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A technology architecture for managingexplicit knowledge over the entire lifecycleof large and complex projectsWilliam P. ...
ContextsContextsWhat is an intranet? A communications network for members of a defined group Part of an organisational ...
Outline of presentationOutline of presentationPart 1: Theory: What is it that needs to bemanaged and delivered Managed c...
What is it that Enterprise Architects areseeking to change/improve?PART 1PART 1
Part 1 -Part 1 - IntroductionIntroductionMajor revolutions are changing the nature ofknowledge itself and technology to m...
Revolutions in human cognition and technologies forRevolutions in human cognition and technologies forrecording and transm...
Profound cognitive revolutionsProfound cognitive revolutions Evolution of vertebrate memory and learning - perhaps 500 M ...
Epistemology - Theory of KnowledgeEpistemology - Theory of KnowledgeParadigms and cognitive revolutionsWhat is knowledge...
ParadigmsParadigms The difference between evolution and revolution Evolution = incremental change• Slow process with eas...
Thomas Kuhns paradigm conceptThomas Kuhns paradigm conceptThomas Kuhn (1962), The Structure of ScientificRevolutions Sym...
IncommensurabilityIncommensurability Kuhns term derives from the mathematical concept of incommensurability, andarises fr...
DDocument paradigms: paper vs contentocument paradigms: paper vs content Paper: A physical (or electronic) object consist...
Knowledge paradigms: What is knowledge?Knowledge paradigms: What is knowledge?The deep philosophical questionsHow do we ...
Two paradigms of knowledgeTwo paradigms of knowledgeObjective Knowledge - Karl Popper Professor of philosophy interested...
Poppers bottom linePoppers bottom line for objective knowledgefor objective knowledge"Criticism" remains the crucial dete...
Paradigm of personal knowledgeParadigm of personal knowledge"We know more than we can tell" The emphasis on "tacit" know...
Incommensurable paradigms of knowledge:Incommensurable paradigms of knowledge:London School of Economics - 1951London Scho...
Where new technologycan most helpTacit and explicit knowledge in organisationalTacit and explicit knowledge in organisatio...
What is information?What is information?"Information"a very generic term for descriptions of the world, anda particular...
Transformations add epistemic quality (a.k.a.Transformations add epistemic quality (a.k.a.WIKID Power)WIKID Power) Data i...
AOOBSERVE(Results of Test)OBSERVATIONPARADIGMEXTERNALINFORMATIONCHANGINGCIRCUMSTANCESUNFOLDINGENVIRONMENTALRESULTS OFACTIO...
Relating OODA terms to the WIKID PowerRelating OODA terms to the WIKID Powertransformationstransformations Observation as...
What does orientation comprise for theWhat does orientation comprise for theorganizationorganizationInput information Re...
Organizational knowledge (WIKID Power)Organizational knowledge (WIKID Power)Value is added to the result as information i...
Strategic power is the bottom line for mostStrategic power is the bottom line for mostorganisationsorganisationsStrategic...
Generic ideas applied to specificcircumstancesCase Study ContextCase Study Context
Who invented concept of content managementWho invented concept of content managementDARPA NET US Defense Advanced Resear...
Defence projectsDefence projectsSpecific requirements of defence projectsare often ahead of commercial understandingInit...
Managing and delivering knowledge in thereal worldPart 2: Tenix Case StudyPart 2: Tenix Case Study
Some background on Tenix [in 2002]Some background on Tenix [in 2002]Tenix Group - $A 0.7 BN turnover, ~3,000 staff Large...
#5commissioned31March2001ANZAC Ship ProjectANZAC Ship Project10 frigates (8 RAN, 2 RNZN) Total package 15 year design/b...
M113 Upgrade ProjectM113 Upgrade Project ~ 350 Vehicles 22 identified variants Long life-span Progressive upgrade New...
What content do we need to manage?What content do we need to manage?Source documents received from suppliers, clients &st...
What is our intranetWhat is our intranetOrganisational websIntra departmentalIntra divisionalInter divisionalProduct ...
How do we need to manage web contentHow do we need to manage web contentCapture/manage source documentsAuthor, review, p...
ANZAC Ship Projects ILS [= supportANZAC Ship Projects ILS [= supportengineering] imperativesengineering] imperatives Stri...
