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Les stratégies de récupération en football (Recovery strategies in Soccer)

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Présentation effectuée lors du colloque des Préparateurs Physiques Professionnels - Fédération Française de Football

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Les stratégies de récupération en football (Recovery strategies in Soccer)

  1. 1. Stratégies de récupération et de gestion de la charge de travail en football Yann LE MEUR Fédération Française de Football Septembre 2015 @YLMSportScience
  2. 2. ÉTAT DES LIEUX
  3. 3. Symptômes de fatigue physique ↘ Sprint ↘ Saut ↘ Endurance ↘ Force ↘ Performance tactique EFFET POSSIBLE SUR LA PERFORMANCE DE L’EQUIPE
  4. 4. QUAND LES MATCHS S’ENCHAÎNENT
  5. 5. LA RÉCUPÉRATION, CE N’EST PAS QUE L’APRÈS-MATCH
  6. 6. MAIS L’ESSENTIEL SE JOUE AUSSI EN AMONT!  21 joueurs de rugby de haut niveau  Répartis en 2 groupes en fonction de leur niveau de condition physique  Tests en saut & marqueurs des dommages musculaires post-match Pre Post +24h +48h Pre Post +24h +48h Perf en saut Marqueurs des dommages musculaires Yo-yo test Squat
  7. 7. MAIS L’ESSENTIEL SE JOUE AUSSI EN AMONT! Meilleures sont les qualités physiques, plus la récupération est rapide
  8. 8. LES STRATÉGIES POST-MATCH : ALLER À L’ESSENTIEL
  9. 9. D’OÙ VIENT LA FATIGUE?
  10. 10. SUR LE PLAN PHYSIQUE DOMMAGES MUSCULAIRES DÉFICIT ÉNERGÉTIQUE DÉSHYDRATATION
  11. 11. «Il sera très difficile de gagner la Liga mais ce n'est pas mathématique. Nous devons essayer de gagner les deux derniers matches mais c'est difficile. Il nous a manqué des choses lors des deux derniers matches, surtout de l'énergie mentale. Il nous reste du temps pour préparer cette finale (de Ligue des champions) mais je ne vois pas une équipe fatiguée physiquement.»
  12. 12. « Physiquement, les évaluations d’après-match offrent une conclusion positive. L'équipe court plus que jamais. C'est probablement une fatigue mentale, assure le coach marseillais. »
  13. 13. Signes de fatigue mentale ↘ Performance cognitive ↗ Lassitude ↘ Motivation Etc.
  14. 14. ❸ RÉPARER ❹ RESTOCKER ❷ RÉHYDRATER ❶ RELAXER / REBOOSTER LA RÈGLE DES 4 ‘R’
  15. 15. L’APRÈS-MATCH
  16. 16. - Débuter dès la fin du match, - Cible: 150% des pertes, - Pas de stratégie agressive, -~200mL chaque 15min, - Boisson arômatisée, -1 g.L-1 de sodium, - Co-absorption avec des glucides, - Vérifier la couleur des urines. LA COLLATION POST-MATCH
  17. 17. LA COLLATION POST-MATCH NE PAS ATTENDRE! PROTÉINES RAPIDES RICHES EN LEUCINE + SUCRES RAPIDES LIQUIDE OU SOLIDE RESTOCKER RÉPARER
  18. 18. LE REPAS POST MATCH Exemple de repas: Soupe, pâtes, viande/poisson, fruits, gâteau
  19. 19. LA NUIT POST-MATCH
  20. 20. UN SOMMEIL PAS TOUJOURS IDÉAL Facteurs de stress aigus: - Lumière du stade (2000 lux) - Excitation liée au match - Stress émotionnel - Match à l’extérieur: 1ère nuit à l’hôtel, lumière de l’aéroport, lumière dans l’avion, nuit raccourcie, - Source de lumière bleue, - Alcool Autres facteurs chroniques: - Horaires de sommeil irréguliers, - Profil individuel en inadéquation avec l’emploi du temps imposé par le club
  21. 21. L’IMPORTANCE DU SOMMEIL Le manque de sommeil est généralement rapidement associé à : ↘ Performance cognitive ↘ Vigilance ↗ Temps de réaction ↘ Etat d’humeur ↗ Blessures ↗ Restockage énergétique ↗ Infections
  22. 22. LE SOMMEIL: UNE PRIORITÉ POUR RÉCUPÉRER
  23. 23. LES FACTEURS CLÉS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
  24. 24. ATTENTION AUX SMARTPHONES, TABLETTES… 2h tablette ► -22% mélatonine ►►Troubles du sommeil!
  25. 25. QUELQUES ASTUCES SIMPLES  Limiter l’utilisation des smartphones, tablettes, consoles de jeu, TV (sources de lumière bleue) + filtre,  Créer une ambiance lumineuse tamisée,  Priviliégier pâtes, riz, etc. favorables à l’endormissement, Mettre la clim à 18-20°C (literie & oreiller frais),  Prendre une douche relaxante, plutôt fraîche, si l’on se sent excité(e),  Pas d’hyperhydratation,  Avoir une bonne literie!
  26. 26. FAVORISER UN CONTEXTE PROPICE AU REPOS
  27. 27. UN BÉNÉFICE POSSIBLE DE LA CRYOTHÉRAPIE Effet post-match ↘ Douleurs musculaires ↗ Thermolyse ↗ Réactivation vagale ↘ Délai d’endormissement ↗ Efficience du sommeil
  28. 28. Pour aller plus loinET POUR ALLER PLUS LOIN: LES INTÉRÊTS DE L’ACTIMÉTRIE
  29. 29. RÉSUMÉ: RIEN DE SORCIER Hydratation Chocolat au laitFin du match Bain froid 5 min at 12°C Repas: Soupe, pâtes, viande/poisson, gâteau Au lit!
  30. 30. EN CAS DE MATCH À L’EXTÉRIEUR = + + + +Voyage retour Protéines au coucher A limiter
  31. 31. LE LENDEMAIN DU MATCH
  32. 32. LE LENDEMAIN DU MATCH 25g Coucher 10g Taux de synthèse musculaire maximal Balance+Balance- Temps (h) +Portez attention au petit déjeuner! Figure de Leigh Breen
  33. 33. LE LENDEMAIN DU MATCH 2 2 1.5 3 2 10.5 Ajuster la charge en fonction du ressenti des joueurs, des indices de performance & des objectifs à venir
  34. 34. LE LENDEMAIN DU MATCH: FAITES LA SIESTE!
  35. 35. UNE QUESTION D’ÉQUILIBRE
  36. 36. LE MOT DE LA FIN La récupération est affaire de préparation physique, de gestion de la charge de travail, de stratégies post- match mais également une question d’éducation et d’équilibre personnel
  37. 37. RESTER HUMBLE ET ALERTE
  38. 38. http://YLMSportScience.blogspot.fr (@YLMSportScience)
  39. 39. @YLMSportScience MERCI DE VOTRE ATTENTION

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