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© 2017
From Technologies to Market
MicroLED
Displays:
Hype and reality,
hopes and challenges
From Technologies to Market
P...
2
SCOPE OF THE REPORT
The report
provides an
extensive review
of µLED display
technologies and
potential
applications as
w...
3
OBJECTIVE OF THE REPORT
Deep
understanding
of the
technology,
current status
and prospects,
roadblocks
and key
players.
...
4
REPORT METHODOLOGY
Market segmentation methodology
Market forecast methodology
©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays
5
REPORT METHODOLOGY
Technology analysis methodology Information collection
©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays
6
TABLE OF CONTENTS
• Scope Of the Report p8
• Objective Of the Report p9
• Who should Be Interested In this Report? p10
•...
7
TABLE OF CONTENTS
©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays
• Ultra High Brightness MicroDisplays
• MicroLED Large video d...
8
TABLE OF CONTENTS
©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays
• Wet Printing, Electrophotographic
• Fluidic Assembly
• Key I...
9
TABLE OF CONTENTS
©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays
• Virtual Reality p224
• Introduction: VR and AR/MR
• The Real...
10
TABLE OF CONTENTS
©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays
• Laptops and Convertibles p289
• Tablet, Laptops and convert...
11
ACRONYMS
• AR:Augmented Reality
• CapEx: Capital Expenditure
• CMOS: Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
• EQE: Ext...
12
WHO SHOULD BE INTERESTED IN THIS REPORT
• LED supply chain: sapphire makers, MOCVD
suppliers, epi-houses.
• Understand ...
13
COMPANIES CITED IN THE REPORT
Aledia (FR), Allos Semiconductor (DE), Apple (US), AUO (TW), BOE (CN), CEA-LETI (FR), CIO...
14
Biography & contact
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays
• LED Packaging
• LED Front End Manufactur...
© 2017
Report sample
16
LEDS IN DISPLAYS
• Traditional SMD or CSP packaged LEDs are commonly used as the illumination source for the backlighti...
17
MICROLED APPLICATION ROADMAP
Soon)
(2-3 years)
Longer term (>5 years)
or out of reach?
Mid term
(3-5 year)
Now
(2017)
S...
18
LEADING PATENT HOLDERS
©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays
* A patent family is a set of patents filed in multiple ...
19
MAJOR PLAYERS
©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays
Epitaxy
µLED
structure
Transfer and
interconnect
Hybridization
Te...
20
MicroLED DISPLAY ASSEMBLY
• The art of making µLED displays consists in processing a bulk LED substrate into an array o...
21
BACKPLANE AND PIXEL BANK STRUCTURE
• The front plane structure
including the interconnects
and the pixel banks can be
b...
22
EXAMPLE OF TRANSFER SEQUENCES
©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays
1)
2)
3)
4)
Transfer sequence to populate a 8x8 m...
23
PICK AND PLACE PROCESSES
Dozens of
transfer
technologies have
been proposed.
The major
technology
options identified
by...
24
KEY IP HOLDERS AND CONCLUSION
• More than 20 companies have patented massively parallel transfer
processes for µLEDs. M...
25
DEFECT MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
Illustrations: reducing die size to a level where redundancy becomes cost effective, i.e. ...
26
OVERVIEW OF EPIWAFER AND TRANSFER COST PER APPLICATION [1]
©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays
[1] cost for transfe...
27
MICROLED SWOT PER APPLICATION
©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays
28
TRADE OFFS FOR THE DESIGN OF AVR HEADSET
©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays
Sony
29
MOCVD REQUIREMENT
• Assuming displays realized with XX x XX µm size µLEDs, about XXx multiwafer (Veeco’s Epik 700 type)...
30
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MicroLED Displays - 2017 Report by Yole Developpement

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MicroLED displays could disrupt LCD and OLED

Micro-light emitting diodes (MicroLED) are an emissive display technology. Just like organic light emitting diodes (OLED), they offer high contrast, high speed, and wide viewing angle. However, they could also deliver wider color gamut, dramatic – orders of magnitude – higher brightness, significantly reduced power consumption and improved lifetime, ruggedness and environmental stability. In addition, microLEDs allow the integration of sensors and circuits, enabling thin displays with embedded sensing capabilities such as fingerprint identification and gesture control.

The first MicroLED commercial product was unveiled by Sony in 2016 in the form of a small-pitch LED video display where traditional packaged LEDs are replaced by microLEDs. The first consumer killer-app could come in the form of smartwatches, propelled by Apple, which invested in the technology by buying Luxvue in 2014. MicroLEDs could also eventually dominate augmented and mixed reality displays thanks to their unique ability to deliver both the brightness and low power consumption required for the application.

