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Nuclear Weapons
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Nuclear weapon

  1. 1. NUCLEAR WEAPONS Social Science presentation Class-9D
  2. 2. CONTENT: 1.What is Nuclear Weapon? 2.Types of Nuclear Weapon 3.History of Nuclear Weapon 4.Effects of Nuclear Weapon 5.Atomic bomb effect 6.What is Nuclear Material 7.List of Countries with Nuclear Weapon 8. Why is it Important? 9.Human Society and culture 10.Facts on Nuclear Weapon 11.Starting to conclude
  4. 4. WHAT IS A NUCLEAR WEAPON? A nuclear weapon: is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Both reactions release vast quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter; a modern thermonuclear weapon weighing little more than a thousand kilograms can produce an explosion comparable to the detonation of more than a billion kilograms of conventional high explosive.
  5. 5. Nuclear weapon , device designed to release energy in an explosive manner as a result of nuclear fission, nuclear fusion,or a combination of the two processes . Fission weapons are commonly referred to as atomic bombs. Fusion weapons are also referred to as thermonuclear bombs or,more commonly,hydrogen bombs; they are usually defined as nuclear weapons in which at least a portion of the energy is released by nuclear fusion.
  6. 6. Nuclear weapons produce enormous explosive energy.Their significance may best be appreciated by the coining of the words Kiloton(1,000tons)and megaton (1,000,000tons)to describe their blast energy in equivalent weights of the conventional chemical axplosive TNT.For e.g.,the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima,Japan ,in 1945,containing only about 64kg(140pounds)fo highly enriched uranium,released energy equaling about 15kilotons of chemical explosive.The blast immediately produced a strong shock wave,enormous amonts of heat,and lethal ionizing radiation. Convection currents created by the explosion Drew dust and other debris into the air,creating The mushroom-shaped cloud that has since Become the virtual signature of a nuclear Explosion.
  7. 7. In addition,radioactive debris was carried by winds high into the atmosphere,later to settle to Earth as radioactive fallout. The enormous toll in detruction,death,injury,and sickness produced by the explosions at Hiroshima and,three days later,at Nagasaki was on a scale never before produced by any single weapon.In the decades since1945,even as many Countries have developed nuclear weapons of far greater Strength than those used against the Japanese cities,concerns about the dreadful effects of suchweapons have have driven governments to negotiate arms control agreements such as the Nuclear Test-Ban strategists and planners,the very presence of these weapons of unparalleled destructive power has created a dictinct Discipline,with its own internal logic and set of doctrines, Known as Nuclear Stratergy.
  8. 8. TYPES OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS Fission weapons • In fission weapons, a mass of fissile material (enriched uranium or plutonium) is assembled into a supercritical mass—the amount of material needed to start an exponentially growing nuclear chain reaction—either by shooting one piece of sub-critical material into another (the "gun" method) or by compressing using explosive lenses a sub-critical sphere of material using chemical explosives to many times its original density (the "implosion" method). The latter approach is considered more sophisticated than the former and only the latter approach can be used if the fissile material is plutonium.
  9. 9. Fusion weapons • A pure fusion weapon is a hypothetical hydrogen bomb design that does not need a fission "primary" explosive to ignite the fusion of deuterium and tritium, two heavy isotopes of hydrogen (see thermonuclear weapon for more information about fission-fusion weapons). Such a weapon would require no fissile material and would therefore be much easier to build in secret than existing weapons. The necessity of separating high- quality fissile material requires a substantial industrial investment, and blocking the sale and transfer of the needed machinery has been the primary mechanism to control nuclear proliferation to date.
  10. 10. HISTORY OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS • Nuclear weapons possess enormous destructive power derived from nuclear fission or combined fission and fusion reactions. Starting with scientific breakthroughs made during the 1930s, the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada collaborated during World War II in what was called the Manhattan Project to counter the suspected Nazi German atomic bomb project. In August 1945 two fission bombs were dropped on Japan ending the Pacific War. The Soviet Union started development shortly thereafter with their own atomic bomb project and not long after that both countries developed even more powerful fusion weapons known as "hydrogen bombs."
  11. 11. THE HISTORY OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS •Scientist discovered how to create a chain reaction in the 1930s. •Robert Oppenheimer led an operation known as The “Manhattan Project.” •The Manhattan Project is the code name for the US government's secret project that was established before World War II and culminated in the development of the nuclear bomb.
  12. 12. HISTORY OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS • The first nuclear weapons were created by the United States, and Albert Einstein Manhattan Project. • While the first weapons were developed mainly out of fear that Germany they would first develop them, they were eventually used against the Japanese cities of Hiroshima Nagasaki in August 1945.
