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High-Intensity Training [YLMSportScience 2015]

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High-Intensity Training [YLMSportScience 2015]

  1. 1. HIGH-INTENSITY TRAINING Yann LE MEUR1 1 French Institute of Sport, Paris, France Jornadas de actualización en rendimentio deportivo Vittoria-Gasteiz, 12th September 2015@YLMSportScience
  2. 2. Introduction
  3. 3. Introduction
  4. 4. Potential of varying quantities of both high- intensity interval training and continuous high-volume, low intensity training on performance in highly trained athletes HIT involves repeated short-to-long bouts of rather high-intensity exercise interspersed with recovery periods Introduction
  5. 5. 1920’s - Paavo NURMI 14 minutes 36 seconds (5000m) Short interval training at an intensity superior to a specific velocity such as 6 × 400m in 60 seconds inside a slow run of 10 to 20km in the woods 1950’s – Emil ZATOPEK (5k – marathon) 4x Olympic champion & WR holder 100x 400m at 1min12s!!!!! A little history of HIT
  6. 6. Adaptations to the heart itself ↗ Left ventricular chamber size ↗ Wall thickness ↗ Myocardial contractility ↗ Ventricular compliance Decrease in total peripheral resistance ↗ Capillary & arteriole vasodilatation Cardiovascular adaptations HIT-induced adaptations More fatigue resistant fast twitch fibres ↗ Oxidative capacity ↗ Lactate endling Neuromuscular adaptations
  7. 7. ❶ Improved endurance performance ❷ Improved repeated-sprint performance ❸ Increased tolerance to overload periods HIT-induced adaptations
  8. 8. 3 main questions ❶ How to manipulate the HIT variables ? (The puzzle) ❷ How to program HIT sessions ? ❸ How much HIT is enough ?
  9. 9. Introduction ❶ HOW TO MANIPULATE THE HIT VARIABLES ? (THE PUZZLE)
  10. 10. The Bible of HIT The following section is an illustrated summary of this review
  11. 11. From long-interval training to repeated sprint training (3 – 7s sprints, r < 60 s) or sprint interval training (30 s all-out efforts, r = 2–4 min) One concept, many declensions
  12. 12. HIT FORMAT ❶ Long intervals (≥ 45s) ❷ Short intervals (< 45s) ❸Repeated- sprint training ≤10 s, all-out sprints,interspersed with recovery periods ❹ Sprint interval training 20–30 s all-out sprints, interspersed with recovery periods
  13. 13. The pieces of the puzzle Buchheit & Laursen, 2013 5x (3min [90% vVO2max], r = 90s [0%])
  14. 14. The pieces of the puzzle Prescribtion of HIT consists of the manipulation of at least 9 variables; any of each has a likely effect on the acute metabolic & neuromuscular response
  15. 15. « The ability of the coach to understand the isolated acute responses to various HIT formats may assist with selection of the most appropriate HIT session to apply, at the right place and time» Buchheit & Laursen, 2013 Manipulating HIT: the puzzle
  16. 16. An example
  17. 17. Metabolic demands (1) splitting of the stored phosphagens; (2) anaerobic glycolytic energy production; (3) the oxidative metabolism Neuromuscular load & Musculoskeletal strain Primary variables of interest: VO2, cardiovascular work, stored energy and cardiac autonomic stress Secondary variables of interest: anaerobic glycolytic energy contribution & neuromuscular load/musculoskeletal strain Understanding HIT
  18. 18. Short intervals (< 60s) Sprint interval training Long intervals (> 60s) Repeated sprint training Speed strength Manipulating HIT Buchheit & Laursen, 2013
  19. 19. HIT FORMAT ❶ Long intervals (≥ 45s) ❷ Short intervals (< 45s) ❸Repeated- sprint training ≤10 s, all-out sprints,interspersed with recovery periods ❹ Sprint interval training 20–30 s all-out sprints, interspersed with recovery periods
  20. 20. How to maximize the time spent at or near VO2max during HIT sessions ?