For more information please visit our website: http://www.i-micronews.com/reports.html

Veröffentlicht in: Technologie
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MicroLED Displays - 2017 Report by Yole Developpement

  1. 1. © 2017 From Technologies to Market MicroLED Displays: Hype and reality, hopes and challenges From Technologies to Market Picture: Sony Sample ©2017
  2. 2. 2 SCOPE OF THE REPORT The report provides an extensive review of µLED display technologies and potential applications as well as the competitive landscape and key players. Smartwatches and wearables Virtual reality Large video displays TV Smartphones Laptops and convertibles Automotive HUD Augmented/Mixed Reality Sony LG Samsung HP BMW Microsoft Oculus Apple Tablets Acer The report does not cover non-display applications of µLED:AC-LEDs, LiFi, Optogenetics, Lithography, lighting… MicroLED TV prototype (Sony, CES 2012) ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays
  3. 3. 3 OBJECTIVE OF THE REPORT Deep understanding of the technology, current status and prospects, roadblocks and key players. • Understand the Current Status of the µLED Display Technologies: • What are they?What are the key benefits? How do they differ from other display technologies?What are the cost drivers? • What are the remaining roadblocks? How challenging are they? • Detailed analysis of key technological nodes: epitaxy, die structure and manufacturing, front plane structure and display designs, color conversion, backplanes, massively parallele pick and place and continuous assembly processes, hybridization, defect management, light extraction and beam shaping. • Which applications could µLED display address and when? • Detailed analysis of major display applications: TV, smartphones, wearables, augmented and virtual reality (AR/VR/MR), laptops and tablets, monitors, large LED video displays... • How disruptive for incumbent technologies: LCD, OLED, LCOS… • MicroLED display application roadmap, forecast and SWOT analysis • Competitive Landscape and Supply chain • Identify key players in technology development and manufacturing.Who owns the IP? • Potential impact on the LED supply chain: epimakers, MOCVD reactor and substrate suppliers. • Potential impact on the display chain: LCD and OLED panel makers. • Scenario for a µLED display supply chain. EverythingYou Always Wanted to Know About µLED Displays! ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays
  4. 4. 4 REPORT METHODOLOGY Market segmentation methodology Market forecast methodology ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays
  5. 5. 5 REPORT METHODOLOGY Technology analysis methodology Information collection ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays
  6. 6. 6 TABLE OF CONTENTS • Scope Of the Report p8 • Objective Of the Report p9 • Who should Be Interested In this Report? p10 • Companies cited in the report p11 • Acronyms p12 • Executive Summary p13 • What is a MicroLED displays? • Status • Remaining Roadblocks • MicroLED Attributes vs Application Requirement • SWOT Analysis • Major Technology Bricks • Assembly Technologies • Display Structure and Backplane • MicroLED efficiency • MicroLED Dimensions • Epitaxy • Chip Manufacturing • Color Conversion • Cost Drivers • Defect Management • Major Players • Supply chain • Possible Winner and Losers. • MicroLED Application Roadmap • 2017-2025 MicroLED Adoption Forecast • What’s Happening In the Short Term? • Introduction p52 • LED Efficiency • Display Resolutions • OLED and LCD Display structure Overview • Display Trends • LEDs In displays • MicroLED Definition and History • MicroLED Displays Technology Evolution • What is a MicroLED displays? • MicroLED Display Assembly • MicroLED Chip Manufacturing • Benefits • Comparisons With LCD and OLED • MicroLED Display Manufacturing Challenges • MicroLED Displays Frontplane & Pixel Structures p68 • Backplane and Pixel Bank Structure • MicroLED Display Structure: Monochrome • MicroLED Display Structure: Color • Pixel Fill Factor and Added Display Functionalities • Pixel density and Pixel Pitch • Subassembly Microsystems • Tiled Arrays • LED Efficiency • Brightness • Pixel Size vs. Efficiency • MicroLED Driving Regime ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays
  7. 7. 7 TABLE OF CONTENTS ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays • Ultra High Brightness MicroDisplays • MicroLED Large video displays • Current confinement Trenches • MicroLED efficiency • MicroLED Dimensions • MicroLED Displays Backplanes p91 • Passive Matrix Driving • Active Matrix Driving • LCD vs Emissive display Driving Requirement • Emissive Display Driving • Thin Film Transistor Backplanes • TFT Substrates Example: Gen 10 • TFT Channel Material • Trends • Channel Materials For MicroLED Displays • Pixel Density and Backplane • Impact on MicroLED Driving Technology • Impact on MicroLED Assembly Technology • Discrete Micro-Controllers • MicroLED Epitaxy p106 (Front End Level 0) • Overview • Epitaxy Defects and Dead Pixels • Wavelength homogeneity and Consistency • Brightness and Voltage Variations • Impact on Supply chain • Chip Manufacturing and Singulation p115 (front End Level 1) • Chip singulation: • Bonding and Etching: Apple-Luxvue • Anchor and Breakable Tethers: X-Celeprint • Chip Manufacturing • Impact on Supply chain • Transfer And Assembly Technologies p125 • Pick and Place vs Monolithic Arrays • Massively Parallel Pick and Place and Printing Processes p127 • Overview • Transfer Sequences • Transfer Array Vs. Display Pixel Pitch • Throughput and cost Drivers • Edge Effects • Pick and Place Processes • Die Stabilization and Release. • Die Selection • Pick Up Methods • Luxvue: Electrostatic MEMS • Luxvue Compliant Pick Up Heads • Luxvue Transfer Process Sequence • Luxvue Alternative Process • X-Celeprint Elastomere Transfer Printing • Other Process Flows: Die Encapsulation • Other Process Flows: Stretchable Film • Semi-continuous Process
