the 1890s, with Tayl The Greek philosopher Plato wrote about the essence of leadership.  Prominent early scholars included Chester Barnard, Henri Fayol, Frederick Herzberg, Abraham Maslow, David McClelland, and Victor Vroom.  The Second World War further shifted the field, as the invention of large-scale logistics and operations research led to a renewed interest in rationalist approaches to the study of organizations
  15. 15. Organisational Behaviour 15  In the 1960s and 1970s, the field was strongly influenced by social psychology and the emphasis in academic study was on quantitative research.  Starting in the 1980s, cultural explanations of organizations and change became an important part of study. Qualitative methods of study became more acceptable, informed by anthropology, psychology and sociology.
  16. 16. Organisational Behaviour 16 Hawthorne experiment (Henry A. Landsberger ) Study Outcome Changes in illumination Productivity increased(1927- 32) Motivational effect of the interest being shown in them productivity varied(2009) Other factors such as the weekly cycle of work or the seasonal temperature and so the initial conclusions were overstated and the effect was weak or illusory Relay assembly test. 1.Changes in wages (Paid for overall Production) 2. Increased the break time (two 5 minutes, two 10 minutes, six 5 minutes) 3.Providing food during breaks 4.Shortening the day time for 30 Minutes, Shortening more, returning to original 1. Increased productivity 2. Increased- Increased- decreased 3. Increased 4.Increased- increased- peaked up The workers felt that they are being watched Order of preference 1. Small group 2. Type of supervision 3. Earnings 4. Novelty of the situation 5. Interest in the experiment 6. Attention received in the test room Bank wiring room experiments Productivity decreased Feared that some of them would be fired ou Interview with workers Upward communication increase positive attitude in the work environment The workers feel pleased that their ideas are being heard.
  17. 17. Organisational Behaviour 17 Models of OB  Autocratic  Custodial  Supportive  Collegial
  18. 18. Organisational Behaviour 18 Models of Organizational Behaviour Autocratic Custodial Supportive Collegial Basis of model Power Economic resources Leadership Partnership Managerial Orientation Authority Money Support Teamwork Employee orientation Obedience Security and benefits Job performance Responsible behaviour Employee psychological result Dependence on Boss Dependence on organization Participation Self-discipline Employee needs met Subsistence Security Status and recognition Self-actualization Performance result Minimum Passive cooperation Awakened drives Moderate enthusiasm
  19. 19. Organisational Behaviour 19 Perception
  20. 20. Organisational Behaviour 20
  21. 21. Organisational Behaviour 21
  22. 22. Organisational Behaviour 22
  23. 23. Organisational Behaviour 23
  24. 24. Organisational Behaviour 24  Perception process: Nature and importance, Perceptual selectivity, Perceptual organisation, Social perception, The Halo effect
  25. 25. Organisational Behaviour 25 Perception  Perception is the process by which organisms interpret and organize sensation to produce a meaningful experience of the world.
  26. 26. Organisational Behaviour 26 Nature and importance  Unique representation of the situation  Recognition of the difference between real and perceptual world  Example: universal perception on certain situation  Better understanding of the concepts is important  To understand the difference between sensation and perception
  27. 27. Organisational Behaviour 27 Sensation Vs Perception  The data collected through the sensory organs must be processed in order to understand the world around them.  Sensation deals with physiological functioning.  Perception is more broader than sensation Example: A subordinate’s answer to a question is based on what he heard the boss says, not on what the boss actually said.
  28. 28. Organisational Behaviour 28 Sub processes of Perception Confrontation of specific stimulus (e.g., Supervisor or new procedure) Interpretation of the stimulus (e.g., motivation, learning And personality) Feedback For clarification (e.g., kinesthetic or Psychological) Behavior (e.g., over such as Rushing off or covert such as attitude) Consequence (e.g., reinforcement/ Punishment or Some organisational outcome Registration Of Stimulus (e.g., sensory and Neural mechanisms) EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTAL Sensual Stimulation Physical Environment Office Factory Floor Research methodology Store, etc Sociocultural Environment Management styles values Discrimination, etc
  29. 29. Organisational Behaviour 29 Perceptual selectivity External attention factors  Intensity  Size  Contrast  Repetition  Motion  Novelty & familiarity Internal set factors  Learning and perception  Perceptual set in the workplace  Motivation and perception M-A-C-H-I-N-E-R-Y  Personality &perception TURN OFF THE THE ENGINE
  30. 30. Organisational Behaviour 30 Perceptual Organisation  Figure- Ground  Perceptual grouping – Closure, Continuity, Proximity, Similarity  Perceptual constancy  Perceptual context  Perceptual defense- Denial, modification & distortion, change in perception, recognition but refusal to change
  31. 31. Organisational Behaviour 31 Social perception  Characteristics of Perceiver and Perceived  Knowing oneself makes it easier to see others accurately  One’s own characteristics affect the characteristics one is likely to see in others  People who accept themselves are more likely to be able to see favorable aspects of other people  Accuracy in perceiving others is not a single skill.  Persons being perceived  Status of the person perceived  The role of the perceived  Visible traits of the person perceived  Attribution- explaining the cause of another’s or their own behaviour- dispositional & situational  Stereotyping  Halo effect
  32. 32. Organisational Behaviour 32 DO NOT READ the words, say aloud the COLOR of each word.  YELLOW BLUE ORANGE BLACK RED GREEN PURPLE YELLOW RED ORANGE GREEN BLACK BLUE RED PURPLE GREEN BLUE ORANGE  This is a type of psycholinguistic test that poses some difficulty because the portion of the brain that handles language has the conflicting tasks of verbalizing the colour of the written words while ignoring the meaning of words representing colors.
