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REPUBLIC of 
AUSTRIA 
By: Ahmed Zareer
• Austria lies in southern Central Europe and 
encompasses both the Eastern Alps, which cover 
almost two-thirds of its te...
General Facts 
• Official Name: The Republic of Austria. 
• Population: 8.49 million (01 Jan, 2013). 
• Life expectancy: M...
Transportation 
• Railways: 6,399 km (3,552 km electrified) 
(2011). 
• Highways: 110,778 km; (including 1,677 km 
of expr...
Railways Map
Road Map
Highways
Waterways Map
Airports
• Ethnic Groups: 
- Major ethnic groups are: 
Austrians, (Germanic) 91.1%, former 
Yugoslavs 4% (Croatians, Slovenes, Serb...
Public Holidays 
• New Year's Day: 1st January 
• Easter: 19th April - 21st April 
• National Holiday: 1st May 
• Assumpti...
• Banking working Hours (general): 
Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Friday:8am to 
12:30pm & 1:30pm to 3pm 
Thursday: 
8am to ...
Climate of Austria 
Due to the topographical diversity and the relatively large 
west-east expanse, there are three quite ...
Geography of Austria 
• Approximately 60% of Austrian territory is 
mountainous and belongs to the Eastern Alps (Tyrol 
Ce...
• Austria’s geographical position has long made 
it a crossroads for trade routes between the 
major European economic and...
Most Important Lakes in Austria 
1. Lake Neusiedl The largest lake in Europe 315 km² 
extends as far as Hungary. also know...
2. Achensee 
Achensee lake is largest lake in Tyrol and the 
second largest lake in Austria with 6.8 km².
3. Faaker See lake. 
Considered to be the most beautiful lake in 
Austria also called as Alpine lake which is 
located in ...
4. Seegrotte Lake 
Occupies not far away from Vienna in the village 
of Hinterbrül, there is the cave system with 
the lar...
Rivers of Austria
Danube River 
The Danube is a river in Central and Eastern 
Europe, the European Union's longest and the 
continent's seco...
History of Austria 
EARLY ERA 
• There was a settlement in Austria science the 
Paleolithic age until 800 BC at the Danube...
• 200 BC The Roman came to the area and by 15 BC 
they dominated the hole area. 
• The most important Roman settlement in ...
• 60 AD many of the German trips extended in 
Austria. 
• mid-500’s AD the Bavarians controlled the 
territory between the...
The Habsburgs Empire 1279-1780. 
• 14th century Rudolf I announced a six 
centuries of Habsburg rule in Austria. 
• The Im...
• Turkish Wars 
The Ottoman Empire (Turks) threat, which 
included unsuccessful sieges of Vienna in 1529 
and in 1683, pro...
The Battle for Vienna
The Holocaust in Austria 
• March 12, 1938, German troops 
occupied the country. 
• November 1938, the Nazis launched the ...
• On May 15, 1955, the Austrian 
State Treaty was ratified, with 
Austria declaring its 
permanent neutrality. 
• 1995 Aus...
Industry in Austria 
• Metals industries, both production and related 
manufacturing accounted for 43.1%. 
• Chemicals 12....
Agriculture and Forestry 
• Small and midsize rural structures 
252,000 farms with the average 
size of 16 hectares* 
• Bu...
Tourism Sector 
• Tourism sector is high value niche in the 
Austrian economy as the contribution of the 
overall tourism ...
Visitor expenditure
Austria in Tourism and Travel 
Competitiveness Index 2013 
In 2013 Austria 
comes in the 
3rd place in 
the Tourism 
and T...
Number of Tourist 2013 
In the year of 2013 there increasing of the 
number of the tourist by 1.2% compared to 
2012.
List of Austrian sites on the list 
of world heritage of UNESCO
City of Graz 
Historic Centre and Schloss Eggenberg bear 
witness to an exemplary model of the living 
heritage of a centr...
City of Graz – Historic Centre and 
Schloss Eggenberg 1999
The Fertö/Neusiedler Lake 
Has been the meeting place of different 
cultures for eight millennia. This is graphically 
dem...
Fertö / Neusiedlersee Cultural 
Landscape 2001
Salzkammergut 
Human activity in the magnificent natural 
landscape of the Salzkammergut began in 
prehistoric times, with...