  8. 8. 8 TABLE OF CONTENTS ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays • Wet Printing, Electrophotographic • Fluidic Assembly • Key IP Holders and Conclusion • Large Monolithic MicroLED Arrays p160 • The challenge for High Pixel Density • Full Array Level Microdisplay Manufacturing. • Hybridization • MicroLED Array Hybridization on CMOS: LETI • Monolithic Integration of LTPS TFT: Lumiode • Monolithic Integration of Metal Oxide TFT: eMagin • Monolithic Integration of GaN TFT: OSRAM and Nth Degree • Micro-wire MicroLED Arrays: Aledia • 3D Integration: Ostendo • Conclusion • Light Extraction andViewing Angles p175 • Introduction • Die-Level Beam Shaping and Extraction • Illustration: InfiniLED • Array-Level Beam Shaping • External Micro Optics • Viewing Angle and Power consumption • Color Conversion p183 • Color Gamut • Comparison of major standards • Major Color Gamut in the CIE 1931 and 1976 spaces • Color Conversion • Wavelength Converter Deposition • Broadband phosphors • Narrowband Phosphors • Examples • Phosphors Particle size • Quantum Dots • Benefits and challenges • Performance • Implementations in Traditional Displays • Challenges for MicroLED Displays • QD vs Phosphors: Summary • Quantum Wells converters. • Defect Management p201 • Introduction • Bad Pixels • Emitter Redundancy • Example of Repair Strategies • Defect Management Strategies • Conclusion • Applications and Markets for MicroLED Displays p212 • Overview Of Key Hypothesis • Overview of Epiwafer Cost per Application • Overview of Epiwafer And Transfer Cost per Application • Discussion • MicroLED Attributes vs Application Requirement • MicroLED Application Roadmap • MicroLED SWOT Per Application • 2017-2025 MicroLED Adoption Forecast
  9. 9. 9 TABLE OF CONTENTS ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays • Virtual Reality p224 • Introduction: VR and AR/MR • The Reality-to-Virtual-Reality Continuum. • VR Displays: FOV, Resolution and Pixel Density • VR Displays: Refresh Rate • VR Displays: Brightness • Computing Power and Bandwidth • Foveated rendering • Trade Offs for the Design of a VR Headset • Current status • Microdisplays • MicroLED displays for VR: Transfer-Based (Large displays) • Screen Door Effect • MicroLED Microdisplays • MicroLED displays for VR: conclusion • Augmented and Mixed Reality p244 • Display Requirements • Display Types: • MicroLED Displays for AR and MR • Comparison of AR Displays Technologies • 2017 – 2027 AR/MR Market Forecast • 2020-2027 MicroLED Scenario for AR/MR. • Head Up displays • 2020-2025 MicroLED Head Up displays Forecast • Smartwatches p253 • Introduction • Forecasting the Smartwatch market • MicroLED for Smartwatches • 2017-2025 Forecast • MOCVD Requirement • Transfer Tools Requirements • TVs p262 • Introduction • The UHD alliance • MicroLED vs OLED and QD-LCD • MicroLED TV Panel costs • Additional Challenges For MicroLED TVs • MicroLED Volume forecast and MOCVD Requirements • Transfer Tools Requirements • Alternative Transfer and Assembly Approaches • Smart Phones p273 • Smartphone display Requirement • Is 4K required? • MicroLED for Cell Phones: Epiwafer Cost • MicroLED for Cell Phones: Transfer Cost • No Pixel Redundancy • Pixel Redundancy • Status and roadblocks • 2017-2025 Volume forecast and MOCVD Requirements • Transfer Tools Requirements • Tablets p284 • MicroLED Tablet Panel costs • 2017-2025 Volume forecast and MOCVD Requirements • Transfer Tools Requirements
  10. 10. 10 TABLE OF CONTENTS ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays • Laptops and Convertibles p289 • Tablet, Laptops and convertible: Overview • MicroLED in Laptops • MicroLED Laptop Panel costs • 2017 -2025 Volume forecast and MOCVD Requirements • Transfer Tools Requirements • Desktop Monitors p296 • Desktop Computer Monitors • 2017-2025 Volume forecast and MOCVD Requirements • Transfer Tools Requirements • Large video displays p301 • Overview • 2017-2025 MicroLED Large Video Displays • Others p304 • LCD Backlights • Competitive Landscape p308 • Research Activity • Leading Patent Holders • Key Players and Technology Focus • Significant Industry Events • The Apple Ecosystem • Taiwan Ecosystem • Discussion • Supply Chain p317 • Overview • Summary of Key Hypothesis • Substrate and MOCVD Requirements • Discussion: Wafer Supply • Epitaxy and Wafer Processing • Transfer Tools • Impact on Supply chain • Supply Chain Scenario • Discussion • Company presentation p333
  11. 11. 11 ACRONYMS • AR:Augmented Reality • CapEx: Capital Expenditure • CMOS: Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor • EQE: External Quantum Efficiency • FET: Field EffectTransistor • FHD: Full High Definition (1920 x 1080) • FOV: Field OfView • FWHM: Full Width at Half Maximum • HD: High Definition • HMD: Head Mounted Display • HUD: Head Up Display • IC: Integrated Circuit • IQE: Internal Quantum Efficiency • LCD: Liquid Crystal Display • LCOS: Liquid Crystal On Silicon • LED: Light Emitting Diode • LTPS: LowTemperature Polysilicon • MEMS: Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems • MOCVD: Metal-Oxide ChemicalVapor Deposition • MR: Mixed Reality • ODM: Original Design Manufacturer • OEE: Optical Extraction Efficiency • OEM: Original Equipment Manufacturer • OLED: Organic Light emitting Diode • PDMS: Polydimethylsiloxane (polymer material) • PECVD: Plasma-Enhanced ChemicalVapor Deposition • P&P: Pick and Place • PPD: Pixel Per Degree • PPI: Pixel Per Inch • PPM: Parts Per Million • QD: Quantum Dots • QHD: Quad High Definition (2560 x 1400 to 3440 x 1440) • TFT:Thin Film Transi ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays
  12. 12. 12 WHO SHOULD BE INTERESTED IN THIS REPORT • LED supply chain: sapphire makers, MOCVD suppliers, epi-houses. • Understand the µLED display opportunity • What does it entail for the LED supply? • What are the technical challenges? • How can my company participate in this emerging opportunity? • Who should we partner with? • R&D Organizations and Universities • Understand the market potential of your technologies for this emerging market • Identify the best candidates for collaboration and technology transfer. • OEMs / ODMs • What are the potential benefits of µLED displays? • Are they a threat or an opportunity for my products? • When will they be ready • Should I get involved in the supply chain. • Display Makers and supply chain • Hype versus reality: what is the status of µLED displays? What can we expect in the near future? • Are they a threat to my LCD and OLED investments? • Which display applications and markets can µLED displays address? A detailed roadmap. • Find the right partner: detailed mapping of the µLED ecosystem and supply chain • OSAT and foundries • Are µLED a new opportunity for my company? • Venture capital, financial and strategic investors. • Hype versus reality. Understand the technology and the real potential. • How is the supply chain shaping up? • Identify the key players and potential investment targets. • Could µLED hurt my existing investments? ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays
  13. 13. 13 COMPANIES CITED IN THE REPORT Aledia (FR), Allos Semiconductor (DE), Apple (US), AUO (TW), BOE (CN), CEA-LETI (FR), CIOMP (CN), Columbia University (US), Cooledge (CA), Cree (US), CSOT (CN), eMagin (US), Epistar (TW), Epson (JP), Facebook (US), Foxconn (TW), Fraunhofer Institute (DE), Glo (SE), GlobalFoundries (US), Goertek (CN), Hiphoton (TW), HKUST (HK), HTC (TW), Ignis (CA), InfiniLED (UK), Intel (US), ITRI (TW), Kansas State University (US), Kopin (US), Lumiode (US), Luxvue (US), Metavision (US), Microsoft (US), Mikro-Mesa (TW), mLED (UK), Nichia (JP), Nth Degree (US), Oculus (US), Osterhout Design Group (US), Osram (DE), Ostendo (US), Playnitride (TW), PSI Co (KR), Rohinni (US), Saitama University (JP), Samsung (KR), Sanan (CN), Semprius (US), Sharp (JP), Sony (JP), Strathclyde University (UK), SunYat-Sen University (TW),TexasTech (US),TSMC (TW), Tyndall National Institute (IE), University of Illinois (US),VerLASE (US),VueReal (CA),Vuzix (US), X-Celeprint (IE). ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays
  14. 14. 14 Biography & contact ABOUT THE AUTHOR ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays • LED Packaging • LED Front End Manufacturing • III-V Epitaxy • Bulk GaN • GaN on Silicon • Status of the LED Industry • Sapphire Market & Applications • Phosphors and Quantum Dots • OrganicTFTs • … Contact: virey@yole.fr Eric Virey is a Senior Market and Technology Analyst at Yole Développement. Eric is a daily contributor to the development of LED, OLED, and Displays activities at Yole, with a large collection of market and technology reports as well as multiple custom consulting projects: business strategy, identification of investments or acquisition targets, due diligences (buy/sell side), market and technology analysis, cost modelling, technology scouting, etc. Thanks to its deep knowledge of the LED/OLED and displays related industries, Eric has spoken in more than 30 industry conferences worldwide over the last 5 years. He has been interviewed and quoted by leading media over the world. Previously Eric has held various R&D, engineering, manufacturing and business development positions with Fortune 500 Company Saint-Gobain in France and the United States. Dr Eric Virey holds a Ph-D in Optoelectronics from the National Polytechnic Institute of GrenobleEric is also author / co-author of multiple reports (examples below) and contributed to various custom projects.
  15. 15. © 2017 Report sample
  16. 16. 16 LEDS IN DISPLAYS • Traditional SMD or CSP packaged LEDs are commonly used as the illumination source for the backlighting of LCD panels. • LEDs are also commonly used in large direct emissive video billboards used in stadium, advertising and video facades. In those devices, discrete packaged LED containing red, green and blue chips form the individual pixels with pitches typically ranging from 1 to 40 mm depending on display size and resolution. • As of Q1-2017, there is no other format of commercial displays using LEDs as a direct emissive element to constitute individual pixels or sub-pixels. The reasons for this limitation are multiple and include cost and manufacturability. • Nevertheless, the idea of µLED displays with high resolution and sub millimetric pixel pitch is almost as old as the invention and commercialization of LEDs themselves. Over the last 3-4 years it has generated a lot of excitement and development as well as investment and M&A activity. Packaged LEDs are commonly used in large video displays and LCD backlight. MicroLEDs could be at the center of a new display revolution ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays Illustration: www.absen.com Packaged LED LEDVideo display
  17. 17. 17 MICROLED APPLICATION ROADMAP Soon) (2-3 years) Longer term (>5 years) or out of reach? Mid term (3-5 year) Now (2017) Small pitch (<2 mm) large video displays. • Brings significant performance improvement (contrast) and potential cost reduction (eliminates LED package) • Large die OK (30 µm) but low transfer efficiency. • Available from Sony in 2017: Detailed roadmap in the report ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays
  18. 18. 18 LEADING PATENT HOLDERS ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays * A patent family is a set of patents filed in multiple countries by a common inventor(s) to protect a single invention. Industrials R&D Labs • 140+ players have filed patents related to microLED.The 500+ microLED inventions are held by a lot of different patent applicants. • Some players have filed their own patents (XXX, XXX, XXX, XXX, XXX, XXX, XXX, XXX, XXX, XXX, XXX…), while other ones have acquired IPs through patent licensing agreements (XXX, XXX, XXX) or M&A (Apple/LuxVue, Oculus/InfiniLED). • Many R&D Labs are present in the microLED patent landscape (University of Illinois, ITRI, CEA-LETI, CIOMP, Fraunhofer, Sejong University …).
