5. Principles of Learning from Horne
and Pine (1990)
1.Learning is an experience which
occurs inside the learner and is
activated by the learner.
“No one directly teaches anyone anything
6. 2. Learning is the discovery of the
personal meaning and relevance of
It is necessary that teacher relates lessons to
the needs, interests and problems of the
7. 3. Learning (behavioral change) is a
consequences of experience.
If experience is the best teacher, then
teacher should make use of experiential
learning. Experiential learning make use
direct as well as vicarious experiences.
11. 7. One of the richest resources for
learning is the learner himself.
12. 8. The Process of Learning is
Emotional as Well as Intellectual.
Learning is affected by
the total state of the
People are feeling beings
as well as thinking beings
•When their feelings and
thoughts are in harmony,
learning is maximized
To create the optimal
conditions in a group for
learning to occur, people
must come before purpose
Regardless of the purpose of
a group , it cannot be
when other things get in the
Barriers to communication
exist in people
•Before we can conduct “official
business”, we need to work with
the people problems that may
exist in a group.
To maximize the acquisition
and internalization of ideas ,
it seems reasonable that the
people problems would have
to be dealt with first.
13. 9. The process of problem solving
and learning are highly unique and
16. Thorndike’s Laws of Learning:
1.) Law of Readiness:
First primary law of learning, according to him, is the ‘Law of
Readiness’ or the ‘Law of Action Tendency’, which means that
learning takes place when an action tendency is aroused through
preparatory adjustment, set or attitude.
2) The ‘Law of Exercise’, therefore, is also understood as the ‘Law
of Use and Disuse’ in which case connections or bonds made in
the brain cortex are weakened or loosened. Many examples of
this case are found in case of human learning. Learning to drive
a motor-car, typewriting, singing or memorizing a poem or a
mathematical table, and music etc. need exercise and repetition
of various movements and actions many times.
17. 3) Law of Effect:
The third law is the ‘Law of Effect’, according to which the
trial or steps leading to satisfaction stamps in the bond or
Thorndike’s Laws of Learning:
4) Law of Multiple – Response:
According to it the organism varies or changes its response till
an appropriate behavior is hit upon. Without varying the
responses, the correspondence for the solution might never be
18. Thorndike’s Laws of Learning:
5) The Law of Set or Attitude:
Learning is guided by a total set or attitude of the organism,
which determines not only what the person will do but what
will satisfy or annoy him.
6) Pre- potency of Elements:
According to this law, the learner reacts selectively to the
important or essential in the situation and neglects the other
features or elements which may be irrelevant or non- essential.
The ability to deal with the essential or the relevant part of the
situation makes analytical and insightful learning possible.
19. Thorndike’s Laws of Learning:
7) Law of Response by Analogy:
According to this law, the individual makes use of old
experiences or acquisitions while learning a new situation.
There is a tendency to utilize common elements in the new
situation as existed in a similar past situation.
8) The Law of Associative Shifting:
According to this law we may get a response, of which a
learner is capable, associated with any other situation to which
he is sensitive.