  33. 33. Organisational Behaviour 33 Impression management/ self presentation  The process of impression management  The self-concept, desired & undesired identity images, role constraint, target’s value and current social image  Employee impression management strategies  Demotion- preventative strategy – accounts, apologies, disassociation  Promotion- enhancing strategies – entitlements, enhancement, obstacle disclosure, association
  34. 34. Organisational Behaviour 34 Personality
  35. 35. Organisational Behaviour 35
  36. 36. Organisational Behaviour 36
  37. 37. What is Personality?  How would you describe it?  Is it inherited?  Are you more like your mom or dad?  Does it change over time?  Does it change depending on who you are with?
  38. 38. Organisational Behaviour 38  Per sona – to speak through  How people will affect others and how they understand and views themselves, as well as their pattern of inner and outer measurable traits and the person situation interaction
  39. 39.  Definition: The unique qualities of an individual and how those qualities affect understanding of themselves and others  The Role of Heredity and the Brain External appearance – due to genetics Internal characteristics – nature vs. nurture – Twin Studies show that 40% are fixed…60% developable Organisational Behaviour 39
  40. 40. Personality Theories Trait Theory - understand individuals by breaking down behavior patterns into observable traits Psychodynamic Theory - emphasizes the unconscious determinants of behavior Humanistic Theory - emphasizes individual growth and improvement Integrative Approach - describes personality as a composite of an individual’s psychological processes
  41. 41. Personality- Summary The Four Perspectives on Personality Perspective Behavior Springs From Assessment Techniques Evaluation Psychoanalytic Unconscious conflicts Projective tests aimed at A speculative, hard-to-test between pleasure-seeking revealing unconscious theory with enormous cul- impulses and social restraints motivations tural impact Trait Expressing biologically (a)Personality inventories A descriptive approach crit- influenced dispositions, such that assess the strengths icized as sometimes under- as extraversion or introversion of different traits estimating the variability (b)Peer ratings of behavior of behavior from situation patterns to situation Humanistic Processing conscious feelings (a)Questionnaire A humane theory that about oneself in the light of assessments reinvigorated contemporary one’s experiences (b)Empathic interviews interest in the self; criticized as subjective and sometimes naively self-centered and optimistic Social-cognitive Reciprocal influences between (a)Questionnaire assessments Art interactive theory that in- people and their situation, of people’s feelings of control tegrates research on learning, colored by perceptions of (b) Observations of people’s cognition, and social behavior, control behavior in particular criticized as underestimating situations the importance of emotions and enduring traits
  42. 42. Organisational Behaviour 42 Self-concept  Self-concept: attempts to understand themselves  Self- esteem: self-perceived competence and self-image  Self- efficacy: capable and confident of performing well in a situation
  43. 43. Start with Nature, Then Add Nurture How much of your personality was developed, learned, strengthened over time? Socialization trains us how to act in relationship to others. Parents are our first teachers. How much of personality is based on genetics?