  21. 21. Maximizing the Time Spent at or Near VO2max Session 1: 5x (3min [90% vVO2max], r = 90s [0%]) Session 2: 5x (5min [92% vVO2max], r= 2.5min [46% vVO2max]) Session 3: 3x (2x(2min [100% vVO2max], r = 2min [50% vVO2max])) Session 4: 3min45 [SSG] / 30s[0%] / 3min45 [SSG] Session 1 Session 2 Session 3 Session 4
  22. 22. Exercise intensity & interval duration ❶ Exercise Intensity ❷ Interval duration Work intensities of ≥90% vVO2max are recommended for maximizing TVO2max during long intervals Option 1 Time needed to reach VO2max + 1 or 2 min Option 2 ≥ 2–3 min and adjust in accordance with the athlete’s training status (with the less trained performing lower training loads, but longer intervals)
  23. 23. Relief characteristics ❸ Relief duration & intensity Maximizing work capacity during subsequent intervals (by increasing blood flow to accelerate muscle metabolic recovery) Maintaining a minimal level of VO2 to reduce the time needed to reach VO2max during subsequent intervals
  24. 24. Recovery: active or passive? Passive recovery is recommended when the relief interval is less than 2–3 min in duration Active recovery can ↘ Muscle oxygenation, ↘ PCr resynthesis (O2 competition) ↗ Anaerobic system engagement during the following effort May negate subsequent interval performance when recovery < 3min
  25. 25. Volume of HIT with long intervals ❹ Volume of HIT Cumulated high-intensity ([90% v/pVO2max) exercise time during typical sessions in well trained athletes has been reported to be 6x 2min  5x 3min  4x 4min  6x 4min  4x 6min  5x 6min From 10 min > 90 % to 4–10 min > 95 % at VO2max 4x 16min vs 4x 8min vs 4x 4min (max tolerable intensity) Seiler et al. 2013
  26. 26. Anaerobic Glycolytic Energy Contribution ❺ Anaerobic glycolytic energy contribution Increased by ↗ Intensity ↗ Interval duration ↘ Recovery interval (when the duration of the exercise interval is fixed) While HIT with long intervals is likely the best format for adapting cardiopulmonary function, blood lactate accumulation (and likely anaerobic glycolytic energy contribution) will still reach high levels (end-session values >10 mmol/L)
  27. 27. HIT FORMAT ❶ Long intervals (≥ 45s) ❷ Short intervals (< 45s) ❸Repeated- sprint training ≤10 s, all-out sprints,interspersed with recovery periods ❹ Sprint interval training 20–30 s all-out sprints, interspersed with recovery periods
  28. 28. Exercise intensity Selection of a work bout intensity that ranges between 100 % and 120 % of vVO2max may be optimal to elicit high VO2 responses With very-high-exercise intensities (>120 % vVO2max), total T@VO2max for a given HIT series is usually low ❶ Exercise Intensity
  29. 29. Work interval duration Work intervals >10 s appears to be required to elicit high VO2 responses during HIT involving short intervals (100–120 % vVO2max) During very short runs (<10 s)  ATP requirements in working muscle are met predominantly by oxidative phosphorylation  Recovery: oxymyoglobin stores rapidly restored ► cardiopulmonary responses of such efforts are relatively low, unless exercise intensity is set at a very high level ❷ Interval duration
  30. 30. Work interval duration Increasing the work interval duration, while keeping work relief intervals constant increases T@VO2max Longer work intervals (e.g. 30 s/30 s vs. 15 s/15 s) are preferred for individuals with slow VO2 kinetics (i.e. older/less trained), or for exercising on a bike
  31. 31. Relief characteristics 15s / 15s: absolute T@VO2max might not differ between active and passive recovery conditions 30s / 30s: relief interval intensities around 70 % vVO2max should be recommended to increase both T@VO2max and the T@VO2max/exercise time ratio ❸ Relief duration & intensity
