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Now we are going to talk about effective lobbying. What do we mean by lobbying – we mean persuading people who have an say in decision making to do what we want. We all have an important role to play in educating public officials about issues and concerns they deal with. So who are the people who make the decisions that affect our lives? TD’s/Senators those in public life Organisations, public officials
OBJECTIVES Any lobbying effort must begin with a sense of its goals. Among these goals some distinctions are important. What are the long-term goals and what are the short-term goals? What are your goals in relation to policy and what are your goals in terms of the process, people you want to get involved. These goals need to be defined at the startm in a way that can launch an effort, draw people to it, and sustain it over time. AUDIENCES Who are the people and institutions you need to move. This includes those who have the actual formal authority to deliver the goods (I.e. legislators) and those who have the capacity to influence those with formal authority i.e. the media. In both cases, an effective lobbying effort requires a clear sense of who these audiences are and what access or pressure points are available to move them. MESSAGE Reaching these different audiences requires crafting and framing a set of messages that will be persuasive. Although these messages must always be rooted in the same basic truth, they also need to be tailored differently to different audiences deptending on what they are ready to hear. In most cases, lobbying messages will have two basic components: an appeal to what is right and an appeal to the audience’s self-interest. There is a wide variety of ways to deliver your message. These range from the genteel lobbying to the in your face direct action. Which means is most effective varies from situation. The key is to evaluate them and apply them appro0priately, weaving them Together in a winning mix RESOURCES: An effective lobbying effort takes careful stock of the resources available. This includes past lobbying work that is related, allies already in place, people and people’s capacity, information and political intelligence. In short, you don’t have to start from scratch, you start building from what you’ve got. GAPS: Now you must identify what you need. This means looking at alliances you need to be built, and capacities such as media and research which are crucial to any effort. FIRST EFFORTS: What would be an effective way to begin? What are some potential short term goals or projects that would bring the right people together, symbolize the larger work ahead and create something achievable that lays the groundwork for the next step? EVALUATION As with any long journey, the course needs to be checked along the way. Strategy needs t be evaluated revisiting each of the questions above I.e. are we aiming at the right audiences, are we reaching them, etc. It is important to be able to make mid-course corrections and to discard those elements of a strategy that don’t work once they are actually put in practice.
Writing to a public representative does make a differene. They know that every person who writes represents many others who feel the same but don’t write.
Every citizen has the right to seek a meeting with their public representative. Try to arrange the visit on your own turf. Be prepared bud don’t feel that you need to be an expert. Know when to admit “I don’t know” and offer to follow up with the information. Don’t stay too long.
Remember your need to build a relationship. You may need his/her help on other issues.
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Public advocacy effective lobbying
FUNDAMENTALS OF EFFECTIVE LOBBYINGEFFECTIVE LOBBYING TECHNIQUES &RESOURCESORGANIZING EFFECTIVE LOBBYING TEAM
Persuading People who have a say in decision making to do what we want.
We all have an important role to play in educating public officials about issues and concerns they deal with. Politicians need votes in order to get elected. A strong grassroots network of constituents represents a vote generating (or alienating) engine that a good candidate or elected official cannot afford to ignore.
OBJECTIVES AUDIENCESWhat do you want? Who can give it to you?MESSAGE DELIVERYWhat do they need to How can we get them tohear? hear it?RESOURCES GAPSWhat have we got? What do we need to develop?FIRST EFFORTS EVALUATIONHow do we begin? How do we know if its working?
Any lobbying effort These goals need to be must begin with a defined at the start in a sense of it’s goals. way that can launch an effort, draw people to What are the long- it and sustain it over term goals and what are the short-term time. goals in terms of process and the people you want to get involved?
Be Well Briefed Well Aimed (target the (forewarned & right person) forearmed) Well Developed (bit by Be Well Timed (Its no bit graduating to the use lobbying for more difficult ask) something after the decision has been Well Behaved (don’t made) ever become angry)
Well Judged (Be Be Well Prepared – careful with your use of Index items every day, the media) build up sources for information, good Well Written – get to retrieval system know the format for Always be on the Standing Orders/PQs lookout for an etc. Make it easy to opportunity to advance use. your case.
Who are the people and institutions you need to move. This includes those who have the actual formal authority to deliver the goods (I.e. legislators) and those who have the capacity to influence those with formal authority I.e. THE MEDIA. AN EFFECTIVE LOBBYING CAMPAIGN REQUIRES A CLEAR SENSE OF WHO THESE AUDIENCES ARE AND WHAT ACCESS OR PRESSURE POINTS ARE AVAILABLE TO MOVE THEM.