Hallstatt-Dachstein / Salzkammergut 
Cultural Landscape 1997
Historic Centre of the City of Salzburg 
• Salzburg has managed to preserve an 
extraordinarily rich urban fabric, develop...
Historic Centre of the City of Salzburg 
1996
Historic Centre of Vienna 
• The historic centre of Vienna is rich in 
architectural ensembles, including Baroque 
castles...
Historic Centre of Vienna 
2001
Palace and Gardens of Schönbrunn 
From the 18th century to 1918, Schönbrunn 
was the residence of the Habsburg emperors. 
...
Palace and Gardens of Schönbrunn 
1998
Prehistoric Pile dwellings around the 
Alps 
This serial property of 111 small individual sites 
encompasses the remains o...
Prehistoric Pile dwellings around the 
Alps 2011
Semmering Railway 
• The Semmering Railway, built over 41 km of 
high mountains between 1848 and 1854, is 
one of the grea...
Semmering Railway 
1998
Wachau Cultural Landscape 
• The Wachau is a stretch of the Danube Valley 
between Melk and Krems, a landscape of high 
vi...
Wachau Cultural Landscape 
2000
Vorarlberg
Facts about Vorarlberg 
• the westernmost, and second smallest 
Austrian federal state after Vienna 
• capital: Bregenz 
•...
The Arlberg is not a mountain but the 
mountain pass (1793m) between Vorarlberg 
and Tyrol
• Lake Constance (Bodensee) is one of the 
biggest lakes in Europe
Cheese 
• Cheese is one of the main agricultural 
products of Vorarlberg. Alpine cheese or 
"Bergkäse" is a regional speci...
• w
• e
• w
• w
Skiing trails of Vorarlberg
Tyrol
Facts about Tyrol (Tirol) 
Capital: Innsbruck 
Total Area: 12,683.85 km2 
Population: 714,469
Tyrol 
• Dominated by the wonderful peaks of 
the Alps 
• Neighbor federal states: Salzburg, 
Vorarlberg. 
• Neighbor coun...
Tyrol 
• The highest mountain of 
North Tyrol is called 
Wildspitze 
(3768m) 
• Stubaier Alpen (more 
• than 
3000m high)
Tyrol 
• Tyrol is famous of its bread and its important 
as a tradition for Easter.
• w
• w
• w
Skiing trails of Tyrol
• hd 
Carinthia
Fact about Carinthia 
Capital: Klagenfurt 
Area: 9.535 km² 
Population: 558,300
Carinthia (karinsiya) 
• Chemical, mechanical engineering and 
electrical industries are increasing 
constantly in the reg...
Carinthia 
• Has a different tourist attraction 
such as Klagenfurt city and Villach. 
Also the midlevel towns such as 
Fr...
Klagenfurt 
• w
Villach
Gmuend
Friesach
Salzburg
Fact about Salzburg 
• capital: Salzburg 
• Area: 65.678 km2 
• Population: 145,871
Salzburg is the fourth-largest city in 
Austria and the capital of the federal 
state of Salzburg. Salzburg's "Old Town" 
...
• Salzburg is a tourist destination for winter 
sports and various music festivals. 
• Mozart was born in Salzburg 
(1755-...
• w
Upper 
Austria
Facts about Upper Austria 
• Capital: Linz 
• Area: 11,981.92 km2 
• Population: 1,416,772
• Considerd to be the fourth-largest federal 
state. 
• Landscape concest of meny mountains, such 
as Totes Gebirge (Dead ...
Lower Austria
Fact about Lower Austria 
• Capital: Sankt Pölten 
• Area: 19,186 km2 
• Population: 1,612,000
• Located in the north-east of Austria 
• Austria’s largest federal state. 
Mountains: 
• Hocheck (1061m) 
• Schneeberg (2...
• It has 36 rivers, among them: Danube, 
Traisen, March and Thaya. 
• the Wachau Valley is an 
important wine 
growing are...
Wachau Valley Wine Tour
AND FINALLY
Vienna
General Facts 
• Area: 414.65 km 
• Population: 1,765,649 and 
growing 
• Ethnicity: 
61.2% Austrian 
38.8% others
• The capital of Austria and a federal state 
at the same time. 