Tenixs internal environment for content mgmtTenixs internal environment for content mgmt Paradigmatic differences Most s...
Simplified doco cycle for a large projectSimplified doco cycle for a large project Need to normalisemassively redundantda...
All issues depend on effective authoring, management andtransfer of technical content from supplier to operatorsMajor issu...
Object lessons: what happens when content isntObject lessons: what happens when content isntaccessed or isnt availableacce...
Know your organisational imperativesKnow your organisational imperatives Operational knowledge delivery goals Correct• C...
Document content (DCMS) and product data (PDM)Document content (DCMS) and product data (PDM)management replace paper with ...
Knowledge flow into maintenance proceduresKnowledge flow into maintenance procedures(Paper paradigm!)(Paper paradigm!)MAIN...
A CM/PDM “umbrella” integrates the piecesA CM/PDM “umbrella” integrates the pieces Product data anddocuments arestructure...
DESIGN / ENGPRODUCT DATAMANAGEMENT• Product Model• CAD / DrawingMgmt• Config Mgmt• Eng Change• WorkflowProcessControl• Doc...
TeraText (SIM) document & content mgmtTeraText (SIM) document & content mgmtState of the art content mgmt system Native ...
SIM DCMS architectureSIM DCMS architectureUpload Navy supplied filesfor Validation.Upload ILS DB data.Upload Graphics file...
Client Review/AnnotateRelease for DeliveryIdentify Requirement and Create Work ItemSupervisorAuthorsQA/SupervisorAcceptChe...
SIM (= TeraText) DCMSSIM (= TeraText) DCMS
Author Check-in/Check-outAuthor Check-in/Check-outCheck-inCheck-inCancel Check-inCancel Check-inRelease to QARelease to QA...
Work Flow IconsWork Flow IconsACTION ICONAccept authorship of changesAccept authorship of redrafting changesRelease docume...
Browser view (1) - metadata, multipleBrowser view (1) - metadata, multipleapplicabilityapplicability} 2 configured itemsag...
Browser view (2) - misc metadataBrowser view (2) - misc metadataTwo-way link!Two-way link!Navy specific work centres, lab...
Browser view (3) - dual language textsBrowser view (3) - dual language textsRNZN TextRAN Text
Metadata error trappingMetadata error trapping Stop Lights (Validation)Stop Lights (Validation)Click the light to se...
Dual language elementsDual language elements No. of new lines to addNo. of new lines to addBrowser edit (2) - dual lang...
Structured authoring environmentStructured authoring environment
Structure view with an errorStructure view with an errorNote is not allowed infront of a warningBroken here
Tenix’s ANZAC measured improvements withTenix’s ANZAC measured improvements withSIM/TeraTextSIM/TeraTextTenix’s Ship 05 d...
ReferencesReferences Westralia tragedy -http://www.navy.gov.au/fleet/O195westralia/boi/report.htm Longford gas plant -ht...
Extending Web technologyPart 3Part 3
Capturing contextual knowledge: AnnotationsCapturing contextual knowledge: AnnotationsAnnotation functions are the key to...
AnnotationsAnnotationsAnnotations provide the key to capturingcontextSource registry referenceAnnotation maybe added here...
ReviewersWeb authoringWeb authoringReview /annotatePMDTRSDefine systems/components/parts lists, etc.LogisticSupportAnalyst...
Closing the circle withoperational knowledge
SHIP SPECIFICCONFIGUREDMAINTENANCEROUTINESSummary:Summary: HowHow TENIXTENIX closeclosess the circlethe circleCONTRACTS ...
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CSARS: What does it look like?CSARS: What does it look like?CalculationresultsRedundantequipment Non-criticalequipmentZoom...
Measures for RAMSMeasures for RAMSReliability = MTBF = (op hrs / failures)Availability = Ao = uptime / (uptime + downtim...
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Where CSARS fitsWhere CSARS fitsCdBCommercialDatabaseCdBCommercialDatabaseILS transactioncosts(contractor only)FASFleet Ac...
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Intranet KM tools in the frontend of the business cycle
Simplified doco cycle for a large projectSimplified doco cycle for a large projectSUMMARYSYSTEMASYSTEMBSYSTEMCSYSTEMDSYSTE...
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Contracts as a knowledge mgmt interfaceContracts as a knowledge mgmt interfaceClient requirements for a product should be...