  19. 19. 19 MAJOR PLAYERS ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays Epitaxy µLED structure Transfer and interconnect Hybridization Testing and repair / Defect Management Color Conversion Light Extraction & shaping Display architecture & drivers Details in the report
  20. 20. 20 MicroLED DISPLAY ASSEMBLY • The art of making µLED displays consists in processing a bulk LED substrate into an array of micro-LEDs which are poised for pick up and transfer to a receiving substrate for integration into heterogeneously integrated system: the display (which integrates, LEDs, transistors, optics etc…). • The micro-LEDs can be picked up and transferred individually, in groups, or as the entire array of 100,000’s of µLEDs: MicroLED chips can be singulated and transferred individually or as large monolithic arrays. Massively Parallel Transfer (“Pick and Place”) Arrays Monolithic Integration Individual µLED dies or small chips comprising small amounts of µLED emitters (<10) are singulated and individually picked up, transferred, positioned and assembled to a backplane containing the pixel driving circuitry (typically TFT on glass or flexible substrate). The pitch on the display is typically lower than that of the donor wafer. Large chips comprising large quantities of µLED emitters (>10,000’s to millions) are hybridized onto a backplane (typically Si CMOS). Individual pixels are not physically singulated. The pitch of the donor array matches the pitch of the display. Epiwafer or carrier with pre-singulated die Transfer Tool Display Backplane µLED chips Backplane µLED array Epiwafer Backplane Hybridization ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays
  21. 21. 21 BACKPLANE AND PIXEL BANK STRUCTURE • The front plane structure including the interconnects and the pixel banks can be built directly upon the backplane. • The bank layer thickness and angle can be used to adjust the display viewing angle. µLED dies are positioned into the pixel bank by the transfer tool and connected by solder reflow or other processes. • More than 1 µLED of the same color can be placed in each bank if redundancy is required to mitigate risks of dead/malfunctioning pixels (see “Defect Management” section of this report) The TFT backplane can be essentially identical to that of an OLED display all the way through the planarization layer. ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays Passivation Gate (metal) Backplane substrate (Glass, metal, plastic) Gate Insulator Channel (semiconductor)Drain Source Gate Insulator (Dielectric) Planarization Layer (Also known as Interlayer Dielectric: ILD) Electrode to pixel Cross section of a microLED display subpixel Bottom electrode Bank layer Other circuitry (not detailed): switch transistors, compensation transistors, capacitors, Passivation Transparent electrode BackplaneFrontplane Light Simplified top view of the pixel bank Subpixel bank Sub pixel Pixel bank
  22. 22. 22 EXAMPLE OF TRANSFER SEQUENCES ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays 1) 2) 3) 4) Transfer sequence to populate a 8x8 monochromatic display from a single donor wafer in 4 steps. Donor wafer Donor wafer Transfer array Transfer array Transfer array Transfer array Display substrate Display substrate Display substrate Display substrate
  23. 23. 23 PICK AND PLACE PROCESSES Dozens of transfer technologies have been proposed. The major technology options identified by screening more than 450 are shown here ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays Die Stabilization and release: How to provide enough force to hold the die onto the donor wafer but allow its release to the pick up heads Die Selection: The pitch of the µLEDs on the donor wafer is usually smaller than that on the display. Some die need to be picked up while others remain on the donor wafer Die Pick Up: Provide enough force to overcome the bonding force of the die to the donor wafer to allow pick up. Die Placing Provide enough force to overcome the bonding force of the die to the transfer array and drop it off on the receiving substrate Stabilization Release Donor wafer Donor wafer Donor wafer Display backplane
  24. 24. 24 KEY IP HOLDERS AND CONCLUSION • More than 20 companies have patented massively parallel transfer processes for µLEDs. Many more processes could be inferred by combining the different technology bricks described in this section. • Most are probably just concepts that haven’t yet reached the stage of prototypes. None has yet been fully validated in volume production to the exception of the PDMS stamp process developed by the team of Prof. Rogers at the University of Illinois and used by startup Semprius for photovoltaic applications. X-Celeprint is developing and commercializing the technology for µLEDs and other micro-devices. • Beside X-Celeprint, the most advanced company in the field of massively parallel transfer of µLEDs is likely to be Apple via its acquisition of Luxvue in 2014. We believe their the technology to be more complex (MEMS vs polymer stamp) but deliver higher throughputs and be capable of handling smaller size of µLEDs. Both companies however remains secretive about actual performance of their technology. • Another issue not developed in this report is that of the transfer equipment which must ensure very high positioning accuracy at both the pick up and drop off steps. Multiple patents describing transfer tools have been filed by XXX, XXX, XXX etc. Mass transfer is a cornerstone of µLED display technologies. Luxvue and X- Celeprint have solid IP portfolio on the topic. ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays Main patent applicants involved in massively parallel pick and place technology (according to the number of their patent families*) * A patent family is a set of patents filed in multiple countries by a common inventor(s) to protect a single invention. Source:
  25. 25. 25 DEFECT MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES Illustrations: reducing die size to a level where redundancy becomes cost effective, i.e. when decrease in repair cost offsets epiwafer cost increase.The graph shows our simulation for various applications of the epiwafer cost thresholds and corresponding die size at which redundancy becomes cost effective For displays with high pixel counts and pixel density, pixel repair dominates the transfer cost. Pixel redundancy becomes efficient if die size can be reduced. ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays $XX $XX $XX $XX AddedepicostAddedepicost Die size Die size Die size Die size
  26. 26. 26 OVERVIEW OF EPIWAFER AND TRANSFER COST PER APPLICATION [1] ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays [1] cost for transfer and epiwafer only. Doesn’t include: backplane, color conversion, optics, testing … [2]: assumes XxX cm2 transfer array [3]: assumes Xx subpixel redundancy: doubles epiwafer cost and the number of transfer cycles but put repair cycles at zero. Smartwatch QHD Smartphone (Galaxy S7 ) 4K Smartphone (Xperia Z5 Premium) 9”Tablet (iPAD Pro) 13” Laptop (MacBook Pro) FHD Monitor 4K Monitor 4K 55"TV 8K 85"TV Resolution 312 x 390 1440 x 2560 2160 x 3840 1536 x 2048 2560 x 1600 1920 x 1080 3840 x 2160 3840 x 2160 7680 x 4320 PPI 325 577 801 264 277 102 185 80 104 # of transfer cycles [2] XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX # of repairs at 100 ppm defects 37 1,106 2,489 944 1,229 623 2,489 2,489 9,954 TotalTransfer cost XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX Total Epiwafer cost XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX Total XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX Total with redundancy [3] XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX
  27. 27. 27 MICROLED SWOT PER APPLICATION ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays
  28. 28. 28 TRADE OFFS FOR THE DESIGN OF AVR HEADSET ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays Sony
  29. 29. 29 MOCVD REQUIREMENT • Assuming displays realized with XX x XX µm size µLEDs, about XXx multiwafer (Veeco’s Epik 700 type) or XXX single-wafer reactors would be needed to supply Apple needs. If the µLED size can be reduced to XX x XX µm, the numbers drop to XX and XX respectively. • Note however that those numbers assume a production run rate averaged throughout the year. Higher numbers (+20~30%) would be needed to absorb the higher run-rates typically experienced in the few the months preceding a product launch. Smartwatch market would put only moderate strain on the LED supply chain ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays XX x XX µm MicroLED Scenario with 2x redundancy 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 # of 6" epiwafers # of MOCVD (12 x 6") # of 8" Epiwafers # of MOCVD (1 x 8") XX x XX µm MicroLED Scenario with 2x redundancy 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 # of 6" epiwafers # of MOCVD (12 x 6") # of 8" Epiwafers # of MOCVD (1 x 8") Note: indicates total cumulated # of MOCVD tools
  30. 30. 30 RELATED REPORTS Discover more related reports within our bundles here. ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays
  31. 31. ORDER FORM MicroLED Displays SHIPPING CONTACT First Name: Email: Last Name: Phone: PAYMENT BY CREDIT CARD Visa Mastercard Amex Name of the Card Holder: Credit Card Number: Card Verification Value (3 digits except AMEX: 4 digits): Expiration date: BY BANK TRANSFER BANK INFO: HSBC, 1 place de la Bourse, F-69002 Lyon, France, Bank code: 30056, Branch code: 00170 Account No: 0170 200 1565  87, SWIFT or BIC code: CCFRFRPP, IBAN: FR76 3005 6001 7001 7020 0156 587 RETURN ORDER BY • FAX: +33 (0)472 83 01 83 • MAIL: YOLE DÉVELOPPEMENT, Le Quartz, 75 Cours Emile Zola, 69100 Villeurbanne/Lyon - France SALES CONTACTS • North America - Steve Laferriere: +13106 008 267 laferriere@yole.fr • Europe RoW - Lizzie Levenez: + 49 15 123 544 182 levenez@yole.fr • Japan Rest of Asia - Takashi Onozawa: +81 3 6869 6970 onozawa@yole.fr • Greater China - Mavis Wang: +886 979 336 809 wang@yole.fr • Specific inquiries: +33 472 830 180 – info@yole.fr (1) Our Terms and Conditions of Sale are available at www.yole.fr/Terms_and_Conditions_of_Sale.aspx The present document is valid 24 months after its publishing date: February 10, 2017 / ABOUT YOLE DEVELOPPEMENT BILL TO Name (Mr/Ms/Dr/Pr): Job Title: Company: Address: City: State: Postcode/Zip: Country*: *VAT ID Number for EU members: Tel: Email: Date: PRODUCT ORDER - Ref YDLS17003 Please enter my order for above named report: One user license*: Euro 5,490 Multi user license: Euro 6,490 - The report will be ready for delivery from February 10, 2017 - For price in dollars, please use the day’s exchange rate. All reports are delivered electronically at payment reception. For French customers, add 20% for VAT I hereby accept Yole Développement’s Terms and Conditions of Sale(1) Signature: *One user license means only one person at the company can use the report. Founded in 1998, Yole Développement has grown to become a group of companies providing marketing, technology and strategy consulting, media and corporate finance services. With a strong focus on emerging applications using silicon and/or micro manufacturing, the Yole Développement group has expanded to include more than 50 collaborators worldwide covering MEMS, Compound Semiconductors, LED, Displays, Image Sensors, Optoelectronics, Microfluidics Medical, Advanced Packaging, Manufacturing, Nanomaterials, Power Electronics and Batteries Energy Management. The “More than Moore” company Yole and its partners System Plus Consulting, Blumorpho, KnowMade and PISEO support industrial companies, investors and RD organizations worldwide to help them understand markets and follow technology