  32. 32. Series duration, Sets and T@VO2max Total session volume should enable athletes to spend between 5 (team and racket sports) and 10 (endurance sports) min at VO2max  Example for an endurance athlete: 3x (10x 30s [110% vVO2max], r= 30s [50% vVO2max])  Example for team sports athletes: 2x (10x 30s [110% vVO2max], r= 30s [50% vVO2max]) T@VO2max/total exercise time ratio ❹ Volume of HIT
  33. 33. Anaerobic Glycolytic Energy Contribution ❺ Anaerobic glycolytic energy contribution Increased by ↗ Work interval intensities (110/60% > 100/70% > 90/80%) ↗ Work/relief ratio (at a fixed work interval) Two solutions if you want to limit anaerobic glycolytic energy contribution:  Reducing the work/relief ratio and using passive recovery  Use submaximal work interval intensities (i.e. ≤ 100 % vVO2max, which is less likely to trigger anaerobic glycolytic energy contribution, with active recovery periods (≥ 50 % vVO2max)
  34. 34. Anaerobic Glycolytic Energy Contribution Field-based HIT formats with short intervals are generally associated with lower initial rates of blood lactate accumulation compared with long intervals
  35. 35. Neuromuscular load during Short- and Long- Intervals Greater load associated with short intervals Modulated by Change of direction Surface (hard, grass, sand) Locomotion mode (running, cycling, rowing)
  36. 36. HIT FORMAT ❶ Long intervals (≥ 45s) ❷ Short intervals (< 45s) ❸Repeated- sprint training ≤10 s, all-out sprints,interspersed with recovery periods ❹ Sprint interval training 20–30 s all-out sprints, interspersed with recovery periods
  37. 37. RSS and T@VO2max VO2max is often reached and sustained for 10–40 % of the entire RSS duration (i.e. ~2-3 min when 3 blocks is programmed) 15x (40m/120s[0%]) 6x (25m COD 90° + Jump, r= 21s [45%]) % of athletes who reached VO2max % time spent > 90%VO2max
  38. 38. ❷ Sprints/efforts should last at least 4 s ❶ Recovery should be active and less than 20 s To increase T@VO2max during repeated-sprint sessions ❸ Include change of direction and/or jumps after sprinting Active recovery RSS and T@VO2max
  39. 39. High-interindividual variability T@VO2max during repeated-sprints sequences is inversely correlated with VO2max ► RSS may be questionable to apply in some athletes, especially those of high fitness
  40. 40. Anaerobic Glycolytic Energy Contribution The initial rate of blood lactate accumulation during an RSS is largely correlated with its work/relief ratio, irrespective of the sprinting distance Increased by 90° & 180° COD and jumps
  41. 41. Neuromuscular load during RSS RSS sequences are associated with high NM demands: ↘ Speed Change in stride pattern & running technique Stiffness modulation ↗ Injury risk (if not controlled) Increased by ↗ Sprint duration ↗ Number of sprints ↘ Relief duration ↗ COD & jumps
  42. 42. HIT FORMAT ❶ Long intervals (≥ 45s) ❷ Short intervals (< 45s) ❸Repeated- sprint training ≤10 s, all-out sprints,interspersed with recovery periods ❹ Sprint interval training 20–30 s all-out sprints, interspersed with recovery periods
  43. 43. SIT and T@VO2max Tissue oxygenation • Very short T@VO2max (no values > 90% VO2max in some athletes), • But very high muscle O2 demand • Progressive shift in energy metabolism during a SIT session, with a greater reliance on oxidative metabolism when sprints are repeated
  44. 44. Anaerobic Glycolytic Energy Contribution • SIT- type HIT formats are typically associated with elevated rates of blood lactate accumulation • Increased by ↗ Sprint duration (but < 45 s) ↗ Recovery duration
  45. 45. Neuromuscular load during SIT SIT sequences are associated with high NM demands: ↘ Speed (large) Change in stride pattern & running technique Stiffness modulation ↗ Injury risk (if not controlled)
  46. 46. It makes a lot of information to consider… IN ONE SLIDE?