Known Department of Defence issuesKnown Department of Defence issues Australian National Audit Office Reports Jindalee O...
Prime contractor production/mgmt issuesPrime contractor production/mgmt issuesEffective contract management critical tobu...
Streamline biddingdocumentationfunnelSYSTEMBSYSTEMA50+ ENGINEERS & ANALYSTS ENTERING OWN WORKAPPROXIMATELY 600+ INDIVIDUAL...
Process improvementProcess improvementEffective knowledge mgmt maximises efficiencyConceptual tools Query and discovery...
May 1998 Tenix/Defence Meeting in CanberraMay 1998 Tenix/Defence Meeting in Canberra Hoped to set non-proprietary standar...
CLIENT REQUIREMENTSStructural conceptCLIENT REQUIREMENTSProposed demonstration projectProposed demonstration projectEveryt...
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A technology architecture for managing explicit knowledge over the entire lifecycle of large and complex projects

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This slide set summarizes my work at Tenix Defence from around 1992 through 2002 to manage the authoring and delivery of maintenance documentation and engineering technical data to support life-cycle management of the 10 ANZAC frigates Tenix built for the Australian and New Zealand Navies and more than 300 M113 light-armored vehicles rebuilt as-new for the Australian Army. Today (in 2013) this is still a state-of-the-art application of the content management technology. So far as I know, the full benefit of this technology (as described in this 2002 presentation) has not yet been realized anywhere in the world.
Arguably, implementation of this technology played a major role in the successful completion of the ANZAC Ship Project 17 years after its stringently fixed-price contract was negotiated in 1989. Finished on-time, on budget, with every ship delivered on-time to happy customers and a healthy corporate profit. Unfortunately, Tenix Defence management failed to understand how this system worked, and chose to implement new, supposedly less expensive technology they thought they understood for their next major project. As a consequence of this choice and the failure to transfer human knowledge developed in the ANZAC Project the company’s performance on their next large project (but still less than 10% the size of the ANZAC Project) was so bad that Tenix Defence was closed and its assets sold to the highest bidder. See Hall, W.P., Nousala, S., Kilpatrick B. 2009. One company – two outcomes: knowledge integration vs corporate disintegration in the absence of knowledge management. VINE: The journal of information and knowledge management systems 39(3), 242-258 - http://tinyurl.com/yzgjew4; and Hall, W.P., Richards, G., Sarelius, C., Kilpatrick, B. 2008. Organisational management of project and technical knowledge over fleet lifecycles. Australian Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 5(2):81-95 - http://tinyurl.com/5d2lz7.

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A technology architecture for managing explicit knowledge over the entire lifecycle of large and complex projects

  1. 1. A technology architecture for managingexplicit knowledge over the entire lifecycleof large and complex projectsWilliam P. Hall, PhDDocumentation & Knowledge Management SystemsAnalyst (retired)Tenix Defence, 1990-2007Principal, EA Principals, Alexandria, VA, USAPresident, Kororoit Institute Proponents andSupporters Association, Inc.Rebadged presentation developed for a 2002 workshop on IntranetContent Management developed for the ARK Group 20 November, 2002
  2. 2. ContextsContextsWhat is an intranet? A communications network for members of a defined group Part of an organisational memory and nervous system (James MartinsCybercorp)What is content? Explicit information and knowledge captured, stored and retrieved viathe organizational memory and nervous system.What is content management? Processes Technologies Tools Content management is much more than document managementWork in progress Theory Bottom up or opportunistic application
  3. 3. Outline of presentationOutline of presentationPart 1: Theory: What is it that needs to bemanaged and delivered Managed content = explicit knowledge Knowledge and document paradigms as management issues Organizational imperatives Organizational learning and adaptationPart 2: ANZAC Ship Project Paradigmatic issues Practice• Bids and contracts• Maintenance knowledge• Technology applicationsPart 3: Extensions
  4. 4. What is it that Enterprise Architects areseeking to change/improve?PART 1PART 1
  5. 5. Part 1 -Part 1 - IntroductionIntroductionMajor revolutions are changing the nature ofknowledge itself and technology to manage itOrganisational knowledge managers need tounderstand these changes and contentmanagement needs to evolve in responseCorporate intranets: content is knowledgeDifferent paradigms of knowledgeAuthors assimilate data and information intoknowledgeKnowledge is distilled into content people can find anduse when they need to know something.Corporate analogue to personal memory
  6. 6. Revolutions in human cognition and technologies forRevolutions in human cognition and technologies forrecording and transmitting knowledgerecording and transmitting knowledgeEvolution of human cognition now driven bytechnological change rather than geneticchangeWe humans have reinvented our ecological roles inthe ecosphere a number of times as we inventednew ways to build and transmit knowledge5 cognitive revolutions have fundamentallychanged our nature.These relate to how humans gain and use non-genetic "knowledge"The last is the fastest and most profound, and istaking place well within our own lifespans.
