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Lec 11.SST201-Greengram & blackgram seed production.pptx

  1. Seed production techniques in greengram & blackgram varieties
  2. GREENGRAM & BLACKGRAM Floral biology • Highly self-pollinated • Extend of cross pollination is up to 5-10% • Flowers small, yellow and clustered at the top of the peduncle • Stamen 10 (9+1) diadelphous, ovary superior, unilocular with few ovules
  3. In angiosperms the term locule usually refers to a chamber within an ovary of the flower and fruits Depending on the number of locules in the ovary, fruits can be classified as uni- locular (unilocular), bi-locular, tri-locular or multi-locular.
  4. • Flowers start opening early in the morning and are completely open between 7 to 8 AM • Anthers begin to shed pollen in the previous day evening before the flowers open and anthesis is complete before mid- night (Cleistogamous upto 46 %)
  5. GREENGRAM VARIETIES CO 5, CO 6, CO (Gg) 7, CO8, K1, VRM (Gg) 1, VBN (Gg) 2, VBN (Gg) 3, ADT 2, ADT 3. BLACKGRAM VARIETIES VBN 4, VBN (Bg) 5, VBN 6, VBN (Bg) 7, VBN 8, CO 6, MDU 1, KKM 1, ADT 3, ADT 5, ADT 6.
  6. Seeds and sowing • Seeds selected from authenticated source • Off coloured seeds should be removed from normal coloured • Hard seed percentage may exceed to 10%, use commercial H2SO4 for scarification. • At that time seeds should be scarified with for 2 minutes and should be washed thoroughly and used for sowing • Seed treated with fungicide (Carbendazim @ 2 g / kg) and insecticide (Carbaryl @ 200 mg / kg) before sowing for early protection against diseases and insects • Seeds treated with 3 packet of multi strain Rhizobium culture / ha Seed hardening • In dryland sowing, the seeds can be soaked in 1/3 volume of 100 ppm of FeSO4 (Blackgram) or ZnSO4 (Greengram) and should be dried back to original moisture content by shade drying.
  7. Isolation distance FS CS Field of other varieties - 10 m 5 m Field of same variety - 10 m 5 m Spacing Greengram 30 x 15 cm Blackgram 25 x 15 cm
  8. Season • Dibbled at 3-4 cm depth • Grown in all 3 seasons but June-July is the best season • But sowing should be taken up in such a way that maturation period does not coincide with rain, which will increase the off coloured seed per cent in the seed lot. • In summer production, hard seed content will increase when compared to other seasons. Manures and fertilizers Compost : 12.5 kg/ha NPK : 25:50:0 kg/ha Foliar spray : With micronutrient mixture on 25th & 40th DAS
  9. Foliar application Spray 2% DAP at the time of first appearance of flowers and a second spray 15 days after first spray for enhanced seed set. Spray NAA 40 ppm at first flowering and a second spray after a fortnight to reduce the flower drop.
  10. Water management • Irrigate at the time of sowing followed by life irrigation on 3rd day • Irrigate at intervals of 10-15 days depending upon soil moisture and climatic conditions • Apply KCl at 0.5% as foliar spray during vegetative stage if there is a moisture stress Weed management • Spray fluchloralin 1.5 l/ha with 900 l of water + HW on 30-35 DAS
  11. Pest & disease management Pest Pod borer - Apply any of the following insecticides at 25 kg/ha. Endosulfan 4% D; Quinolphos 1.5% D; phosalone 4% D and Carbaryl 5% D or spray per ha Endosulfan 35 EC 1.01 or Monocrotophos 36 WSC 500 ml, (Spray fluid 500 l/ha). Disease Powdery mildew: Carbendazim 250 g or Wettable sulphur 2.5 kg/ha Rust: Mancozeb 1 kg or Wettable sulphur 2.5 kg/ha Leaf spot & Tip blight: Carbendazim 250 g/ha
  12. Yellow mosaic and leaf crinckle: Pull out and destroy plants infected in the early stage of growth (upto 30 days) and spray any one of the following insecticides after the appearance of the disease. Monocrotophos 500 ml/ha, Methyl demeton 500 ml/ha and repeat after 15 days, if necessary. For seed crop, the plants affected by leaf crinckle should be periodically removed up to 45 days after sowing since the leaf crinckle virus is seed borne. Root rot Treat the seeds with tale formulation of Trichoderma viride @ 4 g/ha seed or Pseudomonas fluorescence @ 10 g/kg seed.
  13. Roguing • Vegetative phase to reproduction phase - leaf colour, plant stature, leaf shape, pod colour, flower colour, and seed colour • In addition to the off types the pest affected and mosaic affected plants should be removed Pre-harvest sanitation spray • To avoid bruchid infestation - crop should be sprayed with endosulphon 0.07% for 3 times at 10 days interval before harvest • Field standards FS CS • Off types 0.1 % 0.2 %
  14. Harvesting • Seeds attain Physioological Maturity 30 days after 50% flowering • Colour of the pod turns green to black • Moisture Content at this stage will be 17-18% Processing • Pods are dried to 12-13% MC are thrashed and pre-cleaned • Seeds should be size graded using BSS 7 x 7 wire mesh sieve for homogenizing the seed lot
  15. Seed treatment • Graded seeds further dried to 7-8% MC and treated with chemicals mentioned in the order of preference • Thiram 75% WDP 75 g & Carbaryl 7.5 g dissolved in 500 ml of water / Q of seed • Neem seed kernel powder 3% effectively control the infestation of storage pest particularly Bruchid beetle Pack in polythene lined gunny bags for storage Storage
  16. Seed standards Characters Maximum permitted % Foundation Seed Certified seed Physical purity (Max) % 98 98 Inert matter (min) % 2 2 Other crop seed (Max) 5/kg 10/kg Weed seed (Max) 5/kg 10/kg Germination (%) (Min) 75 75 Moisture content i) Open storage (Max) ii) Vapour proof containers 9 8 9 8