• Vienna has more than 20% of Austria's 
population 
• An...
The city was ranked 1st globally for its 
culture of innovation in 2007 and 2008, 
and fifth globally (out of 256 cities) ...
Each year since 2005, Vienna has 
been the world's number one 
destination for international 
congresses and conventions. ...
“Vienna” City 
of Music 
Music is one of Vienna's legacies. Musical 
prodigies including Mozart, Joseph 
Haydn, Franz Schu...
State Opera
• Art and culture had a long tradition in 
Vienna, including theatre, opera, classical 
music and fine arts. The Burgtheat...
Tourist Attraction of Vienna 
• City Hall 
• Parliament 
• Burgtheater 
• Hofburg 
• Staatsoper
The Vienna City Hall 
The City Hall is one of the most splendid 
amongst the numerous monumental buildings 
along Vienna's...
Parliament 
The foundation stone was laid in 1874; the 
building was completed in 1883. The 
architect responsible for its...
Burgtheater 
Burgtheater, originally known as K.K. Theater 
an der Burg, then until 1918 as the K.K. 
Hofburgtheater, is t...
Hofburg 
• Hofburg Palace is a palace located in Vienna, 
Austria, that has housed some of the most 
powerful people in Eu...
Thank You
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Austria

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Austria

  1. 1. REPUBLIC of AUSTRIA By: Ahmed Zareer
  2. 2. • Austria lies in southern Central Europe and encompasses both the Eastern Alps, which cover almost two-thirds of its territory, and the Danube region. • Because of its location, the country has always been a crossroads between the great economic and cultural regions of Europe. • Austria has common borders with eight countries: Germany, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Italy, Switzerland and Liechtenstein.
  3. 3. General Facts • Official Name: The Republic of Austria. • Population: 8.49 million (01 Jan, 2013). • Life expectancy: Men, 77/ Women, 82.79 Years,(2012). • Official language: German Language • Currency: Euro ‘€’ • Total area: 84,000 km2
  4. 4. Transportation • Railways: 6,399 km (3,552 km electrified) (2011). • Highways: 110,778 km; (including 1,677 km of express ways) (2011). • Water ways: 358 km (2007). • Ports and harbors: Enns, Krems, Linz, Vienna. • Airports: 55 (2011)
  5. 5. Railways Map
  6. 6. Road Map
  7. 7. Highways
  8. 8. Waterways Map
  9. 9. Airports
  10. 10. • Ethnic Groups: - Major ethnic groups are: Austrians, (Germanic) 91.1%, former Yugoslavs 4% (Croatians, Slovenes, Serbs, Bosniaks), Turks 1.6%, German 0.9%, other or unspecified 2.4% (2001) • Religions. - Christian Catholic: 63.2% - Christian Protestant: 7 % - Muslims: 6.2% - Non religious: 12%
  11. 11. Public Holidays • New Year's Day: 1st January • Easter: 19th April - 21st April • National Holiday: 1st May • Assumption of the Virgin Mary: 15th August • National Holiday: 26th October • Christmas: 24th - 26th December
  12. 12. • Banking working Hours (general): Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Friday:8am to 12:30pm & 1:30pm to 3pm Thursday: 8am to 12:30pm & 1:30pm to 5:30pm
  13. 13. Climate of Austria Due to the topographical diversity and the relatively large west-east expanse, there are three quite different climatic regions: • East: hot summers but only moderately cold winters. • Alpine Region: High precipitation, short summers and long winters. • West: transient climate influenced by the Atlantic (in the West) and a continental influence in the South-east. • Temperatures: Summer : Average of 20° degree.  Winter : Average of 0° degree.
  14. 14. Geography of Austria • Approximately 60% of Austrian territory is mountainous and belongs to the Eastern Alps (Tyrol Central Alps, Hohe Tauern and Niedere Tauern, Northern Calcareous or Limestone Alps, Southern Calcareous Alps and Wienerwald)
  15. 15. • Austria’s geographical position has long made it a crossroads for trade routes between the major European economic and cultural areas. • The highest mountain peak in Austria is a part of the Alps is The Grossglockner as its 3798 m high
  16. 16. Most Important Lakes in Austria 1. Lake Neusiedl The largest lake in Europe 315 km² extends as far as Hungary. also known as the “Sea of the Viennese”. The vast waters are so shallow that you could walk across the lake and not go out of your depth.