County Councillors TD’s Senators Ministers MEP’s Organisations Institutions Public Officials
All Messages must be rooted in the same basic truth and be tailored differently to different audiences depending on what they are ready to hear. Must appeal to the audience’s self interest
Telephone Letters E-Mail Press Releases/Letters to the Editor Hire a Lobbyist Meetings Site Visits
Every person who writes represents many others who feel the same but don’t write Be clear about what you want Make it real – use an example Ask for a direct response with his/her positon
Keep your Group Small Make your group diverse Discuss in advance how to handle the meeting Be direct but not threatening/Don’t Be Fobbed Off Know your facts Leave informational material Try to put timings on agreed actions
DECIDE THE ONE THING YOU WANT TO SAY AND SAY IT WELL – NOT SEVERAL THINGS BADLY. Are you responding to previous editorial or is it a “soapbox letter” – make it clear. In the first sentence. Be brief – Focus, Force & Style Remember Newspapers are in the NEWS business.
Send a thank-you note. Repeat commitments that were made in the meeting and your understanding of them.
Be Fair and Reasonable Give credit where Kill them with kindness credit is due Be Realistic and willing Don’t get too to compromise emotional Never leave in anger Education, Motivation Contact with regularity and Activation Be Actual and Factual Prioritise concerns Everything in Writing Do not accept generalities
How did the campaign Was the outcome in thefurther your Mission? interests of your group?Did you achieve yourkey campaign objective?Did you achieve What newsubsidiary campaign contacts/relationshipsobjectives? How have resulted?How will you build in What will you dothe Campaign? different next time?
Do Get to the point soon and focus on your issue. Time is precious. Keep it simple. Explain in simple and straightforward terms the logic supporting your position. 18
Do Get to know rep’s staff – they can be as important as the lawmaker. Know your issue. Remember there’s strength in numbers. Many issues are decided on the volume of communications received. 19
Do Remember important information. (Your contact information with all your communications, pertinent data, bill #, etc.) Commit to your cause. Follow-up with letters and calls after the initial contact. Be a good winner and loser; remember, you win some and you lose some. 20
Do Be patient. Results could take several months – or even several sessions. Ask lawmakers to state their positions. Thank your lawmaker, no matter what the outcome. Use the media. 21
Don’t Cover multiple issues in one communication. Use form letters to convey a consistent message. Underestimate the weight given to letters and phone calls. Make one contact to the lawmaker, then drop the issue. 22
Don’t Let the lawmaker know that your organization has asked you to contact him/her. Ignore opportunities to visit your lawmaker at home. Lie – never. Forget that you and your lawmaker need each other. 23
1. Get to know the political powers before you ask them to do something for you.2. Establish a positive relationship with your representatives through visits, phone calls, E-mails, etc.3. Visit your representatives in your district. 24
1. Invite your representatives to your work site.2. Provide them with background information and offer yourself as a resource.3. Provide recognition and visibility in exchange for their support. 25
1. Know and plan delivery of your message.2. Practice, practice, practice! Nothing is more impressive than a smooth and professional presentation.3. Be brief. Show you value their time.4. Get to the point.5. Be courteous.6. Don’t forget to close. Ask for their support. 26
Punctuality Know where to go Arrive at least 15 minutes early Physical Appearance You only get one chance to make a first impression 27
Proper Dress • A suit is recommended for both men and women. • Men may wear pants and jacket. • Women may wear a skirt and a jacket. (appropriate length) • Best colors are navy, black, and beige. Shoes • Men should wear polished dress shoes. • Women should wear polished, medium heels with closed toes. 28
Jewelry• Jewelry should be neat and simple.• Guys should not wear earrings.Makeup• Makeup should be applied neatly and conservatively.• Lipstick color should be a natural or light shade.• Nails should either be polished clear or red.Hair• Hair should be neat.• Wear long hair pulled back away from face. 29
Body Language Conveys Confidence• Stand and sit straight. (Practice by placing a book on your head.)• Promote a positive image with a pleasant facial expression. (Practice in a mirror.)• Be the first to extend your hand in greeting.• Place your arms on the chair’s armrests or by your side with your hands gently locked in your lap. (avoid fidgeting)• Keep both feet on the ground. 30
Organizing effective lobbying teams requires adequate infrastructure and a lobbying plan. Teams form the infrastructure of your lobbying campaign. The infrastructure has 2 broad categories: management and functional teams that enable the effective planning, organization, and implementation of campaign. Rose Conway-Walsh
The lobbying plan explains how to gain support and minimize opposition. It helps maximize the use of your resources to increase the likelihood of success. Rose Conway-Walsh