  7. 7. Profound cognitive revolutionsProfound cognitive revolutions Evolution of vertebrate memory and learning - perhaps 500 M years ago(enabled by slow genetic change) Evolution of speech and teaching to transfer knowledge from one humanmemory to another via the spoken word - perhaps 500 K years ago (genetic+ cultural evolution) Physical counters, tallies, writing and reading used to record and transmitknowledge external to human memory> 5-6 K years ago (cultural evolution) Printing and spread of universal literacy transmit knowledge to the masses- 550 years ago (cultural + individual change) Knowledge automation tools and the Web to manage knowledge externallyto the human brain - 15 years ago (revolutionary individual changes) On June 26, 2000, Google announced that it had indexed over one billion Webpages On 12/09/2002 Google indexes 2,469,940,685 Web pages Deep web is 400-500 times this size (Michael Bergman)
  8. 8. Epistemology - Theory of KnowledgeEpistemology - Theory of KnowledgeParadigms and cognitive revolutionsWhat is knowledge?"Objective" vs "personal" knowledgeKnowledge and adaptationIndividual knowledge vs organisationalmemory
  9. 9. ParadigmsParadigms The difference between evolution and revolution Evolution = incremental change• Slow process with easy stages• Easy for language to keep up Revolution = discontinuous change• Rapid changes with multiple simultaneous impacts• Requires conceptual frame shifts (i.e., implicit shifts in entire world views) Paradigms relate to revolutionarily different world views Sequential over many generations May persist side-by-side for some time within a generation May identify competing disciplines Those seeking to change organizations through implementingcontent management need to recognize the revolutionary nature ofthe changes
  10. 10. Thomas Kuhns paradigm conceptThomas Kuhns paradigm conceptThomas Kuhn (1962), The Structure of ScientificRevolutions Symbolic generalisations — deployed by authors without question orintrospection, and immediately understandable by the group, Models — including those with heuristic and metaphysical presumptionsthat provide the group with preferred analogies or even with anontology, and Exemplars — which are unquestioned and accepted concrete examplesof how to solve particular kinds of problems or of what constitutes"good" science — i.e., paradigms in the common English usage of theterm. Values — in the sense providing a predictive or epistemic value: "valuesto be used in judging whole theories: they must, first and foremost,permit puzzle-formulation and solution; where possible they should besimple, self-consistent, and plausible, compatible, that is, with othertheories currently deployed"
  11. 11. IncommensurabilityIncommensurability Kuhns term derives from the mathematical concept of incommensurability, andarises from the largely tacit [in the standard English sense of the term] nature of aparadigm. Kuhn (1962) developed the concept in the framework of scientific "revolutions",where there was a historical progression from an earlier paradigm (disciplinarymatrix) to a newer one. Scientific revolutions may occur when new observations no longer fit within an existingparadigm (the observations are anomalous). Some anomalies can only be accommodated in theory based on new exemplars, models and/orsymbolic generalisations. These changes often require new vocabulary and often alter the meaning and connotationsof existing vocabulary. Even where the same words are used within each of the paradigms,there is often no longer a direct logical correspondence in their meanings. The world view (symbolic generalisations, models, exemplars and their associatedtheory-laden vocabulary) held by practitioners of one paradigm is logicallyincommensurable with that held by the alternative paradigm. Even though users of different paradigms look at the same data, the worlds they seeand describe are filtered through their paradigms and thus the differences ininterpretation cannot be rationally compared. Impacts on business cases!
