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Estetica e usabilità apparente

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Come si relazionano tra di loro Estetica e Usabilità apparente? proviamo a capirlo con l'aiuto di Kurosu, Kashimura e Tractinsky.

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Estetica e usabilità apparente

  1. 1. Noam Tractinsky - 1997 Gavin Cettolo 24 Marzo 2015
  2. 2. Aesthetics: bellezza visiva - ridicolizzata da Norman; Apparent usability: percezione a priori della facilità d'uso; System acceptability: l'usabilità del sistema determina se la gente accetterà l'uso (o l'acquisto) di un sistema computerizzato; Cross-cultural HCI: India vs Giappone; Human-computer interface: ATM.
  3. 3. Cinque componenti di qualità: Learnability (apprendibilità) Efficiency (efficienza) Memorability (memorabilità) Errors (errori) Satisfaction (soddisfazione) [Nielsen - Usability Engineering]
  4. 4. L'estetica nelle interfacce è molto importante; Forte relazione tra usabilità percepita e giudizio estetico; Hiltz - User satisfaction with computer mediated communication systems: "if computers were perceived initially as difficult to use, users were more likely to express dissatisfaction with the interface of the system after four months of use."
  5. 5. 26 designer; 26 layout:  10 numeric keys;  Special numeric keys;  Yen key;  Cancel key;  Correction key;  Main display e sub-display. 252 partecipanti:  156 studenti di design ;  96 studenti di psicologia.
  6. 6. Principali responsabili dell'usabilità apparente: Strategie di efficienza cognitive:  Glance sequence (posizione display principale);  Familiarity (telefono vs. calcolatrice);  Grouping keys (gestalt per raggruppamento); Strategie di efficienza operative  Operation sequence 1 (disposizione special numeric keys);  Hand dominance (posizione dei numeric keys);  Operation sequence 2 (posizione yen key);  Safety strategy (posizione canc key).
  7. 7.  L'usabilità apparente è meno correlato con l'usabilità intrinseca rispetto alla bellezza apparente;  L'utente può essere fortemente influenzato dall'aspetto estetico dell'interfaccia anche quando si cerca di valutare l'interfaccia nei suoi aspetti funzionali;  Concentrarsi sia su usabilità intrinseca dell'interfaccia che su usabilità apparente ed aspetto estetico.
  8. 8. Testare robustezza del lavoro di K&K:  possibili pregiudizi possono aver portato a forti relazioni fra Usabilità apparente ed Estetica;  questa relazione può essere dipendente dalla cultura. 6 dimensioni di Hofstede
  9. 9. Tre esperimenti: 1. testare robustezza cross-cultural delle ricerche di K&K; 2. testare la presenza di possibili distorsioni dovute a dipendenze nella procedura di K&K; 3. testare la presenza di altre dipendenze dovute al medium usato. Stessi layout per ATM usati da K&K, ma riadattati per Israele; 7 variabili indipendenti oggettive (le stesse individuate da K&K) + 2 variabili dipendenti (Usabilità apparente ed Estetica);
  10. 10. 104 studenti del primo anno in ingegneria; 26 layout mostrati con proiettore (20 sec.); Voto istantaneo per UA ed EST. (da 1 a 10) - viene calcolata la media per ognuno dei 26 design.
  11. 11. Punteggio medio dei voti simile a quello di K&K:  EST: 5.9 vs 6.0  UA: 5.4 vs 5.8 Maggiore variabilità dei voti:  EST: 3.5 - 8.5 vs 5.2 - 6.8  UA: 2.7 - 8.5 vs 4.4 - 6.5 Magnitudine fra EST e UA maggiore (0.921 vs 0.589) Gli israeliani associano usabilità con keypad a layout telefonico piuttosto che orizzontale; Meno gruppi porta ad una maggiore UA percepita
  12. 12. Problemi nel porre le domande contemporaneamente; 81 studenti del primo anno in ingegneria (divisi in 2 gruppi); 26 layout mostrati con proiettore in 2 round con ordine random (15 sec.); Voto prima per UA e poi per EST. (da 1 a 10) o viceversa.
  13. 13. Valori simili a quelli del primo esperimento; Non ci sono problemi di dipendenza fra le domande; Stesse osservazioni per keypad e gruppi.
  14. 14. 108 studenti del terzo anno in ingegneria; 26 layout mostrati con PC individuale; Programma in Visual Basic (calcola il tempo per ogni risposta); Voto prima per UA e poi per EST. (da 1 a 10) o viceversa.
  15. 15. Risultati consistenti con gli altri esperimenti; Più tempo nella domanda relativa all'usabilità apparente(8.68 sec. vs 7.58 sec.);
  16. 16. I risultati supportano le conclusioni di K&K; È prematuro escludere la possibilità di variazioni nel metodo come causa dei valori ottenuti; Presenza di problemi di metodo nel primo esperimento; Non si conoscono i motivi di associazione fra usabilità apparente ed estetica; HCI deve tenere in considerazione anche l'estetica; Il grado di relazione tra UA e EST dipende dalla cultura; La percezione estetica dipende dalla cultura; L'EST influenza considerevolmente l'accettabilità del sistema.

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