The infrastructure has two broad categories of district yet interdependent teams, management and functional teams that enable the effective planning, organization, and implementation of your campaign. The size of your organization will determine the number of individuals available to serve on each team. Small organizations may find it necessary to combine team functions and work with other associations. Rose Conway-Walsh
It is suggested that the management team be comprised of persons from each interest group within your organization. This is responsible for strategic planning, decision-making, overall project management. This team will organize the project and appoint members to the functional teams. Rose Conway-Walsh
The lobbying team is composed of your organization’s members and the contract lobbyist, if any. The management team assigns broad legislative goals to the lobbying team. The lobbying team lobbies lawmakers and staff, supporters, and opponents face-to-face, attending and testifying in committee hearings, and monitoring the activities of lawmakers, supporters, and opponents throughout the life of the bill. Rose Conway-Walsh
The bill manager chairs the lobbying team. The bill manager is responsible for overseeing day-to-day activities of the lobbying effort. Coordinates the grass roots lobbying activities of the members of the organization. The designated contact for the organization’s contract lobbyist if one is used. The bill manager provides feedback to the management team about the bill’s progress so that changes can be made in policy or resource allocation, if needed. Another important responsibility is assuring the organization meets the legislature’s ethical requirements. Rose Conway-Walsh
The drafting team is another functional team that writes the bill and supporting information that will be given to the legislature. It is suggested that drafting team members all write clearly and can understand legal requirements. The initial supporting information and committee testimony will be drafted prior to bill introduction and revised, as needed. Rose Conway-Walsh
Bill Historian An important member of the drafting team is the bill historian. This position requires a detailed-oriented person who records and is able to explain all actual and proposed changes in bill language following its publication to interest groups and introduction into the legislature. As the bill advances through the legislative process there will be proposed and actual changes in its language and concepts. The historian must be able to explain all changes to those who inquire so that you do not appear to be dishonest or incompetent if asked about differences among successive drafts. Rose Conway-Walsh
The lobbying plan explains how to gain support and minimize opposition. It helps maximize the use of your resources to increase the likelihood of success. When you assess political strength you consider the difference between internal and external factors. Consider the following elements when developing a lobbying plan: people, cost and benefits, timing, place, campaign contributions, communication with the media, avoiding unnecessary conflicts, and maintaining confidentiality. Rose Conway-Walsh
People Identify those persons that can impact your effort as you design the lobby plan. These will include prospective sponsors and co-sponsors, members of committees of referral, and your bill’s likely supporters and opponents inside and outside the legislature. As you identify each one, consider why each might support or oppose you based on your relationships and the language and ideas in your bill. Rose Conway-Walsh
i. Identify executive agencies that might be lobbied to gain political support for your bill. The legislature will give considerable attention to the recommendations from experts within these agencies. ii. Special interest groups may be found as corporations, associations, and local governments. It is suggested that you predict which special interest groups may oppose your bill for substantive or political reasons. Locate potential supporters and find ways to actively involve them in supporting your bill. Look for nontraditional allies for your issue; think broadly and creatively when considering alliances with others.iii. Constituents are critical to success. In each district, identify those who can be mobilized to visit a lawmaker, organize a letter writing campaign, develop a phone tree, or use other methods to generate contacts with their lawmaker. Rose Conway-Walsh
Assess the financial, political, social, and personal costs to your organization, the supporters and opponents of your goals, legislators, and others. List the benefits of your legislation and then compare the benefits to the probable costs. Try to identify the amount of lobbying needed to maintain support and estimate the cost and benefit associated with each new alliance Rose Conway-Walsh
Often the success of a legislative effort is dependent upon timing. An ill-timed legislative effort may fail despite a meritorious concept. Consider the following questions: i. Can this legislation wait until next year? ii. Would this legislation advance more readily in another year? iii. Will this year’s allies still be in office or otherwise able to support you next year?iv. When should lobbying begin? Rose Conway-Walsh