  12. 12. DDocument paradigms: paper vs contentocument paradigms: paper vs content Paper: A physical (or electronic) object consisting of one or moreformatted pages covered with printing or writing Focus on form and style Scribes, typewriters, word processors control form and style• Onus is on the author to determine formats• Difficult for computers to identify contexts• Computer can index but not understand content Content: Sets of containers to capture and transmit knowledge forcomprehension and action Focus on logic and content - form and style a by-product Structured authoring• Select containers to semantically identify knowledge contained• Enter the knowledge Content management and processing• Semantically parsable markup• Can be “intelligently” processed by computers
  13. 13. Knowledge paradigms: What is knowledge?Knowledge paradigms: What is knowledge?The deep philosophical questionsHow do we know?What do we know when we think we knowsomething?Do we need to discriminate between fact andfantasy?Why are these questions important?
  14. 14. Two paradigms of knowledgeTwo paradigms of knowledgeObjective Knowledge - Karl Popper Professor of philosophy interested in science One of 20th Centurys greatest philosophers Logic of Scientific Discovery (German - 1934, English 1959);Conjectures and Refutations (1963); Objective knowledge: AnEvolutionary Approach (1972) The basis for scientific objectivityPersonal Knowledge - Michael Polanyi Professor of chemistry interested in philosophy Near Nobel laureate in physical chemistry Personal Knowledge: Towards a Post-Critical Philosophy (1958);The Tacit Dimension (1966) the basis for personal belief
  15. 15. Poppers bottom linePoppers bottom line for objective knowledgefor objective knowledge"Criticism" remains the crucial determinant forknowledge real knowledge – as opposed to fantasy and myth, is logically andobjectively connected to reality by multiple links that havesurvived rational attempts to test and falsify them. Hypotheses that do not usefully predict reality are discarded asbeing demonstrably untrue (i.e., natural selection applies to theevolution of knowledge as well as to a species genes). Knowledge evolves and grows through time by proposingincreasingly bold hypotheses that survive vigorous testing againstreality.Basis for todays discipline of "evolutionaryepistemology" that has applications in artificialintelligence and complex systems
  16. 16. Paradigm of personal knowledgeParadigm of personal knowledge"We know more than we can tell" The emphasis on "tacit" knowledge in organisationalknowledge managementQuoting K.E. Sveiby (1997) on Polanyi• True discovery, cannot be accounted for by a set ofarticulated rules or algorithms• Knowledge is public and also to a very great extent personal(i.e. it is constructed by humans and therefore containsemotions, "passion")• The knowledge that underlies the explicit knowledge is morefundamental; all knowledge is either tacit or rooted in tacitknowledge.• Knowledge is an activity which would be better described as aprocess of knowing. Polanyi thus regards knowledge as bothstatic "knowledge" and dynamic "knowing". When the dynamicproperties are emphasised, He uses verbs like knowing orlearning. The dynamic properties describe how human beingsstrive for acquiring, coming to know, new knowledge.
  17. 17. Incommensurable paradigms of knowledge:Incommensurable paradigms of knowledge:London School of Economics - 1951London School of Economics - 1951 The two professors at the heights of their academic careers in England metat LSE (Watkins, 1997) Both refugees from European authoritarianism Polanyi - Professor of Chemistry, Manchester University• Faith and belief were Polanyis antidotes to authoritarianism Popper - Professor of Philosophy, LSE• Objective reality was Poppers antidote to authoritarianism Polanyi presented on "The Stability of Beliefs" in Poppers Philosophy ofScience seminar The younger, arrogant, moralistic and predjudiced Popper made it clear he did notconsider Polanyi to be a worthy peer Polanyi – a truly eminent scientist – was "gravely offended" by Popperstreatment In their subsequent master works neither author referenced the othersexistence except in single, trivial footnotes This applies even today within the organisational knowledge managementdiscipline - one reason why content managers have problems with theknowledge management literature.
  18. 18. Where new technologycan most helpTacit and explicit knowledge in organisationalTacit and explicit knowledge in organisationalcontextscontextsHUMAN MEMORYHAS IT BEENARTICULATED?CAN IT BEARTICULATED?EXPLICITTACITYES YESNO NOIMPLICITDECLARATIVE CONTEXTUAL /PROCEDURAL"DESCRIBING" "DOING"Objectively verifiablefacts & thingsEstablished tasks& methodsMotorSkillsMentalSkillsDifferent forms of knowledge Nickols 2000Existing contentmanagementtechnologiesmanage this
  19. 19. What is information?What is information?"Information"a very generic term for descriptions of the world, anda particular level in a hierarchy of epistemic qualityInformation (1) is a catch-all term forrepresentations of the world in the form oftransmissible or persistent content conveyingsomething meaningful about that which exists."Epistemic quality" is a relative measure of whatan actor can do with the information. The higherthe information quality, the more useful orvaluable the information is likely to be.