  17. 17. 2. Achensee Achensee lake is largest lake in Tyrol and the second largest lake in Austria with 6.8 km².
  18. 18. 3. Faaker See lake. Considered to be the most beautiful lake in Austria also called as Alpine lake which is located in Carinthia with a surface area of 2.2 km².
  19. 19. 4. Seegrotte Lake Occupies not far away from Vienna in the village of Hinterbrül, there is the cave system with the largest underground lake in Europe with area at 6.2 Km².
  20. 20. Rivers of Austria
  21. 21. Danube River The Danube is a river in Central and Eastern Europe, the European Union's longest and the continent's second longest river in Europe after Volga river with a length of 2,860 km.
  22. 22. History of Austria EARLY ERA • There was a settlement in Austria science the Paleolithic age until 800 BC at the Danube Valley and the Alpine valleys. • In 400 BC the Celtic peoples from Western Europe settled in the eastern Alps and left us some of there iron made artifacts.
  23. 23. • 200 BC The Roman came to the area and by 15 BC they dominated the hole area. • The most important Roman settlement in Austria was “Carnuntum”. • Most important Romanians ruins in Carnuntum. Amphitheater Pagans' Gate
  24. 24. • 60 AD many of the German trips extended in Austria. • mid-500’s AD the Bavarians controlled the territory between the eastern Alps and the Wienerwald region. • 800 AD Charlemagne established a territory in the Danube valley known as the Ostmark (Eastern March) • 996 AD the Ostmark was first referred to as "Ostarrichi", a clear forerunner of the modern German word "Österreich".
  25. 25. The Habsburgs Empire 1279-1780. • 14th century Rudolf I announced a six centuries of Habsburg rule in Austria. • The Imperial Palace in Vienna is one of the most important building in the Habsburgs Empire.
  26. 26. • Turkish Wars The Ottoman Empire (Turks) threat, which included unsuccessful sieges of Vienna in 1529 and in 1683, prompted Poland, Venice, and Russia to join the Habsburg Empire in repelling the Turks. • In the late 1690s, command of the imperial forces was entrusted to Prince Eugene of Savoy. Under his leadership, Habsburg forces won control of all but a small portion of Hungary by 1699.
  27. 27. The Battle for Vienna
  28. 28. The Holocaust in Austria • March 12, 1938, German troops occupied the country. • November 1938, the Nazis launched the Kristallnacht pogrom in Austria as well as in Germany. • From March1938 to April 1945, most of the Jewish population (200,000) of the country was murdered or forced into exile.
  29. 29. • On May 15, 1955, the Austrian State Treaty was ratified, with Austria declaring its permanent neutrality. • 1995 Austria becomes a member of the European Union.
  30. 30. Industry in Austria • Metals industries, both production and related manufacturing accounted for 43.1%. • Chemicals 12.6 %, • Foods and beverages 11.8%, • Forest products and paper 11.6%, • Textiles, leather, and clothing 7.7%, • Glass, pottery, and quarrying 5.3 percent, • Mining 4.%, • and Petrochemicals with 3.2 percent.
  31. 31. Agriculture and Forestry • Small and midsize rural structures 252,000 farms with the average size of 16 hectares* • Building of grains: 60% of the land is arbale land 60% grass land – cattle attitude and milk production. • The production of beef Covers 140% of the National requirements. • Cultivation of wine. * 1 hectare = 10,000 m²
  32. 32. Tourism Sector • Tourism sector is high value niche in the Austrian economy as the contribution of the overall tourism and leisure industry to GDP was 14.8%. • The direct and indirect value added from tourism recorded for 2012 was €45.53 billion.
  33. 33. Visitor expenditure
  34. 34. Austria in Tourism and Travel Competitiveness Index 2013 In 2013 Austria comes in the 3rd place in the Tourism and Travel competitiven ess Index (TTCI).
  35. 35. Number of Tourist 2013 In the year of 2013 there increasing of the number of the tourist by 1.2% compared to 2012.
  36. 36. List of Austrian sites on the list of world heritage of UNESCO
  37. 37. City of Graz Historic Centre and Schloss Eggenberg bear witness to an exemplary model of the living heritage of a central European urban complex influenced by the secular presence of the Habsburgs and the cultural and artistic role played by the main aristocratic families.