trends to develop their business. MEDIA EVENTS • i-Micronews.com, online disruptive technologies website • @Micronews, weekly e-newsletter • Communication webcasts services • Events: Yole Seminars, Market Briefings… More information on www.i-micronews.com CONTACTS For more information about : • Consulting Services: Jean-Christophe Eloy (eloy@yole.fr) • Financial Services: Jean-Christophe Eloy (eloy@yole.fr) • Report Business: Fayçal Khamassi (khamassi@yole.fr) • Press relations: Sandrine Leroy (leroy@yole.fr) CONSULTING • Market data research, marketing analysis • Technology analysis • Reverse engineering costing services • Strategy consulting • Patent analysis More information on www.yole.fr REPORTS • Collection of technology market reports • Manufacturing cost simulation tools • Component reverse engineering costing analysis • Patent investigation More information on www.i-micronews.com/reports FINANCIAL SERVICES • Mergers Acquisitions • Due diligence • Fundraising More information on Jean-Christophe Eloy (eloy@yole.fr)
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  33. 33. © 2017 Yole Développement FromTechnologies to Market
  34. 34. 32 FIELDS OF EXPERTISE Yole Développement’s 30 analysts operate in the following areas MEMS Sensors LED Compound Semi. Imaging Photonics MedTech Manufacturing Advanced Packaging Batteries / Energy Management Power Electronics Displays RF Devices Techno. Advanced Substrates ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays
  35. 35. 33 4 BUSINESS MODELS o Consulting and Analysis • Market data research, marketing analysis • Technology analysis • Strategy consulting • Reverse engineering costing • Patent analysis www.yole.fr o Reports • Market technology reports • Patent Investigation and patent infringement risk analysis • Teardowns reverse costing analysis • Cost simulation tool www.i-Micronews.com/reports o Financial services • MA (buying and selling) • Due diligence • Fundraising • Maturation of companies • IP portfolio management optimization www.yolefinance.com www.bmorpho.com o Media • i-Micronews.com website • @Micronews e-newsletter • Communication webcast services • Events www.i-Micronews.com ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays
  36. 36. 34 A GROUP OF COMPANIES Market, technology and strategy consulting www.yole.fr MA operations Due diligences www.yolefinance.com Manufacturing costs analysis Teardown and reverse engineering Cost simulation tools www.systemplus.fr IP analysis Patent assessment www.knowmade.fr Innovation and business maker www.bmorpho.com Test Measurement Expertise Research Innovation www.piseo.fr ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays
  37. 37. 35 OUR 2017 REPORTS PLANNING (1/2) MARKET AND TECHNOLOGY REPORTS by Yole Développement o MEMS SENSORS − Fingerprint Sensor Applications and Technologies - Consumer Market Focus 2017 − MEMS Microphones, Speakers and Audio Solutions 2017 − Status of the MEMS Industry 2017 − MEMS Sensors for Automotive 2017 − High End Inertial Sensors for Defense and Industrial Applications 2017 − Sensor Modules for Smart Building 2017 − Sensing and Display for AR/VR/MR 2017 (Vol 1) − MEMS Packaging 2017 − Magnetic Sensors Market and Technologies 2017** − Microspectrometers Markets and Applications 2017** o RF DEVICES AND TECHNOLOGIES − RF Components and Modules for Cellphones 2017 − Advanced RF SiP for Cellphones 2017 − 5G and Beyond (Vol 1): Impact on RF Industry, from Infrastructure to Terminals 2017 − 5G and Beyond (Vol 2): RF Materials Platform, from Infrastructure to Terminals 2017 − RF Technologies for Automotive Applications 2017 − GaN and Si LDMOS Market and Technology Trends for RF Power 2017 o IMAGING OPTOELECTRONICS − 3D Imaging Sensing 2017 − Status of the CMOS Image Sensor Industry 2017 − Camera Module for Consumer and Automotive Applications 2017 − Uncooled Infrared Imaging Technology Market Trends 2017 − Active Imaging and Lidars 2017 (vol 1) o MEDTECH − Status of the Microfluidics Industry 2017 − Solid State Medical Imaging 2017 − Sensors for HomeCare 2017 − Sensors for Medical Robotics 2017 − Organs-on-a Chip 2017 o ADVANCED PACKAGING − Advanced Substrates Overview 2017 − Status of the Advanced Packaging Industry 2017 − Fan Out Packaging: Market Technology Trends 2017 − 3D Business Update: Market Technology Trends 2017 − Advanced QFN: Market Technology Trends 2017** − Inspection and Metrology for Advanced Packaging Platform 2017** − Advanced Packaging for Memories 2017 − Embedded Die Packaging: Technologies and Markets Trends 2017 o MANUFACTURING − Glass Substrate Manufacturing 2017 − Equipment Materials for Fan Out Technology 2017 − Equipment Materials for 3D T(X)V Technology 2017 − Emerging Non Volatile Memories 2017 ** To be confirmed ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays
  38. 38. 36 OUR 2017 REPORTS PLANNING (2/2) o POWER ELECTRONICS − Status of Power Electronics Industry 2017 − Power Mosfets Market and Technology Trends 2017 − IGBT Market and Technology Trends 2017 − Power Packaging Market and Technology Trends 2017 − Power SiC 2017: Materials, Devices, and Applications − Power GaN 2017: Materials, Devices, and Applications − Materials Market Opportunities for Cellphone Thermal Management (Battery Cooling, Fast Charging, Data Processing, Battery Cooling, etc.) 2017 − Gate Driver Market and Technology Trends in Power Electronics 2017 − Power Management ICs Market Quarterly Update 2017 − Power Electronics for Electrical Aircraft, Rail and Buses 2017 − Thermal Management for LED and Power 2017 o BATTERY AND ENERGY MANAGEMENT − Status of Battery Industry for Stationary, Automotive and Consumer Applications 2017 o COMPOUND SEMICONDUCTORS − Power SiC 2017: Materials, Devices, and Applications − Power GaN 2017: Materials, Devices, and Applications − GaN and Si LDMOS Market and Technology Trends for RF Power 2017 − Bulk