  20. 20. Transformations add epistemic quality (a.k.a.Transformations add epistemic quality (a.k.a.WIKID Power)WIKID Power) Data is the raw state of information, i.e., binary or character stringswithout context or syntax transformed by providing context and syntax (i.e. relationships) Information is data that has been given a context by relating it to otheritems of data in a syntax transformed by assimilation (into a human memory) and semantics (meanings) Knowledge is information that is made useful because it is semanticallyassimilated into a body of information grounded in experience. Explicitknowledge is assimilated information that can be transmitted for others transformed by human assessment and selection Intelligence (in the military sense) is knowledge that has been assessed andevaluated transformed by intelligent hypothesis and action (testing against reality) Wisdom is intelligence that has survived (probably repeated) testing transformed by applying wisdom and control Power (in the strategic sense) is the result of applying wisdom to gain ormaintain control over external circumstances.(derived originally via Ian Coombes WIKID Power from Ackoff, R. L. 1989. “From Data to Wisdom,” Journal of AppliedSystems Analysis (16), pp 3–9. see Brodie & Brodie 2009)
  21. 21. AOOBSERVE(Results of Test)OBSERVATIONPARADIGMEXTERNALINFORMATIONCHANGINGCIRCUMSTANCESUNFOLDINGENVIRONMENTALRESULTS OFACTIONSORIENTDDECIDE(Hypothesis)OCULTUREPARADIGMSPROCESSESGENETICHERITAGEMEMORY OF HISTORYINPUTANALYSISSYNTHESISACT(Test)GUIDANCE AND CONTROLPARADIGMUNFOLDINGINTERACTIONWITH EXTERNALENVIRONMENTBuilding organisational knowledge:Building organisational knowledge:Boyds OODA Loop (feedback cycle)Boyds OODA Loop (feedback cycle) The success of an entity or organisation in competition depends critically on doing abetter job to assimilate and increase the epistemic quality of information, and toreduce decision cycle times to generate strategic power. SeeWar, Chaos and Business. Intranets work at light speed! The success of an entity or organisation in competition depends critically on doing abetter job to assimilate and increase the epistemic quality of information, and toreduce decision cycle times to generate strategic power. SeeWar, Chaos and Business. Intranets work at light speed!
  22. 22. Relating OODA terms to the WIKID PowerRelating OODA terms to the WIKID Powertransformationstransformations Observation assembles data (raw perception) into information about the world inwhich the entity exists (including the entitys own effects and those of itscompetitors on that world). Data is given a context relating to the entitysinteractions with the world. Orientation processes information into knowledge in the form of a world viewcomprised of new information, memories of prior experience (which may be explicit,implicit or tacit), genetic heritage (i.e., "natural talent"), cultural traditions (i.e.,paradigms), and analysis (destruction of the existing world view), and synthesis (orcreation) of a revised world view including possibilities for action. This generatesintelligence (military term). Decision Chooses an action to try from possibilities generated by orientation. Choiceis governed and informed by wisdom based on prior experience gained from previousOODA cycles, informed by synthesis (creation) of new possibilities to try. Action involves putting the decision to test by applying it to the world. The loopbegins to repeat as the entity observes the results of its action. Entities who cancomplete the OODA process faster and better, and thus act before competitors,control the shared environment to attain strategic power.Note added in 2012 – This concept was animated to make it somewhat clearer (see slides 11 – 15).It will also be helpful to read the complete paper, Hall et al. 2011
  23. 23. What does orientation comprise for theWhat does orientation comprise for theorganizationorganizationInput information Results of latest actionsProcessed into knowledge as guided by Individual members genetic heritage• Capabilities• Natural talent Organisational memory = Assimilated observations of externalreality• Results of prior actions• Records• Documents (distilled knowledge) Culture, paradigms and processes• Explicitly / implicitly learned / mandated methodologiesAnalysis and synthesis create intelligence Reasoning, reaction, theory building
  24. 24. Organizational knowledge (WIKID Power)Organizational knowledge (WIKID Power)Value is added to the result as information istransformed from one stage in the hierarchy to thenext.In an organizational context, knowledge is theassimilated information or organizational memory able tobe exchanged between members of the organization orpreserved and transmitted through time to guidebehaviour and support decisions.Compared to an individuals knowledge, which is lost whenthe individual leaves the organization, organizationalknowledge is represented in culture, processes anddocument content that exist independently outsideindividual memory.