  47. 47. HIT Forms Intensity Work interval duration Recovery Time spent at VO2max Observations Short intervals (≤ 45 s) 100 – 120 % vVO2max to elicit high VO2 response 10 – 45 s <30" : passive ≥ 30" : active Endurance sports: 7 – 10 min Team sports & others: 5 – 7 min Volume should depend of the T@VO2max /exercise time ratio (cf. original paper) [La-]b : + NM load: + Long intervals (> 45 s) ≥ 90 - 110 % vVO2max to elicit high VO2 response Time needed to reach VO2max + 1 or 2 min or ≥ 2 – 3 min R < 3min: passive R > 3min: active Repeated sprint intervals All-out ≥ 4 s if high VO2 response is expected R: active & ≤ 20 s if high VO2 response is expected ~10 – 40 % of the entire RSS duration (but possibly 0% in high fitness athletes) Can be associated with COD & jumps to elicit high VO2 response [La-]b : ++ to +++ NM load: +++ Sprint interval training All-out 2-5s (~15 – 40 m) > 20 s From 0 to a few seconds… … but elicits high muscle O2 demand [La-]b : +++ NM load: +++ High-Intensity Interval Training Summary #1
  48. 48. Summary #2 ❶ Most HIT formats, when properly manipulated, can enable athletes to reach VO2max, ❷ However, important between-athlete and between-HIT format differences exist with respect to T@VO2max, ❸ RSS and SIT sessions allow for a limited T@VO2max compared with HIT that involve long and short intervals, ❹ Long intervals and/or short intervals with a work/relief ratio > 1 should enable a greater T@VO2max / exercise time ratio during HIT sessions, ❺ The methods of maximizing long-term VO2max development and performance adaptations using different forms of HIT sessions is still to be determined
  49. 49. Summary #3 ❻ Choose and balance the level of neuromuscular engagement associated with a given HIT format, based on both the expected training-induced adaptations and the acute changes in neuromuscular performance (e.g. jump performance); ❼ Running pattern (e.g. COD, introduction of jumps during the recovery periods), exercise mode (e.g. cycling, running, bouncing) or ground surfaces (e.g. pavement, synthetic track, grass, sand, treadmill) and terrain (uphill, downhill) also may have direct implications on traumatic and overuse injury risk, and should be chosen for programming based on a risk/benefit approach.
  50. 50. ❷ PROGRAMMING HIT SESSIONS
  51. 51. Understanding HIT-induced fatigue ❷ MUSCLE DAMAGES ❸ GLYCOGEN STORES DEPLETION ❶ ANS PERTURBATIONS
  52. 52. How much recovery between HIT sessions? ~48 h should separate HIT sessions to enable the majority of athletes to perform and train maximally
  53. 53. By Malcolm Brown, Leeds Metropolitan University In some exception cases, it may be different but be careful not to ask too much How much recovery between HIT sessions?
  54. 54. Ronnestadetal.,2013 Block periodization of HIT: Study #1 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 HIT per week versus 3 + 1 + 1 + 1 per week
  55. 55. Ronnestad et al., 2013 Higher improvement associated with block periodization Study #1
  56. 56. Study #2 Ronnestad et al., 2015 5x 6 min > 88% HRmax, r = 3min
  57. 57. Ronnestad et al., 2015 Higher improvement associated with block periodization Study #2
  58. 58. 8.1% vs 11.0% 3.4% vs 6.2% 8.3% vs 14.2% Study #3
  59. 59. AND BETWEEN THE HIT SESSIONS? THE ROLE OF TRAINING INTENSITY DISTRIBUTION
  60. 60. VT1 VT2 Training intensity (% VO2max) Percentageoftotaltrainingtime Seiler, 2010 Training intensity distribution: getting the balance right
  61. 61. Seiler et al., 2007 Training intensity & ANS perturbations
  62. 62. 8 elite spanish runners (23 ± 2 years, 70 ± 7 ml.min-1.kg-1). Training intensity distribution quantified in 3 zones. ~ 70 km.week-1 Correlation between time spent in Z1 and performance change during a 4-km race, Same result when considering a 10-km race. Esteve-Lanao et al., 2005 The polarized training model
  63. 63. Esteve-Lanao et al., 2007 12 elite spanish runners (MAS : 21.5 km.h-1). 2 groups of 6 : same training load but different training intensity distribution: 80%/12%/8% (polarized, Z1) vs. 65%/27%/8% (control, Z2) High improvement during a 10.4km race after 18 weeks for the polarized group 80%/12%/8% (-157 ± 13 s vs. -122 ± 7 s, p = 0.03) The polarized training model
  64. 64. Ingham, Fudge & Pringle IJSPP 2012 +0.5% +0.9% +1.4% The more HIT you do, the better?