GaN Technology Status and Market Expectations (Power, LED, Lasers) 2017 o DISPLAYS − Microdisplays and MicroLEDs 2017 − Display for Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality and Mixed Reality 2017 − QD for Display Applications 2017 − Phosphors Quantum Dots 2017 - LED Downconverters for Lighting Displays − Emerging Display Technologies 2017** o LED − UV LEDs 2017 - Technology, Manufacturing and Application Trends − Agricultural Lighting 2017 - Technology, Industry and Market Trends − Automotive Lighting 2017 - Technology, Industry and Market Trends − Active Imaging and Lidar 2017 (Vol 2) - IR Lighting** − LED Lighting Module 2017 - Technology, Industry and Market Trends − IR LEDs 2017 - Technology, Manufacturing and Application Trends − Phosphors Quantum Dots 2017 - LED Downconverters for Lighting Displays − CSP LED Module 2017 − LED Packaging 2017 PATENT ANALYSIS by Knowmade − 3D Monolithic Memory: Patent Landscape Analysis − Microfluidic Diagnostic: Patent Landscape Analysis − GaN Technology: Top-100 IP profiles** − Uncooled Infrared Imaging: Patent Landscape Analysis** − MEMS Microphone: Patent Landscape Analysis** − MEMS Microphone: Knowles' Patent Portfolio Analysis** − MicroLEDs: Patent Landscape Analysis** − Microbolometer: Patents used in products** − Micropumps: Patent Landscape Analysis** − Flexible batteries: Patent Landscape Analysis** TEARDOWN REVERSE COSTING by System Plus Consulting More than 60 teardowns and reverse costing analysis and cost simulation tools to be published in 2017. ** To be confirmed ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays
  39. 39. 37 OUR 2016 PUBLISHED REPORTS LIST MARKET AND TECHNOLOGY REPORTS by Yole Développement o MEMS SENSORS − Gas Sensors Technology and Market 2016 − Status of the MEMs Industry 2016 − Sensors for Cellphones and Tablets 2016 − Market and Technology Trends of Inkjet Printheads 2016 − Sensors for Biometry and Recognition 2016 − Silicon Photonics 2016 o IMAGING OPTOELECTRONICS − Status of the CMOS Image Sensor Industry 2016 − Uncooled Infrared Imaging Technology Market Trends 2016 − Imaging Technologies for Automotive 2016 − Sensors for Drones Robots: Market Opportunities and Technology Evolution 2016 o MEDTECH − BioMEMS 2016 − Point of Care Testing 2016: Application of Microfluidic Technologies o ADVANCED PACKAGING − Embedded Die Packaging: Technology and Market Trends 2017 − 2.5D 3D IC TSV Interconnect for Advanced Packaging: Business Update 2016 − Fan-Out: Technologies and Market Trends 2016 − Fan-In Packaging: Business update 2016 − Status and Prospects for the Advanced Packaging Industry in China 2016 o MANUFACTURING − Thin Wafer Processing and Dicing Equipment Market 2016 − Emerging Non Volatile Memories 2016 o COMPOUND SEMICONDUCTORS − Power GaN 2016: Epitaxy and Devices, Applications and Technology Trends − GaN RF Devices Market: Applications, Players, Technology and substrates 2016 − Sapphire Applications Market 2016: from LED to Consumer Electronics − Power SiC 2016: Materials, Devices, Modules, and Applications o LED − UV LED Technology, Manufacturing and Applications Trends 2016 − OLED for Lighting 2016 – Technology, Industry and Market Trends − Automotive Lighting: Technology, Industry and Market Trends 2016 − Thermal Management Technology and Market Perspectives in Power Electronics and LEDs 2017 − Organic Thin Film Transistor 2016: Flexible Displays and Other Applications − Sapphire Applications Market 2016: from LED to Consumer Electronics − LED Packaging 2017: Market, Technology and Industry Landscape o POWER ELECTRONICS − Power Electronics for EV/HEV 2016: Market, Innovations and Trends − Status of Power Electronics Industry 2016 − Passive Components Technologies and Market Trends for Power Electronics 2016 − Power SiC 2016: Materials, Devices, Modules, and Applications − Power GaN 2016: Epitaxy and Devices, Applications, and Technology Trends − Inverter Technologies Trends Market Expectations 2016 − Opportunities for Power Electronics in Renewable Electricity Generation 2016 − Thermal Management Technology and Market Perspectives in Power Electronics and LEDs 2017 − GaN RF Devices Market: Applications, Players, Technology and substrates 2016 o BATTERY AND ENERGY MANAGEMENT − Beyond Li-ion Batteries: Present and Future Li-ion Technology Challengers 2016 − Stationary Storage and Automotive Li-ion Battery Packs 2016 − Opportunities for Power Electronics in Renewable Electricity Generation 2016 ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays
  40. 40. 38 CONTACT INFORMATION Follow us on o CONSULTING AND SPECIFIC ANALYSIS • North America: Steve LaFerriere, Director of Northern America Business Development Email: laferriere@yole.fr – +1 31 06 008 267 • Japan Rest of Asia: Takashi Onozawa, General Manager, Asia Business Development Email: onozawa@yole.fr - +81 3 4405 9204 • Greater China: Mavis Wang, Director of Greater China Business Development Email: wang@yole.fr - +886 979 336 809 • RoW: Jean-Christophe Eloy, CEO President, Yole Développement Email eloy@yole.fr - +33 4 72 83 01 80 o REPORT BUSINESS • North America: Steve LaFerriere, Director of Northern America Business Development Email: laferriere@yole.fr – +1 31 06 008 267 • Europe: Lizzie Levenez, EMEA Business Development Manager Email: levenez@yole.fr - +49 15 123 544 182 • Rest of Asia: Takashi Onozawa, General Manager, Asia Business Development Email: onozawa@yole.fr - +81 3 4405 9204 • Japan Asia: Miho Othake, Account Manager Email: ohtake@yole.fr - +81 3 4405 9204 • Greater China: Mavis Wang, Director of Greater China Business Development Email: wang@yole.fr - +886 979 336 809 o FINANCIAL SERVICES • Jean-Christophe Eloy, CEO President Email: eloy@yole.fr - +33 4 72 83 01 80 o GENERAL • Email: info@yole.fr - +33 4 72 83 01 80 ©2017 | www.yole.fr | MicroLED Displays

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