  25. 25. Strategic power is the bottom line for mostStrategic power is the bottom line for mostorganisationsorganisationsStrategic power to control events in the world isgathered and built by entities able to complete theirOODA cycles faster and more effectively than theircompetitors. The competitor with the more complete and accurate picture ofthe world is more likely to achieve the predicted results from anaction than will be the case for a competitor with a less completeand accurate picture. An entity that can decide and act in less time than a competitoralters reality so it no longer conforms to the competitorsobservations of the world.The entity holding strategic power makes the worldappear to be chaotic to less powerful entities.
  26. 26. Generic ideas applied to specificcircumstancesCase Study ContextCase Study Context
  27. 27. Who invented concept of content managementWho invented concept of content managementDARPA NET US Defense Advanced Research Projects Administration ~ 1970 first Internet protocols for mainframes TC/IP adopted as Defense standard in 1980 ~1985 beginning to connect desktop computersSGML - ISO 8879 (1986) and the Web IBM and electronic typesetting for technical documents Basis for HTML and World Wide Web (1990) First HTML Browser was Mosaic (1993) XML (~2000)CALS Standardization Computer-aided Acquisition and Logistic Support (1989) Continuous Acquisition and Lifecycle Support Commerce at Light Speed
  28. 28. Defence projectsDefence projectsSpecific requirements of defence projectsare often ahead of commercial understandingInitial implementations may be very specific,but test and demonstrate concepts well inadvance of commercial applications
  29. 29. Managing and delivering knowledge in thereal worldPart 2: Tenix Case StudyPart 2: Tenix Case Study
  30. 30. Some background on Tenix [in 2002]Some background on Tenix [in 2002]Tenix Group - $A 0.7 BN turnover, ~3,000 staff Largest Australian Defence Contractor Divisions• Naval and commercial ships (e.g., Tenix ANZAC Ship Project)• Land, air and electronic systems• Infrastructure & support Products• Ships• Land vehicles• Electronics Fleet related activities & services• Project management• Systems design & integration• Documentation and training• Logistic & base support
  31. 31. #5commissioned31March2001ANZAC Ship ProjectANZAC Ship Project10 frigates (8 RAN, 2 RNZN) Total package 15 year design/build cycle 27 year designed lifespan for each ship$A 6 BN fixed price contract! [2002 dollar]
  32. 32. M113 Upgrade ProjectM113 Upgrade Project ~ 350 Vehicles 22 identified variants Long life-span Progressive upgrade New systems New documentation
  33. 33. What content do we need to manage?What content do we need to manage?Source documents received from suppliers, clients &standards organisationsCommercial documentation Bids Contracts CorrespondenceEngineering and production documentationDeliverable documentation Plans Training materials Technical and operating manuals Maintenance procedures
  34. 34. What is our intranetWhat is our intranetOrganisational websIntra departmentalIntra divisionalInter divisionalProduct related websAuthorsReviewers• Internal• External (client)Knowledge users
  35. 35. How do we need to manage web contentHow do we need to manage web contentCapture/manage source documentsAuthor, review, publish workflowVersioning and change managementValidate elements of contentMaintainIndex, search and retrieveSupport reuse
  36. 36. ANZAC Ship Projects ILS [= supportANZAC Ship Projects ILS [= supportengineering] imperativesengineering] imperatives Stringently fixed price contract Includes total integrated logistic support (ILS) package Plans Spares allowances and initial stocks Maintenance documentation Training Operational availability warrantee 80% for full combat capability 90% for designated "critical systems" Tenix responsible to fix any shortfalls in fixed price Test, Evaluation and Validation of the ILS package ILS test period 10 ship-years of operational experience Required to develop Operational Availability Recording and ReportingSystem (OARRS) to prove the package