  65. 65. ATP → AMP PGC-1α % Type I fibers ↑ Mitochondrial biogenesis ↑ Lipolytic capacity High-intensity contractions Contractions répétées ↑ [Ca2+] AMPK CaMPK Interval-training Peripheral factors Low-intensity training ↑ GLUT 4 ↑ Glycogen store Laursen 2010 Coffey & Hawley, 2007 Low intensity training is not useless Illustration with LIT-induced peripheral adaptations
  66. 66. But keep in mind the specificity of your sport Pre-Season In-Season A pattern where about the same numbers of training sessions are performed in low lactate, lactate threshold, and high intensity training zones was reported
  67. 67. Lovell et al. IJSPP 2013 But keep in mind the specificity of your sport In Rugby League Team-sport athletes complete a greater proportion of higher- intensity training sessions than endurance athletes
  68. 68. But keep in mind the specificity of your sport Moreira et al. IJSPP 2015 Same observation in Australian Football  Lower overall training loads typically reported in team-sport athletes vs. high-level endurance athletes,  Lower level of aerobic fitness,  Increased need for larger body mass, greater strength and power,  increased need for recovery between regular competitions
  69. 69. Summary #4 ❶ ~48 h should separate HIT sessions to enable the majority of athletes to perform and train maximally, ❷Potential of varying quantities of high- intensity each week regularly (block periodization) ❸ Potential of varying quantities of both high- intensity interval training and continuous high- volume, low intensity training on performance and to reduce the risk of overreaching / injury in endurance athletes
  70. 70. ❸ HOW MUCH HIT IS ENOUGH?
  71. 71. Too much of a good thing? High-intensity interval training is very stressfull and may increase the risks of persistent fatigue when too many sessions are prescribed
  72. 72. TRAINING RECOVERY COACH
  73. 73. Where is the limit?
  74. 74. Acute fatigue 24/36h performance baseline From several days to 2/3 weeks performance baseline Functional overreaching > 3 weeks performance baseline Non functional overreaching … > One month performance baseline Overtraining syndrome The different stages of training-induced fatigue
  75. 75. To examine whether the development of a functional overreaching state leads to greater performance supercompensation in comparison to acute fatigue strategy ? Functional overreaching, the key for supercompensation?
  76. 76. Functional overreaching, the key for supercompensation?
  77. 77. Functional overreaching, the key for supercompensation?
  78. 78. Functional overreaching, the key for supercompensation?
  79. 79. Multistage fitness test Functional overreaching, the key for supercompensation?
  80. 80. Phase III (3 weeks) TRAININGLOAD(%habitualload) 100% 60% 130% Control group (n = 12) Phase II (1 week) Simulated Taper (4 weeks) Pre Phase I (3 weeks) Post T1 T2 T3 T4 Overloading 100% 60% 130% Phase I (3 weeks) Phase II (1week) Overload training group (n = 28) Simulated Taper (4 weeks) Post T1 T2 T3 T4 Pre Phase III (3 weeks) Aubry et al. MSSE 2014 Study design
  81. 81. TRAININGLOAD(%habitualload) Overloading 100% 60% 130% Phase I (3 weeks) Phase II (1 week) Phase III (3 weeks) Overload training group (n = 23) Simulated Taper (4 weeks) Post T1 T2 T3 T4 Pre Functional overreaching, the key for supercompensation?
