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Air Cargo Handling Teaching Material

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Air Cargo Handling

Rushton, A., Croucher, P., & Baker, P. (2013). The handbook of logistics & distribution management. London: Kogan Page.

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Air Cargo Handling Teaching Material

  1. 1. A I R C A R G O H A N D L I N G
  2. 2. AIR CARGO HANDLING Dr. Suthep Nimsai
  3. 3. A N D U S E D T O T R A N S P O R T C A R G O B Y A I R P L A N E . ULD: UNIT LOAD DEVICE
  4. 4. ULDs become part of the aircraft. They can convey any type of cargo, from passenger suitcases and perishable goods to horses and Formula-1 cars. ULDs enable individual pieces of cargo, luggage or mail to be assembled into a single unit, which can then be loaded on and off an aircraft with speed. They allow cargo to be stowed efficiently and safely while maximizing the use of the available space.
  5. 5. The benefits of ULDs The most important purpose of a ULD is to secure cargo during flight. The safety of the plane and its passengers comes first every time. But ULDs also: • eliminate the need for manual loading and unloading • protect cargo contents so that goods arrived undamaged • maximize the use of the aircraft’s cargo space • allow the fast, easy transfer of cargo between planes The global introduction of standardized containers has improved cargo handling enormously, lowering operational costs. That, in turn, helps lower freight charges and boosts trade flows.
  6. 6. ULD = Aircraft Part ULDs are aircraft parts subject to CAA’s airworthiness requirements. Aircraft flight safety regulations apply and are defined in: • ICAO Annex 6, Operation of Aircraft; • ICAO Annex 8, Airworthiness of Aircraft; and • The derived national
  7. 7. Containers, also known as cans and pods, are typically lightweight structures comprising a base, a frame with side and roof panels, and a fabric or solid door. There are many different types of containers. Some are collapsible, some are insulated, others are ventilated or refrigerated and so on. ULD CATEGORY ULDs are divided into two main categories: AIRCRAFT CONTAINER AIRCRAFT PALLET / N E T C O M B I N AT I O N Cargo on pallets are secured by a net, which is attached to the pallet’s rim.  
  8. 8. MAIN DESK: AIRCRAFT PALLET The main deck is often loaded with flat metal pallets of specific dimensions that carry the cargo secured by netting Many ULDs are shaped to reflect the shape of the aircraft hold and are therefore often specific for use in certain aircraft. Air freighters may have a main deck and a lower deck in the fuselage.
  9. 9. LOWER DESK: AIRCRAFT CONTAINER Lower deck ULDs may be shaped to reflect the fuselage shape and be made of light metal with a door or netting on one side to allow for cargo stacking.
  10. 10. • Makes loading and unloading cargo easier • Makes loading onto and unloading off an aircraft easier • Gives better protection against all kinds of weather • Gives better protection against damage to the cargo • Gives better protection against damage to the aircraft by the cargo • Prevents unauthorized access to the cargo WHY USE A CONTAINER? WHY USE A PALLET? • Cheaper to use than containers • Accepts cargo that is difficult to fit into containers (e.g. oversized cargo) • Accepts some ‘Special Load’ cargo that can only be loaded on open pallets • They are stackable and therefore efficient and easy to store empty and return by plane
  11. 11. A A F c o n t a i n e r Lower desk A A X C o n t a i n e r Translucent sheets, drainage floor, sliding cover A K N F S K c o n t a i n e r Aircraft wheels, related tools and spare parts A K N c o n t a i n e r Solid door, forkliftable A A X C o n t a i n e r Translucent sheets, drainage floor, cover door A K P c o n t a i n e r Rapid response container with custom interior AIRCRAFT CONTAINERS