  13. 13. HISTORY OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS • Nuclear weapons were symbols of military and national power, and nuclear testing nuclear was often used both to test new designs as well as to send political messages.
  14. 14. HISTORY OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS • Other nations also developed nuclear weapons during this time, including the United Kingdom France, and China. These five members of the "nuclear club" agreed to attempt to limit the spread of nuclear rise to other nations, though at least three other countries (India, South Africa, Pakistan, and most likely Israel) developed nuclear arms during this time.
  15. 15. WHY PEOPLE WANT TO DEVELOP NUCLEAR WEAPONS? • They were made for National Defense. • They are powerful • For intimidating other countries • It is a statement of development and power
  16. 16. EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS • However, depending on the design of the weapon and the environment in which it is detonated the energy distributed to these categories can be increased or decreased. The blast effect is created by the coupling of immense amounts of energy, spanning the electromagnetic spectrum, with the surroundings. In locations such as submarine is produced as blast and how much as radiation. • When an air burst occurs lethal blast and thermal effects proportionally scale much more rapidly than lethal radiation effects, as higher and higher yield nuclear weapons are used.
  17. 17. • The physical-damage mechanisms of a nuclear weapon (blast and thermal radiation) are identical to those of conventional explosives. However, the energy produced by a nuclear explosive is millions of times more powerful per gram and the temperatures reached are briefly in the tens of millions of degrees. • Energy from a nuclear explosive is initially released in several forms of penetrating radiation.
  18. 18. EFFECT OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS • Most of the damage caused by a nuclear weapon is not directly related to the nuclear process of energy release, and would be present for any explosion of the same magnitude.
  19. 19. EFFECT OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS • A nuclear weapon that is exploded underground can destroy a deeply send out energy efficiently and requires significantly less power to do so than a nuclear weapon.
  20. 20. EFFECT OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS • Although a nuclear weapon is capable of causing the same destruction as usual explosives through the effects of blast and thermal radiation, release much larger amounts of energy in a much shorter period of time.
  21. 21. EFFECT OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS • The energy released from a nuclear weapon comes in four major categories: • Blast – 40-60% of total energy • Thermal radiation – 30-50% of total energy • Ionizing radiation – 5% of total energy • Residual radiation (fallout) – 5-10% of total energy
  23. 23. ATOMIC BOMB EFFECT • Atomic Bomb release four kinds of energy. Radiation (Cause Disease and will effect the next Generation) Electromagnetic Heat Pressure http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= NpbCZ8QRpEg&feature=player_em bedded#
  24. 24. WHAT IS NUCLEAR MATERIAL? Nuclear materials are the key ingredients in nuclear weapons.they include fissile,fissionable and source materials.Fissile materials are those which are composed of atoms that can be split By neutrons in a self-sustaining chain –reaction to release energy,and include plutonium-239 And uranium-235.Fussionable materials are those in which the atoms can be fused in order to release energy,and include deuterium and tritium.Source of additional atomic particals for fission.They include tritium,polonium,beryllium,lithium-6 and helium-3
  25. 25. LIST OF STATES WITH NUCLEAR WEAPONS • Five nuclear-weapon states under the NPT • United States • Russian Federation (formerly Soviet Union) • United Kingdom • France • China • Other states declaring possession of nuclear weapons • India • Pakistan • North Korea • Other states believed to possess nuclear weapons • Israel
  27. 27. • Hiroshima was the primary target of the first nuclear bombing mission on August 6, with Nagasaki being the alternative target. • 70,000 to 80,000 people were killed immediately and another 70.000 were injured in Hiroshima. • 80,000 had died from the bombing in Nagasaki. • The code name for the bomb used in Hiroshima was called, “Little Boy.” The bomb used in Nagasaki was called, “ Fat Boy.” QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Little Boy Fat Man
  28. 28. CHINA EFFECT OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS • U.S. intelligence predict that over the next 15 years China may increase the number of warheads aimed at U.S. Targets from 20 to between 75-100 site. In the next decade, China will likely make its most rapid headway in the development of ballistic missiles.
  29. 29. RUSSIA EFFECT OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS • Russia is currently estimated to have about 5,000 strategic nuclear warheads plus 3,400 tactical nuclear weapons.
  30. 30. INDIA EFFECT OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS • India is generally estimated to have about 60 nuclear warheads and enough plutonium to manufacture to add 30- 50 more warheads.
  31. 31. IRAQ • Saddam Hussein did not possess stockpiles of illegal weapons at the time of the U.S. invasion in March 2003 and had not begun any program to produce them.