  38. 38. City of Graz – Historic Centre and Schloss Eggenberg 1999
  39. 39. The Fertö/Neusiedler Lake Has been the meeting place of different cultures for eight millennia. This is graphically demonstrated by its varied landscape, the result of an evolutionary symbiosis between human activity and the physical environment
  40. 40. Fertö / Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape 2001
  41. 41. Salzkammergut Human activity in the magnificent natural landscape of the Salzkammergut began in prehistoric times, with the salt deposits being exploited as early as the 2nd millennium BC
  42. 42. Hallstatt-Dachstein / Salzkammergut Cultural Landscape 1997
  43. 43. Historic Centre of the City of Salzburg • Salzburg has managed to preserve an extraordinarily rich urban fabric, developed over the period from the Middle Ages to the 19th century when it was a city-state ruled by a prince-archbishop. Its Flamboyant Gothic art attracted many craftsmen and artists
  44. 44. Historic Centre of the City of Salzburg 1996
  45. 45. Historic Centre of Vienna • The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, as well as the late-19th-century Ringstrasse lined with grand buildings, monuments and parks.
  46. 46. Historic Centre of Vienna 2001
  47. 47. Palace and Gardens of Schönbrunn From the 18th century to 1918, Schönbrunn was the residence of the Habsburg emperors. It was designed by the architects Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach and Nicolaus Pacassi and is full of outstanding examples of decorative art
  48. 48. Palace and Gardens of Schönbrunn 1998
  49. 49. Prehistoric Pile dwellings around the Alps This serial property of 111 small individual sites encompasses the remains of prehistoric pile-dwelling (or stilt house) settlements in and around the Alps built from around 5000 to 500 B.C. on the edges of lakes, rivers or wetlands
  50. 50. Prehistoric Pile dwellings around the Alps 2011
  51. 51. Semmering Railway • The Semmering Railway, built over 41 km of high mountains between 1848 and 1854, is one of the greatest feats of civil engineering from this pioneering phase of railway building.
  52. 52. Semmering Railway 1998
  53. 53. Wachau Cultural Landscape • The Wachau is a stretch of the Danube Valley between Melk and Krems, a landscape of high visual quality. It preserves in an intact and visible form many traces - in terms of architecture, (monasteries, castles, ruins), urban design, (towns and villages), and agricultural use, principally for the cultivation of vines - of its evolution since prehistoric times.
  54. 54. Wachau Cultural Landscape 2000
  55. 55. Vorarlberg
  56. 56. Facts about Vorarlberg • the westernmost, and second smallest Austrian federal state after Vienna • capital: Bregenz • Total Area: 2.601 km² • Population: 373,058 people • Main area for winter sports is the Arlberg region
  57. 57. The Arlberg is not a mountain but the mountain pass (1793m) between Vorarlberg and Tyrol
  58. 58. • Lake Constance (Bodensee) is one of the biggest lakes in Europe
  59. 59. Cheese • Cheese is one of the main agricultural products of Vorarlberg. Alpine cheese or "Bergkäse" is a regional specialty. • Vorarlberg has about 40 regional types of cheese
  60. 60. • w
  61. 61. • e
  62. 62. • w
  63. 63. • w
  64. 64. Skiing trails of Vorarlberg
  65. 65. Tyrol
  66. 66. Facts about Tyrol (Tirol) Capital: Innsbruck Total Area: 12,683.85 km2 Population: 714,469
  67. 67. Tyrol • Dominated by the wonderful peaks of the Alps • Neighbor federal states: Salzburg, Vorarlberg. • Neighbor countries : Germany, Italy, Switzerland
  68. 68. Tyrol • The highest mountain of North Tyrol is called Wildspitze (3768m) • Stubaier Alpen (more • than 3000m high)
  69. 69. Tyrol • Tyrol is famous of its bread and its important as a tradition for Easter.
  70. 70. • w
  71. 71. • w
  72. 72. • w
  73. 73. Skiing trails of Tyrol
  74. 74. • hd Carinthia
  75. 75. Fact about Carinthia Capital: Klagenfurt Area: 9.535 km² Population: 558,300
  76. 76. Carinthia (karinsiya) • Chemical, mechanical engineering and electrical industries are increasing constantly in the region. • Tourism industry is one of the most important sectors for this state.