  12. 12. P B E p a l l e t Heavy duty, seat pallet P K H p a l l e t Rapid deployment pallet P M X p o w e r p l a t f o r m Heavy duty pallet, forkliftable, ISO corners P E E p a l l e t Heavy duty, seat pallet P L H p a l l e t Pallet frame for special containers P L A p a l l e t Medium duty pallet AIRCRAFT PALLETS
  13. 13. A M F c o n t a i n e r Formule 1, front loading, removable platform V R A c a r t r a n s p o r t e r A-frames, car platform A u t o b o k Forkliftable A M F c o n t a i n e r WRC car, side loading, tools and equipment V R D C a r Tr a n s p o r t e r A1 Grand prix car rack, additional storage box P G X c a r p l a t f o r m Forkliftable, large ramps internally stored CAR TRANSPORTERS
  14. 14. M G X c o n t a i n e r Forkliftable, self-contained capabilities, rapid deployment R K N C o o l c o n t a i n e r Insulated only R K N C o o l c o n t a i n e r Dry ice R G X c o n t a i n e r Forkliftable, self-contained capabilities, high tech R A P C o o l c o n t a i n e r Insulated only R A P C o o l c o n t a i n e r Dry ice / Temperature control COOL CONTAINERS
  15. 15. H M C h o r s e s t a b l e Collapsible, A-contour, three horse configuration H M A h o r s e s t a b l e H AY h o r s e s t a b l e Specially designed for B737/757, three horse configuration H M L / H M R h o r s e s t a b l e Lightweight version of the HML/HMR horse stable H M J h o r s e s t a b l e Lightweight, drop-top, three horse configuration H M J h o r s e s t a b l e Lightweight, contour conversion, three horse configuration HORSE STABLES Three horse configuration, two ramps, complete interior, animal welfare
  16. 16. Many different parties handle ULDs as they pass between airlines and airports around the world, so a system was needed to identify easily and quickly each ULD. Therefore, the International Air Transport Association (IATA) introduced a global standard system of identification. Accordingly, each ULD is assigned a unique ULD code, which is clearly visible on the relevant unit. By standardizing the system, all manufacturers, cargo handlers and airlines can now identify the ULD’s classification and the owner at a glance. An international, standardized coding system
  17. 17. IDENTIFYING A ULD Each ULD is identified by its ULD code. This code is a unique combination of letters and numbers, starting with a three-letter prefix that indentifies the type of ULD. This prefix is followed by a unique 4 or 5-digit serial number to distinguish it from others of the same type. The last two or three characters designate the owner of the ULD (e.g. the airline). XXX: ULD Type Code 01234: Serial number XYZ: Owner / Registrant Format of a ULD code: XXX 01234 XYZ
  18. 18. The three-letter prefix The first three letters of a ULD code are perhaps the most important. They are used to identify the type, size and shape of the ULD. This information is vital in determining not only the type of cargo it can contain but also the aircraft it is compatible with. The three-letter prefix works as follows: • 1st letter represents the type of ULD • 2nd letter represents the base size of the ULD • 3rd letter represents the container’s contour or the pallet’s restraint system
  19. 19. Industry standards A Certified aircraft container B Certified winged aircraft pallet D Non-certified aircraft container F Non-certified aircraft pallet G Non-certified aircraft pallet net H Certified horse stalls J Thermal non-structural igloo K Certified cattle stalls L Certified multi-contour aircraft container M Thermal non-certified aircraft container N Certified aircraft pallet net P Certified aircraft pallet Q Certified hardened aircraft container R Thermal certified aircraft container S Certified multi-modal air/surface container U Non-structural container (igloo) V Automobile transport equipment W Certified ULD for aircraft engine transport X Reserved for airline internal use Y Reserved for airline internal use Z Reserved for airline internal use Types The first letter of the code’s prefix describes the type of container:
  20. 20. Industry standards A 2235 x 3175 mm / 88 x 125 inch B 2235 x 2743 mm / 88 x 108 inch G 2438 x 6058 mm / 96 x 238.5 inch (20 ft) K 1534 x 1562 mm / 60.4 x 61.5 inch L 1534 x 3175 mm / 60.4 x 125 inch M 2438 x 3175 mm / 96 x 125 inch N 1562 x 2438 mm / 61.5 x 96 inch P 1198 x 1534 mm / 47 x 60.4 inch Q 1534 x 2438 mm / 60.4 x 96 inch R 2438 x 4978 mm / 96 x 196 inch (16 ft) S 1562 x 2235 mm / 61.5 x 88 inch Base Sizes The second letter of the code’s prefix describes the base dimensions of the unit. The following codes are used for containers manufactured after 1 October 1990:
  21. 21. Industry standards Contour The third letter of the code’s prefix describes the container's contour (shaped to fit in the plane’s body) and, in the case of pallets and nets, the restraint system in which the unit is classified. The ULD contour is designed to maximise the cargo volume carried, and depends on its position in an aircraft (upper or lower deck). A summary of all contours can be found below. C o n t o u r A Width: 2438 mm / 96 in Height: 2438 mm / 96 in Type: Main Deck C o n t o u r B Width: 2438 mm / 96 in Height: 2438 mm / 96 in Type: Main Deck C o n t o u r C Width: 2337mm / 92 in Height: 1626 mm / 64 in Type: Lower Deck C o n t o u r D Width: 2438 mm / 96 in Height: 2997 mm / 118 in Type: Main Deck
  22. 22. C o n t o u r E Width: 2007 mm / 79 in Height: 1626 mm / 64 in Type: Lower Deck C o n t o u r F Width: 4064 mm / 160 in Height: 1626 mm / 64 in Type: Lower Deck C o n t o u r G Width: 2007 mm / 79 in Height: 1143 mm / 45 in Type: Lower Deck C o n t o u r H Width: 2438 mm / 96 in Height: 1143 mm / 45 in Type: Lower Deck C o n t o u r J Width: 2438 mm / 96 in Height: 2438 mm / 96 in Type: Main Deck C o n t o u r K Width: 3175 mm / 125 in Height: 1626 mm / 64 in Type: Main / Lower Deck C o n t o u r L Width: 2438 mm / 96 in Height: 2946 mm / 116 in Type: Main Deck C o n t o u r M Width: 2236 mm / 88 in Height: 2286 mm / 90 in Type: Main Deck
  23. 23. C o n t o u r N Width: 2007 mm / 79 in Height: 1626 mm / 64 in Type: Lower Deck C o n t o u r P Width: 3175 mm / 125 in Height: 1626 mm / 64 in Type: Lower Deck C o n t o u r U Width: 4724 mm / 186 in Height: 1626 mm / 64 in Type: Lower Deck C o n t o u r V Width: 2438 mm / 96 in Height: 2438 mm / 96 in Type: Main Deck C o n t o u r X Width: 2438 mm / 96 in Height: 2997 mm / 118 in Type: Main Deck C o n t o u r Y Width: 3175 mm / 125 in Height: 2083 mm / 82 in Type: Main Deck C o n t o u r Z Width: 3175 mm / 125 in Height: 2083 mm / 82 in Type: Main Deck
  24. 24. Z H I Y O N G L I A O Safe ULD operations on the ground are essential to flight safety in the air!
  25. 25. ULDs are moved around using fixed conveying systems that consist of tracks fitted with rollers that are often powered. These conveying systems are also capable of turning the pallet to travel in a different direction. For example when a ULD is being rolled into a cargo hold on the plane it may need to be turned through 90˚ to correctly position it for safe stowing inside the aircraft. FIXED CONVEYING SYSTEM
  26. 26. Aircraft holds are accessed through side, front or rear doors which themselves have restrictions in terms of dimensions
  27. 27. The ULDs are lifted by a powered lifting device (often referred to as a hi-loader) that presents the ULDs to the door of the aircraft. HI-LOADER
  28. 28. Larger heavy-lift aircraft may be accessed by front or rear doors that lower to ground level allowing certain cargo to be loaded by fork lift truck. These planes also often have overhead gantry cranes to assist the loading process. LARGER HEAVY-LIFT AIRCRAFT
  29. 29. Antonov An 225
  30. 30. Dr. Suthep Nimsai Aviation Business Management, School of Management, Mae Fah Luang University Room E1 310, E1 building, Mae Fah Luang University. 333 M.1 Thasud, Muang, Chiangrai 57100. P H O N E 0 5391 7774 E M A I L suthep.nim@mfu.ac.th

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