  32. 32. FOREIGN POLICY • President George W. Bush has singled out terrorist nuclear attacks on the United States as the defining threat the nation will face in the foreseeable future. In addressing this specter, he has asserted that Americans' "highest priority is to keep terrorists from acquiring weapons of mass destruction. • " So far, however, his words have not been matched by deeds. The Bush administration has yet to develop a strategy for combating the threat of nuclear terror.
  33. 33. THE BIGGER THREAT? • The United States stated on February 26, 2003 that North Korea had reactivated a reactor at its main nuclear complex. • The Korea is a big threat to American cause they develop the nuclear weapon and have Enriched uranium
  34. 34. KOREAN ARMY
  35. 35. THERMONUCLEAR EXPULSION • This is appearance of a thermonuclear weapon detonation from many miles away.
  37. 37. WHY IS IT IMPORTANT?  Nuclear weapons are tools of mass destruction. They are also a possible danger to our would and you have to understand the consequences of using them.  It also very dangerous, The uranium can get into the skin and damage your blood, cells and organs.  The nuclear energy can damage whole city and wipe out entire country in just few seconds. That is the reason why people try to stop Iran build nuclear weapon.
  38. 38. HUMAN SOCIETY AND CULTURE • Nuclear Weapons has changed human society in the certain way. It lead the END of the WW2 and reduced the pain that people suffered from the War. • The use of nuclear weapons has killed many people. In result of that there are an abundance of people who hate nuclear weapons, and people who like them. • The Technology has improved when the nuclear energy have been found. Open a new technology field.
  39. 39. LOVERS AND HATERS • It may eventually protect us one day from a nuclear attack by a rogue or terrorist nation such as North Korea or Iran. • It can defend us against missile delivery of chemical or biological weapons. • Military and scientific jobs are created from the project. • The missile defense system may discourage terrorist nations from even trying to develop nuclear weapons. • The system has little chance of success against a massive scale attack or against a terrorist strike. • The towering costs for a system that may never be used would be better spent on fighting poverty, improving education. • Spending large amounts of money on these types of projects leads to a useless arms races. Love it Hate it
  40. 40. WHY DO PEOPLE THINK THE WAY THEY DO? •Well the people who support it believe that nuclear weapons one day may help us win a war or keep other countries intimidated by the fact that we have them. •People who object to this topic feel the way they do because they think that maybe one day nuclear weapons may destroy the earth due to a war and the use of not just ours but other countries as well using nuclear weapons.
  41. 41. SOME GOOD ARGUMENTS AGAINST NUCLEAR WEAPONS. • The entire world would be a more secure planet if we were free from nuclear weapons. Nuclear weapons are the only type of weapon in existence that have the power to wipe out the human species and countless other species. (nonukes.org) • Nuclear weapons have not prevented any wars, which is what they were suppose to do in the first place.Starting to Conclude…..
  42. 42. FACTS ON NUCLEAR WEAPONS There are 16,400 nuclear weapons on Earth today, more than 20 years after the Cold War ended. • Five states are declared as nuclear weapon zones under the Non- Proliferation Treaty: US, UK, France, Russia and China. These countries are committed to disarmament under international law. It is illegal for any other country that has signed the NPT to develop these weapons. • Many other countries have been suspected of developing nuclear weapons including India, Pakistan, Israel, Iraq, Iran, Libya, Syria and Korea.
  43. 43. • Britain has one nuclear weapon system, Trident. Trident replaced Polaris in the 1980s and consists of four submarines, each one capable of carrying 16 missiles. Each warhead on the missiles can be guided to a separate target. • The only nuclear bombs ever to be used were by the US against Japan. In 1945 nuclear bombs were dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, killing and injuring hundreds of thousands of people. Today Hiroshima’s peace park attracts visitors from across the world. • Trident is more than 1,000 times powerful than the bomb that hit Hiroshima. Each warhead’s destructive power is measured in kilotons (kts). A kiloton is equal to 1,000 tons of TNT. The Hiroshima bomb was 16kts. Trident is far more deadly – each warhead is up to 100kts and there are 160 of them. That’s 16,000kts.
  44. 44. STARTING TO CONCLUDE It’s important to think about the use of nuclear weapons because there may be a war or other conflict in which we may need to use nuclear force in order to defend ourselves. This topic was very interesting to research and present because there are so many things about nuclear weapons that people do not know about. Basically you are either for or against the use of these weapons of mass destruction there is no in between. Now I just got to ask are nuclear weapons good or bad?