  77. 77. Carinthia • Has a different tourist attraction such as Klagenfurt city and Villach. Also the midlevel towns such as Friesach and Gmünd
  78. 78. Klagenfurt • w
  79. 79. Villach
  80. 80. Gmuend
  81. 81. Friesach
  82. 82. Salzburg
  83. 83. Fact about Salzburg • capital: Salzburg • Area: 65.678 km2 • Population: 145,871
  84. 84. Salzburg is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of the federal state of Salzburg. Salzburg's "Old Town" has internationally renowned baroque architecture and one of the best-preserved city centers north of the Alps
  85. 85. • Salzburg is a tourist destination for winter sports and various music festivals. • Mozart was born in Salzburg (1755-1791) • Hermann Maier (skier)
  86. 86. • w
  87. 87. Upper Austria
  88. 88. Facts about Upper Austria • Capital: Linz • Area: 11,981.92 km2 • Population: 1,416,772
  89. 89. • Considerd to be the fourth-largest federal state. • Landscape concest of meny mountains, such as Totes Gebirge (Dead Mountains), Dachsteingebirge, Höllengebirge (Hell’s Mountains) • Also concest of meny lakes and rivers, such as the Salzkammergut Lakes, the Danube River and the Enns River
  90. 90. Lower Austria
  91. 91. Fact about Lower Austria • Capital: Sankt Pölten • Area: 19,186 km2 • Population: 1,612,000
  92. 92. • Located in the north-east of Austria • Austria’s largest federal state. Mountains: • Hocheck (1061m) • Schneeberg (2076m) Passes crossing the Alps: • Semmering (985m) connecting Lower Austria and Styria • Wechsel (980m) connecting Lower Austria and Styria
  93. 93. • It has 36 rivers, among them: Danube, Traisen, March and Thaya. • the Wachau Valley is an important wine growing area and a World Heritage Site
  94. 94. Wachau Valley Wine Tour
  95. 95. AND FINALLY
  96. 96. Vienna
  97. 97. General Facts • Area: 414.65 km • Population: 1,765,649 and growing • Ethnicity: 61.2% Austrian 38.8% others
  98. 98. • The capital of Austria and a federal state at the same time. • Vienna has more than 20% of Austria's population • And considered to be its cultural, economical and political center.
  99. 99. The city was ranked 1st globally for its culture of innovation in 2007 and 2008, and fifth globally (out of 256 cities) in the 2011 innovation city index , which analyzed 162 indicators in covering three areas: culture, infrastructure and markets
  100. 100. Each year since 2005, Vienna has been the world's number one destination for international congresses and conventions. It attracts about five million tourists a year
  101. 101. “Vienna” City of Music Music is one of Vienna's legacies. Musical prodigies including Mozart, Joseph Haydn, Franz Schubert and Gustav Mahler have worked there in Vienna
  102. 102. State Opera
  103. 103. • Art and culture had a long tradition in Vienna, including theatre, opera, classical music and fine arts. The Burgtheater is considered one of the best theatres in the German-speaking world alongside its branch, the Akademietheater
  104. 104. Tourist Attraction of Vienna • City Hall • Parliament • Burgtheater • Hofburg • Staatsoper
  105. 105. The Vienna City Hall The City Hall is one of the most splendid amongst the numerous monumental buildings along Vienna's. Designed by Friedrich Schmidt (1825-1891), it was erected between 1872 and 1883. The architecture of the Ringstraße is dominated by historicism
  106. 106. Parliament The foundation stone was laid in 1874; the building was completed in 1883. The architect responsible for its Greek revival style was Theophil Hansen. He designed the building holistically, each element harmonizing with the others.
  107. 107. Burgtheater Burgtheater, originally known as K.K. Theater an der Burg, then until 1918 as the K.K. Hofburgtheater, is the Austrian National Theatre in Vienna and one of the most important German language theatres in the world
  108. 108. Hofburg • Hofburg Palace is a palace located in Vienna, Austria, that has housed some of the most powerful people in European and Austrian history, including the Habsburg dynasty, rulers of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
  109. 109. Thank You

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