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Light and shadow

  1. 1. Light is the natural agent that stimulates sight. It is light that first enables “What You See”. Shadow is the creation where light cannot reach. It is shadow that help us define forms
  2. 2. Shadow is the creation of light. Without light shadow will not exist. Light can exists without shadow. Without shadow light still shines.
  3. 3. Light has been since as the origin of all beings as without light life would not be possible on Earth. Light greatly affects our ways of life, as how we interacts with one another, how we interacts with the surroundings revolved around how light interacts with us. Our relationship with the environment is enhanced in the presence of light.
  4. 4. • • • • •
  5. 5. The use of natural light in early Architecture was seen or related to the gods above. Ad light is the origin of all beings, light is seen as a creation of god or even god himself. In the design of Pantheon, the opening at the very top of the building allows light to enter and flow through the space, a implication of allowing god to enter the building.
  6. 6. The Pantheon is one of the earliest attempts at using light to create and give life to a space. The architecture not only uses the curves of the dome but it also make use of the notches on the roof, to give depth to the building. The opening is at the very centre of the dome, the light moves around the domes as the hours changes. This in turn creates a different kind of shadow. The quality and quantity of light gives certain quality and quantity of shadow. The physical and spiritual appearance of this architecture changes with the changes of its exterior light.
  7. 7. The curves and notches on the dome creates shadows. The formation of shadows gives depth onto the overall building giving it a soul. The steps on the notches creates an illusion of window and form a pattern of light and shadow.
  8. 8. Natural lightings are most often used in places of worship or spiritual enlightenment. This is because the power and spiritual input from a thoughtful natural lighting design highlights not only the architecture, but also the character of the space and the experience are utilized to powerful effect. And thus its often use in architecture that aims to convey or spread a belief or ideology.
  9. 9. Antoni Gaudi uses circles, curves and other organic shapes to create his architectures. Not only does his design bathed in natural lights illuminating the interiors but he also uses colors to create a symphony of light and shadow, giving life to the building.
  10. 10. Across cultures there is an understanding of daylight and human experience, and the many ways it can be controlled and exposure, protection and orientation have been integral to vernacular design and traditional building methods. For example, what could have been a simple shade becomes an elaborate screen, filtering light and creating privacy all while developing an architecture that is rich in detail and distinctive culturally.
  11. 11. • With the advancement in technology and design, architects today are able to make use of natural light more as more openings can be used in their designs. • Natural light in Modern Architecture is used to make buildings look and feel more open as compare to a metaphor of god in classical architecture • With that being said natural light is still sometimes used to highlight certain beliefs and aspects in religious buildings • It is also used to create illusions in design • Light can also be used to warm up a space, not necessarily only to lit up
  12. 12. Norman Foster covers up the previously open courtyard using glass panels. This allows the visitors to enjoy the entirety of the museum no matter the season, as even during winter the natural light from outside can shine into the courtyard, illuminate and warm up the space all while keeping the cold air from coming in. This will allow the visitors to stay in the courtyard for a prolong period of time even during the winter cold, something that an open courtyard cannot provide.
  13. 13. The glass roof of the courtyard is formed with thousands of triangular glass panels. These panels casts a patterned shadow onto the walls surrounding the courtyard. The shadow breaks up the walls, creating illusionary space between the walls, making the courtyard seems more open rather than a totally enclosed space. This is an excellent example of how light can be use to create an illusion, on top of being able to it up a space.
  14. 14. Once again Norman chooses to cover the top of his design with a glass dome. In this design, the glass dome not only serve as a entry for daylight and starlight during the day and night respectively, but it also serve a layer of isolation between the building’s interior and exterior. When natural light shines in and heat up the space, the glass ensures that the heat are trap within the space and is not lost to the surrounding. This is an excellent example of how light can be use to warm up a space, no top of being able to lit up a space.
  15. 15. In this design the centre support of the dome is covered in mirrors, the mirrors are used to reflects the light further, thus filling up the entire space with minimal amount light. On top of that, the mirrors also reflects the light from inside to outside, giving the dome a “natural glow” during the night, creating a interesting profile and character for the buildings.
  16. 16. Uses curves and organic shapes to illuminate the interiors with natural light.
  17. 17. The library uses natural light for a more eco-friendly design as its more energy saving. The use of artificial light is kept to minimal and on top of that the intensity of the artificial light is controlled by the use of light sensors. Hence when the natural light is dimes, the artificial light brightens and vice versa.