Place Before taking your bill to the state or federal legislature consider where the best or easiest place might be to obtain precedent-setting legislation. Campaign contributions Will campaign contributions be part of your lobbying plan? On a member-by-member basis determine how your support of a legislator’s re-election campaign will garner goodwill. If you need support of legislators with whom your organization has no constituent interests, campaign contributions may improve access. However legislators have the greatest interest in constituents, especially those who make campaign contributions. Contributions whether in cash or labor show a lawmaker that you are a member of his team. Rose Conway-Walsh
Consider how to use the media to promote your bill. Develop press releases that explain the identity of your organizations, its members, and its lobbying goals. Select articulate, credentialed, or well-known members of your organization to represent you to the media. Your issue may suffer from media attention if it brings unwanted interest from opposition groups. However favorable attention may help you overcome the opposition and increase your membership. Rose Conway-Walsh
It is suggested that associations ensure that its legislative goals and activities do not unnecessarily conflict with those of its members or allied organizations. Your members or allied organizations often have legislative agendas unrelated to the issue advocated by the association. Lobbying efforts need to be coordinated to avoid sending conflicting messages to the legislature. Rose Conway-Walsh
Maintaining confidentiality Maintain confidentiality about your lobbying plan. Conducting legislative research Internet research Drafting your propose bill Drafting the bill yourself Drafting the supporting information Rose Conway-Walsh
Why Lobby? To make biker rights a reality, you must convince legislators that your position makes sense. Visiting a legislator is an essential tactic for furthering your campaign. Lobby visits can be made on the local, state, or national level, depending on the particular issue you are supporting. A lobby visit can be an incredibly rewarding experience, and all bikers should meet with their elected officials to discuss motorcyclist rights issues. Rose Conway-Walsh
Be Prepared Know the issue. Prepare Position Papers Gather your facts and organize them into a one sided (two, only if absolutely necessary) page fact sheet Make an Appointment It is always a good idea to make an appointment to be sure that the appropriate people will be in the office. Before the Visit Dress appropriately for your visit or in other words wear your leather. Rose Conway-Walsh
Visit the Bills Sponsor If you are lobbying for a particular piece of legislation, it is a good idea to call or visit the bills sponsor before lobbying. They usually will be very eager to assist you in reaching the right members and will offer input on ways to present the issue. The Opening of Your Visit It is important to be as relaxed as possible during your visit. Expect to be a little nervous Answer Only Questions That You Know Answer questions and offer your side of a stance. If you do not know an answer, tell your representative that you will get back to them. NEVER make up an answer. If you give out incorrect information, you will eliminate the credibility of yourself . Offering to get back to them also offers you a chance to re-familiarize them with your topic. Rose Conway-Walsh
Dont Get Mean After discussing the issue, if your representative or LA does not give you an answer that you want to hear politely thank them for their time, let them know that you still hold your position, urge them to reconsider, and politely leave. Do not get argumentative. No one likes working with someone who refuses to negotiate. Be Flexible If your representative opposes the bill that you want, see if you can come up with some common ground. Always offer to follow up on any new developments, and ALWAYS make sure that your fact sheet has all of your contact information. Rose Conway-Walsh
Follow Up After your visit, it is important that you follow up on any questions that you were unable to answer. Always send a note thanking your representative or LA for their time. If necessary, set up another appointment if you need to follow up on a new topic. If your representative does what you told them to do, then be sure to thank them and let them know that you appreciate their efforts. Benefits of the Visit Your visit will not only help to persuade your representative, but it will also be an educational experience for you. During your visit, you will get an inside look at the political climate, and get insight on how to better promote your issue. Never be afraid to ask an LA a question about the actual mechanics behind government. Rose Conway-Walsh
Effective lobbying is how we persuading people who have a say in decision making to do what we want. Much depends on the lobbyist’s own powers of analysis, knowledge, commitment and ability to find the right structure and mediate in the right processes at the right moment. A lobbyist needs personal commitment and passion, as well as the courage to take risks and, last but not least, stamina and perseverance to continue looking for new opportunities in often difficult (political) circumstances. Rose Conway-Walsh
1. Kenneth M. Goldstein , Interest Groups, Lobbying and Participation in America, Cambridge University Press, 2nd Edition, 2003.2. Robert H. Salisbury & David Cohen, Lobbying, Pluralism & Democracy, Palgrave, 3rd Edition, 20013. Ken Kollman, Outside Lobbying, Public Opinion & Interest Group Strategies, 19984. Paul S. Herrnson & Ronald G. Shaiko & Clyde Wilcox, The Interest Group Connection, 2nd Edition, 2005