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03.604 COMPUTER GRAPHICS <ul><li>TEXT BOOK : </li></ul><ul><li>COMPUTER GRAPHICS  – DONALD HEARN & M.PAULINE BAKER </li></ul>
Introduction <ul><li>What is Computer Graphics? </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics packages </li></ul>
What is Computer Graphics? <ul><li>Creation, Manipulation and Storage of geometric objects (modeling) & their images (rend...
Applications of Computer Graphics <ul><li>Computer Aided Design (CAD) </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation Graphics </li></ul><u...
1.Computer Aided Design (CAD) <ul><ul><li>Used in design of buildings, automobiles, aircraft, watercraft, spacecraft, comp...
<ul><li>Graphics design package provides standard shapes (useful for repeated placements) </li></ul><ul><li>Animations are...
2.Presentation Graphics <ul><li>Used to produce illustrations for reports or generate slides for use with projectors </li>...
Examples of presentation graphics
Examples of presentation graphics
Examples of presentation graphics
3.Computer Art <ul><li>Used in fine art & commercial art </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes artist’s paintbrush programs, pain...
Examples :
Computer Art <ul><li>Electronic painting  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Picture painted electronically on  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
 
4.Entertainment <ul><li>Movie Industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in motion pictures, music  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vi...
Computer Graphics is about animation (films)
<ul><li>Game Industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on interactivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost effective solutions </l...
5.Education & Training <ul><li>Computer generated models of physical, financial and economic systems are used as education...
<ul><li>Specialized systems used for training applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>simulators for practice sessions or train...
Training
6.Visualization <ul><li>Scientific Visualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Producing graphical representations for scientific,...
Scientific Visualisation To view below and above our visual range
<ul><li>Business Visualization is used in connection with data sets related to commerce, industry and other non-scientific...
<ul><li>CG- Computer is used to create a picture </li></ul><ul><li>Image Processing – applies techniques to modify or inte...
<ul><li>To apply image processing methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digitize a photograph (or picture) into an image file </li...
 
8.Graphical User Interfaces <ul><li>Major component – Window manager (multiple-window areas) </li></ul><ul><li>To make a p...
 
Graphics packages <ul><li>A set of libraries that provide programmatically access to some kind of graphics 2D functions. <...
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applications of computer graphics

  1. 1. 03.604 COMPUTER GRAPHICS <ul><li>TEXT BOOK : </li></ul><ul><li>COMPUTER GRAPHICS – DONALD HEARN & M.PAULINE BAKER </li></ul>
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>What is Computer Graphics? </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics packages </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Computer Graphics? <ul><li>Creation, Manipulation and Storage of geometric objects (modeling) & their images (rendering) </li></ul><ul><li>Display those images on screens or hardcopy devices </li></ul>
  4. 4. Applications of Computer Graphics <ul><li>Computer Aided Design (CAD) </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation Graphics </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Art </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment (animation, games, …) </li></ul><ul><li>Education & Training </li></ul><ul><li>Visualization (scientific & business) </li></ul><ul><li>Image Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Graphical User Interfaces </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1.Computer Aided Design (CAD) <ul><ul><li>Used in design of buildings, automobiles, aircraft, watercraft, spacecraft, computers, textiles & many other products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objects are displayed in wire frame outline form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software packages provide multi-window environment </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Graphics design package provides standard shapes (useful for repeated placements) </li></ul><ul><li>Animations are also used in CAD applications </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic displays of architectural design permits simulated “walk” through the rooms (virtual -reality systems) </li></ul>
  7. 7. 2.Presentation Graphics <ul><li>Used to produce illustrations for reports or generate slides for use with projectors </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly used to summarize financial, statistical, mathematical, scientific, economic data for research reports, managerial reports & customer information bulletins </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : Bar charts, line graphs, pie charts, surface graphs, time chart </li></ul>
  8. 8. Examples of presentation graphics
  9. 9. Examples of presentation graphics
  10. 10. Examples of presentation graphics
  11. 11. 3.Computer Art <ul><li>Used in fine art & commercial art </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes artist’s paintbrush programs, paint packages, CAD packages and animation packages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These packages provides facilities for designing object shapes & specifying object motions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples : Cartoon drawing, paintings, product advertisements, logo design </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Examples :
  13. 13. Computer Art <ul><li>Electronic painting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Picture painted electronically on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a graphics tablet (digitizer) using a stylus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cordless, pressure sensitive stylus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Morphing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A graphics method in which one object is transformed into another </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. 4.Entertainment <ul><li>Movie Industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in motion pictures, music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>videos, and television shows. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in making of cartoon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>animation films </li></ul></ul>Slide information from Leonard McMillian's slides http://www.cs.unc.edu/~mcmillan/comp136/Lecture1/compgraf.html
  15. 16. Computer Graphics is about animation (films)
  16. 17. <ul><li>Game Industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on interactivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost effective solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoiding computations and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other tricks </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. 5.Education & Training <ul><li>Computer generated models of physical, financial and economic systems are used as educational aids. </li></ul><ul><li>Models of physical systems, physiological systems, population trends, or equipment such as color-coded diagram help trainees understand the operation of the system </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Specialized systems used for training applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>simulators for practice sessions or training of ship captains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aircraft pilots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>heavy equipment operators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>air traffic-control personnel </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Training
  20. 21. 6.Visualization <ul><li>Scientific Visualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Producing graphical representations for scientific, engineering, and medical data sets </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Scientific Visualisation To view below and above our visual range
  22. 23. <ul><li>Business Visualization is used in connection with data sets related to commerce, industry and other non-scientific areas </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques used- color coding, contour plots, graphs, charts, surface renderings & visualizations of volume interiors. </li></ul><ul><li>Image processing techniques are combined with computer graphics to produce many of the data visualizations </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>CG- Computer is used to create a picture </li></ul><ul><li>Image Processing – applies techniques to modify or interpret existing pictures such as photographs and TV scans </li></ul><ul><li>Medical applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Picture enhancements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tomography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulations of operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultrasonics & nuclear medicine scanners </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 applications of image processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving picture quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machine perception of visual information (Robotics) </li></ul></ul>7. Image Processing
  24. 25. <ul><li>To apply image processing methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digitize a photograph (or picture) into an image file </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply digital methods to rearrange picture parts to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>enhance color separations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improve quality of shading </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tomography – technique of X-ray photography that allows cross-sectional views of physiological systems to be displayed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computed X-ray tomography (CT) and position emission tomography ( PET) use projection methods to reconstruct cross sections from digital data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer-Aided Surgery is a medical application technique to model and study physical functions to design artificial limbs and to plan & practice surgery </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. 8.Graphical User Interfaces <ul><li>Major component – Window manager (multiple-window areas) </li></ul><ul><li>To make a particular window active, click in that window (using an interactive pointing device) </li></ul><ul><li>Interfaces display – menus & icons </li></ul><ul><li>Icons – graphical symbol designed to look like the processing option it represents </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of icons – less screen space, easily understood </li></ul><ul><li>Menus contain lists of textual descriptions & icons </li></ul>
  26. 29. Graphics packages <ul><li>A set of libraries that provide programmatically access to some kind of graphics 2D functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GKS-Graphics Kernel System – first graphics package – accepted by ISO & ANSI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PHIGS (Programmer’s Hierarchical Interactive Graphics Standard)-accepted by ISO & ANSI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PHIGS + (Expanded package) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silicon Graphics GL (Graphics Library) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open GL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pixar Render Man interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Postscript interpreters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Painting, drawing, design packages </li></ul></ul>
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