  18. 18. Artificial light plays a very important role in design especially in modern architecture, as high rise buildings in urban area blocks out natural light hence the spaces are often lacking in natural light. With the use of artificial lights, designer are able to set the atmosphere of a space much more accurately as compare to the use of natural light. On top of that, designers are also able to create various illusions by being able to decide where and how the lights are placed. For example (from left to right), • The use of soft glowing light below the benches, gives the illusions that the benches are floating • The use of bright lighting within the ceilings, gives the illusions that the ceiling is not solid and have openings • The use of lights beside the stairs expands the space, and gives the illusions that the space is slightly open
  19. 19. As technology advances, over-illuminations becomes a problem. Excessive amount of lightings are used in designs, this cause not only wastage of energy but also results in bad designs. High end places such as hotels and restaurants with good interior design will have just the right amount of lighting. As shown in the pictures above, the office is overly illuminated even for a working environment, while the restaurants have a soft soothing lighting.
  20. 20. Inside-out Museum - Beijing
  21. 21. Kimbell Art Museum
  22. 22. GuangZhou Opera House
  23. 23. Utzon Chapel
  24. 24. In Modern Architecture, designers try to avoid having light bulbs shining directly into the users’ eyes. Hence a good lighting design in modern architecture are either hidden or creating an indirect light. The previous photos shows how these effects are achieved.
  25. 25. Michael Graves is a postmodern architect that uses design idea similar to that of a classical architecture, hence most of his designs have a exposed light source and on top of that he uses notches to create shadow similar to that of the Pantheon.
  26. 26. Artificial lighting is not limited to just interior spaces of the buildings. Exterior lighting schemes have been applied to many modern buildings and structures to make a building stand out in a city’s crowded skyline and at the same time making the city look more vibrant. More recent buildings also feature media screens which can be programed in different lighting schemes. Exterior Lighting is also used as a form of art which are projected on building facades. But of course these lighting not only need to be fancy but also need to be functional.
  27. 27. Exterior Lighting Can Be Use To Create A mood
  28. 28. Light and Shadows give different type of soulfulness at different angles. And they are used to enhance the geometry and form of the buildings.
  29. 29. The curves create a balance in light and shadow showing soulfulness of exterior space
  30. 30. Shadows in architecture help break up a vast amount of space. It also gives a building three dimensional feeling. Natural shadow casted by natural light, creates a space with dynamic appearance as the shadow changes as the sun moves, giving life to the space.
  31. 31. Shadows create dynamic and life, with the use of natural lighting. Free forms working together with light and shadow, enhance the interior form.
  32. 32. TWA Terminal
  33. 33. TWA Terminal The light and shadow work together to give colors to the space, they ‘paint’ the space.
  34. 34. The roof has a gap to allow light to pass through and with the help of the dark interior, the roof seems floating. Small window opening on the outside and huge opening on the inside breaks up the wall and with depth to create more shadows and gives texture. The windows are shape irregular, they gives a dim but exciting light within.
  35. 35. The light is use metaphorically, the skylight represent the grace of god, the circular opening represents the eye of heaven while the ”waterfall” mirrors represents the tears of our father. We use metaphors to create and give meaning to a space.
  36. 36. We can also use light directly. In the same design, the skylight subtly brings soft sunlight into the interior through stained-glass windows to further enhance the atmosphere of the place. The mirrors reflects and distribute light into the interior of the chapel. The sculpture appears as a cascading waterfall of light that is constantly adjusting, moving and redefining the interior of the chapel. Since the skylight is a natural light it changes throughout the day, creating different kind of atmopshere.
  37. 37. This building is designed to cast shadow in the room of the church, resembling a cross.
  38. 38. Thorncrown Chapel is a building that make use of natural life to give the building life, the shadow casted by the roof changes. Not only does the dynamicity of the shadow comes from the times of the day, it’s also affected by the season, as the tree surrounding the chapel dies, the shadows become clearer and more lively
  39. 39. Uses skylight to light the museum; Use of forms to spread light and shadow into a rhythm
  40. 40. Light is brought in by the inverted pyramid. The pyramid sucks the light in, reflect and deflect the light into the underground, lights up the space. Skylight is deflected on all side of the pyramid. The effect of the reflective pool on the glass pyramid, the light shining on the steel frame creates shadow and depth to the structure. On top of that, the pool causes the pyramid turn into a diamond, creating a illusionary change of appearance and additional beauty.
  41. 41. In the design of the Seed Cathedral, thousands and thousands of transparent tube were used to capture the light from outside to the inside. The shape of the cathedral resembles a human face due to the light and shadow creating texture and layers, thus introducing the idea of humanism into architectural design.
  42. 42. The silence room is design to allow people to find peace and quite.
  43. 43. The use of light induces a concept of a space without gravity as the benches seems to be floating and hence gives people the impression that its weightless. Silence Room
  44. 44. Artist today also make use of lights and shadow to express their art. With the clever use of both elements, the shadows become the artwork in some cases.