  82. 82. • HIGH PERCEIVED FATIGUE • PRESERVED & ENHANCED PERFORMANCE • VERY HIGH PERCEIVED FATIGUE • DECREASED PERFORMANCE ACUTE FATIGUE n = 12 FUNCTIONAL OVERREACHING n = 11 The overload group
  83. 83. ††† ††† ## †# †† † * vs. Pre # vs. CTL † vs. F-OR-4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 Pre Post T1 T2 T3 T4 Performancechange(%Pre) Control Acute Fatigue Functional overreaching Aubry et al. MSSE 2014 The performance rebound
  84. 84. Altogether, these results suggest that greater gains in performance and VO2max occur when the habitual training load increases before the taper… but question the usefullness of inducing functional overreaching to maximize the performance rebound Summary #5
  85. 85. DO IT SIMPLY… BUT DO IT WELL! MONITOR PERFORMANCE & QUANTIFY TRAINING LOAD DEMONSTRATE EMPATHY & ACCEPT TO REGULATE + Summary #5
  86. 86. Oxygen uptake Ventilatory parameters Cardiac output Blood lactate concentration Plasmatic catecholamines concentration Arterial blood pressures Le Meur et al. JAP 2014 What does happen when you train too much?
  87. 87. * Different from Pre, p < 0.05 4100 4200 4300 4400 4500 4600 4700 Control Acute Fatigue F - Overreaching Maximaloxygenuptake (ml/min/kg) Pre Post T2 * VO2max
  88. 88. Different from Pre, p < 0.05; † Different from Post, p < 0.05 An altered cardiac response
  89. 89. Different from Pre, p < 0.05; † Different from Post, p < 0.05 An altered cardiac response
  90. 90. Different from Pre, p < 0.05 † Different from Post, p < 0.05 Catecholamines response
  91. 91. Parameters Usefullness Good response to training Overreaching (intensified training) Resting HR ++ ↘ ↘ Uusitalo et al. 1998 Hedelin 2000 Le Meur 2013 & 14 HRex ++ ↘ ↘ Lehmann 1991 Hedelin 2000 Bosquet 2001 Coutts 2007 Dupuy 2012 Le Meur 2013 & 14 HRR (+) ↗ ↗ Dupuy 2012 Thompson 2015 Under review HR monitoring in overreached athletes
  92. 92. 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Heartrate(bpm) Time ►Illustration with 2 athletes ►Same endurance-oriented overload period (+40% of habitual training load) ►Maximal incremental running test (+1km/h each 3 min, r = 1min) ATHLETE B Functional overreaching ↘ Maximal aerobic speed ↘ HRex ↘ HRmax ↗↗ RPE ↗↗Perceived fatigue 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Heartrate(bpm) Pre Post Time ↗ Maximal aerobic speed ↘ HRex → HRmax ATHLETE A Good adaptation to training HR monitoring in overreached athletes
  93. 93. Resting HR and exercise HR are sensitive to changes in the training status. There likely the most usefull monitoring tools but they should always be interpretated with other psychometric and performance markers to correctly interpret the data Parameters Usefullness Good response to training Overreaching (intensified training) Resting HR ++ ↘ ↘ Resting HRV Difficult to implement with a squad HRex ++ ↘ ↘ HRR (+) ↗ ↗ HRmax ++ = ↘ RPE +++ ↘ ↗ Perceived fatigue +++ normal High to very high Performance +++ ↗ ↘ HR monitoring + muscle soreness & NM performance
  94. 94. But always keep in mind that…
  95. 95. But always keep in mind that…
  96. 96. But always keep in mind that…
  97. 97. http://YLMSportScience.blogspot.fr
  98. 98. @YLMSportScience THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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