  44. 44. Is Personality Changeable? 30 30 40 genetics trained-permanent trained-adjustable
  45. 45.  Big five  Extraversion- sociable, talkative, assertive  Agreeableness-Good-natured, cooperative, and trusting  Conscientiousness –responsible, dependable, persistent  Emotional stability –less tensed, secured, less nervous  Openness to experience- imaginative, artistically sensitive Organisational Behaviour 45
  46. 46. Organisational Behaviour 46 Person – situation concept  Each situation is different  Same person can react differently for same incident in different occasion  Personality is very diverse and complex
  47. 47. Organisational Behaviour 47 Development of personality & socialization  Adult life stage ( Daniel Levinson)  Stages  Entering the adult world( 22-28)  Settling down (33-40)  Entering middle adulthood (45-50)  Culmination of middle adulthood(55-60)  Transitional periods  Age thirty transition (28-33)  Midlife transition(40-45)  Age-fifty transition (50-55)  Late adult transition (60-65)
  48. 48. Organisational Behaviour 48 Douglas T. Hall’s career stage model Exploration Maintenance Stagnation? Decline Age 15 20 25 45 65 Needs Identity Intimacy Generality Integrity Trial Establishm ent G row th? Advancem ent Employeeworkperformance High
  49. 49. Organisational Behaviour 49 Development of personality & socialization The Chris Argyis Immaturity- Maturity Continuum Immaturity Characteristics Maturity Characteristic Passivity Activity Dependence Independence Few ways of behaving Diverse behavior Shallow interests Deep interest Short time perspective Long time perspective Subordinate position Super ordinate position Lack of self- awareness Self- awareness and control
  50. 50. The socialization process  The continuous impact from the environment  Organisational socialization  Change of attitudes, values and behaviour  Continuity of socialization over time  Adjustments to new jobs, work groups and organisational practices  Mutual influence between new recruits and their managers  Criticality of the earlir socialization period Organisational Behaviour 50
  51. 51.  For successful organizational socialization  Provide a challenging first job  Provide relevant training  Provide timely and consistent feedback  Select a good supervisor to be in charge of socialization  Design a relaxed orientation program  Place new work group in work groups with high morale. Organisational Behaviour 51
  52. 52. Personality Characteristics in Organizations Self-Esteem Feelings of Self Worth Success tends to increase self-esteem Failure tends to decrease self-esteem
  53. 53. Personality Characteristics in Organizations Locus of Control Internal External I control what happens to me! People and circumstances control my fate!
  54. 54. Outcomes of Personal Control Learned HelplessnessLearned Helplessness Uncontrollable bad events Perceived lack of control Generalized helpless behavior Important IssueImportant Issue • Nursing Homes • Prisons •Colleges
  55. 55. Personality Characteristics in Organizations Generalized Self-Efficacy - beliefs and expectations about one’s ability to accomplish a specific task effectively Sources of self-efficacy  Prior experiences and prior success  Behavior models (observing success)  Persuasion  Assessment of current physical & emotional capabilities
  56. 56. Personality Characteristics in Organizations Self-Monitoring Behavior based on cues from people & situations  High self monitors  flexible: adjust behavior according to the situation and the behavior of others  can appear unpredictable & inconsistent  Low self monitors  act from internal states rather than from situational cues  show consistency  less likely to respond to work group norms or supervisory feedback
  57. 57. Personality Characteristics in Organizations Positive Affect - an individual’s tendency to accentuate the positive aspects of oneself, other people, and the world in general Negative Affect - an individual’s tendency to accentuate the negative aspects of oneself, other people, and the world in general
  58. 58. Personality Characteristics in Organizations A strong situation can overwhelm the effects of individual personalities by providing strong cues for appropriate behavior
  59. 59. Personality Characteristics in Organizations Strong personalities will dominate in a weak situation
  60. 60. How is Personality Measured? Projective Test - elicits an individual’s response to abstract stimuli Behavioral Measures - personality assessments that involve observing an individual’s behavior in a controlled situation Self-Report Questionnaire - assessment involving an individual’s responses to questions Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) - instrument measuring Jung’s theory of individual differences.
  61. 61. Discussion Questions  Do you feel organizations should hire people based upon their personality characteristics?  What are the issues with this?  When people are hired into a job (e.g., engineering) do you think the personality is attracted to the job, or the job shapes the personality? Why?  “I didn’t used to me this way until I started working here.”
  62. 62. Organisational Behaviour 62 Attitude
  63. 63. Organisational Behaviour 63  A persistent tendency to feel and behave in a particular way toward some object Character  Tend to persist unless something is done to change them  Can fall anywhere along a continuum from favorable to unfavorable  Directed toward some object about which a person has feeling and beliefs
  64. 64. Organisational Behaviour 64 Components  Emotional- positive, negative, neutral  Informational- beliefs and information  Behavioural – person’s tendencies to behave in a particular way toward
  65. 65. Organisational Behaviour 65 Functions of attitude  The adjustment function  The Ego-defensive function  The value- expression function  The knowledge function
  66. 66. Organisational Behaviour 66 Change in attitude  Barriers to changing attitudes  Prior commitment  Insufficient information  Providing new information  Use of fear  Resolving discrepancies  Influence of friends and peers  The coopting approach
  67. 67. Organisational Behaviour 67 Job satisfaction  A pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from appraisal of one’s job or job experience  Dimension  An emotional response to job situation  How well the outcomes meet or exceed expectations  Represents several related attitudes  The work itself, pay, promotion opportunities, supervisor, coworkers
  68. 68. Organisational Behaviour 68 Influences on job satisfactions The work itself  Pay  Promotional opportunities  Supervision  Workgroup Working conditions
  69. 69. Organisational Behaviour 69 Outcomes of job satisfaction  Satisfaction and productivity  Satisfaction and turnover  Satisfaction and absenteeism  Other effects of job satisfaction Fewer accidents Citizenship behaviour
  70. 70. Organisational Behaviour 70 Organizational commitment  Strong desire to remain a member of a particular organization  Willing to exert a high level of efforts  Definite belief in and acceptance of the values and goals of the organization
  71. 71. Organisational Behaviour 71