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Religion and belief systems

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Religion and belief systems

  1. 1. RELIGION AND BELIEF SYSTEMS
  2. 2.  According to Anthropologists, Religion is “a set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices, pertaining to supernatural beings and forces. Such beliefs may vary within a culture as well as among societies, and they may change over time” (Ember, Ember, and Peregrine,2010)  RELIGION
  3. 3. RELIGIOUS AND NON-RELIGIOUS PHENOMENA Vomiting is a religious practice as it eliminates all the evil in a person’s body. In most societies Vomiting is not considered religious, as it is understood as a typical biological event. SPIRITUAL AND NATURAL WORLD Nyoro (Uganda) Believe that the two worlds are not separate and that they coexist in one space. Christians Believe that there is a spiritual world (i.e.,heaven/hell) that is separated from the natural world.
  4. 4.  Early societies (Egyptians, Greeks, and Sumerians used religious symbols and practiced ritualistic ceremonies, which made religion one of the central parts of the development of human societies.  EVIDENCES: Cave wall carvings - Evidence of the ealiest record on the existence of religion that dates to 60 000 years ago The Sorcerer of Les Gabillou in Dordogne, France The Sorcerer is one name for an enigmatic cave painting found in the cavern known as 'The Sanctuary' at the Cave of the Trois- Frères, Ariège, France, made around 13,000 BC. The figure's significance is unknown, but it is usually interpreted as some kind of great spirit or master of animals. The unusual nature of The Sanctuary's decoration may also reflect the practice of magical ceremonies in the chamber.  RELIGION DURING THE ANCIENT PERIODS
  5. 5. Major Sociological Theories and Their Major Assumptions Concerning Religion THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE MAJOR ASSUMPTIONS Functionalism Emile Durkheim Religion serves several functions for society.  1. Giving meaning and purpose to life.  2. Reinforcing social unity and stability  3. Serving as an agent of social control of behaviour. 4. Promoting physical and psychological well-being  5. Motivating people to work for positive social change FUNCTIONS OF RELIGION
  6. 6. Belief that the natural world, as a whole or in parts, has a soul or spirit. As a whole = World Spirit, Mother Earth, Gaia In parts = rocks, trees, springs, and animals. Natural phenomena and environmental destructions are understood as repercussions of the interaction between humans and spirits. ANIMISM
  7. 7. In animism, Spirits can be in either good or bad form which can make interactions and influences on humans in various ways and forms *Bad spirits = negative energies, possessions, demonic disturbances and cases of insanity. *Good spirits = attributes that aid humans in acquiring their needs and addressing their issues. Native Americans try to gain favors through festivals, ceremonies, and prayers. Ex: Lakota Sioux War Dance - performed by the Lakota Sioux.
  8. 8.  POLY THEISM Belief in more than one deity which is characterized by the worship of many deities that illustrate the ways of life including beliefs, practices and traditions. Rooted from the words: poly, which means “many”, and theism which means “god”. Polytheistic deities consist of variants such as: Sky god, Death deity , Mother goddess , Love goddess, Creator deity, Trickster deity , Life - death-rebirth deity, Culture hero  18. POLY THEISM David Hume in The Natural History of Religion (1755) argued that polytheism was the earliest form of religion among several societies. The ideas of religion are said to be rooted in the “events of life including hopes and fears which actuate the human mind.” (Launay, 2005) Ex: Polytheistic societies ( Greeks, Romans, Indians , Aztecs) Hinduism  19. POLY THEISM Hinduism Considered as the world's oldest religion still being practiced today. There is only one supreme god in Hinduism, Brahma, and all other deities are his aspects and reflections. Since Brahma is too immense a concept for the human mind to comprehend, he presents himself in the many different versions of himself which people recognize as deities such as Vishnu, Shiva, and the many others.  20. POLY THEISM Ganesh (Ganapati) *One of the Hindu gods - an elephant-headed god. *god of wisdom and learning, as well as the remover of obstacles, and consequently the sign of auspiciousness. *said to have written down the Mahabharata from the dictation of Vyasa. He is the lord (Isa) of the Ganas or troops of inferior deities, but more well - known as the son of Shiva and Parvati. *in the most common representations of Ganesh, he appears as a pot-bellied figure, usually but not always yellow in color. In his four hands, he holds a shell, a discus, a club, and a water lily; his elephant head has only one tusk.
  9. 9.  MONOTHEISM Belief in one god, which is accountable for all the things happening in the world including the world’s creation and existence. Scholars argue that as human societies affiliate with a few of the gods in the pantheon, they have come to practice exclusive worship of several deities that was promoted with the ascension of a singular chosen deity to supremacy.  22. MONOTHEISM Hume (2015) believed that the differences between polytheism and monotheism led to the changes of the human mind, wherein rationality is more associated with monotheism while tolerance is to polytheism. Ex: Christians and Muslims
  10. 10.  NSTITUTIONALIZED RELIGION Also called as Organized Religion, is religion in which belief systems and rituals are systematically arranged and formally established.  24. CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONALIZED RELIGION: 1. Wide -scale religious clout The number of individuals affiliated with this religious institution is immense that it crosses political and international borders and cuts across social status. 2. Hierarchical leadership and membership Followers of this type of faith system are relegated to socio-political posts within the system, which provides ranking and status. This implies that access to the divine may not be given to every member but is a privilege of a select few. The decisions for the welfare of the religious group are also made by those who hold power while members are expected to follow them.  25. CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONALIZED RELIGION: 3. Codified Rituals Processes of interacting with the divine and with fellow members are guided by written rules and regulations that have the power of the law , such that a member’s inability to comply results in the imposition of sanctions.  26. INSTITUTIONALIZED RELIGION Growth of neolithic societies = rise of institutionalized religions. As the societies grow more complex, the systems of worshipping the divine became more structured. The declaration of a country’s official religion is premier example of how a religion is institutionalized.
  11. 11.  SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE The 1987 Philippine Constitution Article III Section 6 states that “The separation of Church and state shall be inviolable” Article III Section 5: No law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed. No religious test shall be required for the exercise of civil or political rights. However, despite such provisions, the religious culture of the Filipinos have oftentimes empower the religious sectors to influence the political affairs of the country.  28. SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE *In ancient Societies, the church and state are synonymous as the leaders of the church are also the political elite which, also referred to as Theocracy or the rule of divine. Ex: Japanese society believed that their emperor was the direct descendant of a god. *Ancient Egyptians and Sumerians regarded their pharaohs and kings as god-kings, as they were believed to be earthly incarnations of the divine. As states developed into more complex political units, the church is regarded as a separate entity from the state.

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