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Icing of wind power: A survey of research efforts and needs

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Icing of wind power: A survey of research efforts and needs

  1. 1. Icing on wind turbines A survey of research efforts and needs February 8, 2012 René Cattin
  2. 2. Introduction Issues •  Icing simulations (climatology / forecasts) •  Icing measurements (point / blade) •  Effects of icing on wind turbines •  De-icing and Anti-icing •  Health and Safety (ice throw / noise) Icing on wind turbines | Page 2 | 2012-02-12
  3. 3. Icing simulations: climatology Icing on wind turbines | Page 3 | 2012-02-12
  4. 4. Icing simulations: climatology What is it? •  Information on average icing conditions (10 years or more) Why is it needed? •  Energy yield calculation including icing conditions •  Siting of wind turbines •  Cost/benefit analysis for de-icing or anti-icing systems Icing on wind turbines | Page 4 | 2012-02-12
  5. 5. Icing simulations: climatology Ideal world Icing climatologies are available: •  High resolution (100 x 100 m), Long term (> 10 years) •  Icing probability, intensity, severity •  Information valid for wind turbines •  Reasonable computing time (max. 1 month) Icing on wind turbines | Page 5 | 2012-02-12
  6. 6. Icing simulations: climatology To do list • Develop a wind turbine ice accretion model - Input: time series - full blade coverage - ice accretion, melting and sublimation • Validate the simulated meteorological conditions • Validate the simuated ice accretion models • Improved cloud microphysics (MVD) • Mechanical icing model for wind turbines • Downscaling, long term correlation and post-processing • Climate change Icing on wind turbines | Page 6 | 2012-02-12
  7. 7. Icing forecasts What is it? •  Forecast of the icing conditions for the next 0-5 days Why is it needed? •  Grid management (ramps due to icing events) •  Spot market •  Preventive heating Icing on wind turbines | Page 7 | 2012-02-12
  8. 8. Icing forecasts Ideal world Operational wind power production forecasts considering icing: •  Production losses due to icing included •  High availability (every day at the same time) •  Information on uncertainty To do list •  Solve climatology issues •  Post-processing with measurements •  Probabilistic forecasts à uncertainty Icing on wind turbines | Page 8 | 2012-02-12
  9. 9. Icing measurements Icing on wind turbines | Page 9 | 2012-02-12
  10. 10. Icing measurements What is it? •  Measurement of ice accretion, intensity, persistence, ice load •  At one point and on a wind turbine blade Why is it needed? •  Energy yield calculation under icing conditions •  Validation of icing simulations / icing models •  Control of wind turbines / de-icing systems Icing on wind turbines | Page 10 | 2012-02-12
  11. 11. Icing measurements Ideal world Instruments are available which can measure: •  Ice accretion, intensity, persistence, ice load •  At one point and on wind turbine blade •  Automatically, reliably and accurately (maintenance free) •  During operation and standstill of wind turbine •  Accurate measurements of LWC and MVD Icing on wind turbines | Page 11 | 2012-02-12
  12. 12. Icing measurements To do list • There is a strong need for better instruments - point measurements - blade measurements - LWC and MVD • Combination of instruments / cameras à Reliable measurements are a prerequisite to understand icing on wind turbines and therefore for all other issues Icing on wind turbines | Page 12 | 2012-02-12
  13. 13. Effects of icing on wind turbines Icing on wind turbines | Page 13 | 2012-02-12
  14. 14. Effects of icing on wind turbines What is it? •  Effect of icing on power production Why is it needed? •  Energy yield calculation under icing conditions Icing on wind turbines | Page 14 | 2012-02-12
  15. 15. Effects of icing on wind turbines Ideal world Effect of icing on wind energy production is exactly known: •  Specific power curves as function of ice load / icing intensity •  Performance of de-icing and anti-icing systems as function of ice load and icing intensity Icing on wind turbines | Page 15 | 2012-02-12
  16. 16. Effects of icing on wind turbines To do list •  Get more and better measurement data (including production and status data) •  Detailed case studies of icing events - accretion, intensity, persistence, melting, sublimation •  Long term measurements to validate power curves •  Implement turbine control scenarios Icing on wind turbines | Page 16 | 2012-02-12
  17. 17. Anti-icing and de-icing Icing on wind turbines | Page 17 | 2012-02-12
  18. 18. Anti-icing and de-icing What is it? •  De-icing: remove existing ice from blades •  Anti-icing: prevent ice accretion Why is it needed? •  Avoid/reduce production losses under icing conditions Icing on wind turbines | Page 18 | 2012-02-12
  19. 19. Anti-icing and de-icing Ideal world •  Anti-icing system which completely prevents ice accretion •  De-icing systems which efficiently remove ice •  Efficient control system for de-icing systems •  Performance and costs known •  Additional investment compensated within 1-3 years •  Low maintenance Icing on wind turbines | Page 19 | 2012-02-12
  20. 20. Anti-icing and de-icing To do list •  Gain more experience •  More field tests of de-icing systems •  Efficient control systems (start and end of heating) •  Evaluate secondary icing •  Anti-icing field tests Icing on wind turbines | Page 20 | 2012-02-12
  21. 21. Health and safety Icing on wind turbines | Page 21 | 2012-02-12
  22. 22. Health and safety What is it? •  Ice throw and ice fall of wind turbines •  Increased noise with iced blades Why is it needed? •  Accurate ice throw risk analysis •  Accurate noise assessments Icing on wind turbines | Page 22 | 2012-02-12
  23. 23. Health and safety Ideal world •  Ice throw is assessed such as noise and flicker •  Accurate risk analysis possible •  Validated ice throw models •  Effect of ice load on noise is clearly known •  Noise assessments include icing Icing on wind turbines | Page 23 | 2012-02-12
  24. 24. Health and safety To do list: Ice throw •  Systematic empirical ice throw studies •  Preferred blade positions for ice throw •  Flying characteristics •  Ice throw and ice fall / heated and unheated blades •  Mechanical icing model To do list: Noise •  Carry out noise measurements under icing conditions Icing on wind turbines | Page 24 | 2012-02-12
  25. 25. General conclusions Task 1: Measure icing on wind turbines Icing on wind turbines | Page 25 | 2012-02-12
  26. 26. General conclusions Task 1: Measure icing on wind turbines à Good instruments à Comprehensive measurement campaigns à Test centres / large (EU-)projects Task 2: Develop wind turbine ice accretion model Task 3: Validate Task 2 with Task 1 Task 4: Use results of tasks 1-3 to further work on: - Power curves - De-icing and anti-icing - Ice throw - Numerical weather models Icing on wind turbines | Page 26 | 2012-02-12
  27. 27. Thank you… METEOTEST …for your attention Fabrikstrasse 14 CH-3012 Bern www.meteotest.ch Icing on wind turbines | Page 27 | 2012-02-12

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