  37. 37. Tenixs internal environment for content mgmtTenixs internal environment for content mgmt Paradigmatic differences Most stakeholders [in 2002] dont understand difference between paper andcontent Need for change identified at the coal face, not by executives Tacit knowledge management is people management Problem areas where we can improve Project management Process reform Innovation We need to do it faster, better, cheaper! Paper vs the electronic (intranet) distribution of content Fleet support content management is basically an engineering solution Explicit knowledge is more tangible to engineers than implicit or tacit Effective content management can identify, codify and make implicit knowledgeexplicit Web-based authoring, management and maintenance of logistic supportdocumentation shows the way
  38. 38. Simplified doco cycle for a large projectSimplified doco cycle for a large project Need to normalisemassively redundantdata/document contentBid and NegotiateRFTProject ADesign StudyReview, edit, signoffReview, negotiate, amendProject APrime ContractReview, edit, signoffProject ABid DocumentsRFQ, Bid,NegotiateProject ASubcontractsReview,negotiate,amendProject AProcedures,Design DocsProject BDesign StudyReview, edit, signoffOperationalexperienceReview,edit,signoffProject ASupport Documents• 20 - 50 year lifecycleBid and NegotiateBid and NegotiateRFTRFTProject ADesign StudyReview, edit, signoffProject ADesign StudyReview, edit, signoffReview, negotiate, amendProject APrime ContractReview, negotiate, amendProject APrime ContractReview, edit, signoffProject ABid DocumentsReview, edit, signoffProject ABid DocumentsRFQ, Bid,NegotiateRFQ, Bid,NegotiateProject ASubcontractsReview,negotiate,amendProject ASubcontractsReview,negotiate,amendProject AProcedures,Design DocsProject AProcedures,Design DocsProject BDesign StudyReview, edit, signoffProject BDesign StudyReview, edit, signoffOperationalexperienceOperationalexperienceReview,edit,signoffProject ASupport DocumentsReview,edit,signoffReview,edit,signoffProject ASupport DocumentsProject ASupport Documents• 20 - 50 year lifecycle
  39. 39. All issues depend on effective authoring, management andtransfer of technical content from supplier to operatorsMajor issues for a fleetMajor issues for a fleet/facility/facility operatoroperatorCapability when you need itEffectivityOperabilityMaintainabilityAvailabilityHealth & safetyLife-cycle costMinimise total costMinimise support & maintenance costs
  40. 40. Object lessons: what happens when content isntObject lessons: what happens when content isntaccessed or isnt availableaccessed or isnt availableRAN supply ship Westralia HMAS Westralia Tragedy Board of Inquiry 1998 Published configuration change procedures not followed Broken high pressure fuel hose caused engine room fire Four died, ship disabled for four years.ESSO Longford Gas Plant Longford Royal Commission 1999 Appropriate documentation did not exist/was not available Hot oil supply lost, gas separator became frozen andbrittle, broke and caused explosion when hot oil supplyreturned. Two died, Victorian gas supply interrupted for threeweeks causing $ 1 BN disruption to business.Note added in 2012. Other disasters exhibit similar causal chains. See Tutorial
  41. 41. Know your organisational imperativesKnow your organisational imperatives Operational knowledge delivery goals Correct• Correct information• Consistent across the fleet Applicable/Effective• Applicable to the configuration of the individual ship/vehicle• Effective for the point in time re engineering changes, etc. Available• To who needs it, when and where it is needed Useable• Readily understandable by humans• Readily managed & processed in computer systems Knowledge production and usage goals Fast High quality Low cost
  42. 42. Document content (DCMS) and product data (PDM)Document content (DCMS) and product data (PDM)management replace paper with electronsmanagement replace paper with electrons Effective knowledge mgmt maximises efficiency Conceptual tools Query and discover (know what you know) Structure and control electronic authoring environments Capture contexts (convert implicit to explicit) Reuse existing knowledge (write once, use many times)• Establish and reuse precedents• Share common elements Route electronically (progress at light speed)• review• approval• tracking and reporting Manage and track changes (better QA, audit) Link to other business processes• requirements analysis (are you meeting the contract?)• Awareness (early warning)
  43. 43. Knowledge flow into maintenance proceduresKnowledge flow into maintenance procedures(Paper paradigm!)(Paper paradigm!)MAINTAINER COMPLETINGMAINTENANCE ACTIONMAINTENANCEPROCEDURESTECHNICAL REPAIRSPECIFICATIONSFINALTMPsLogisticSupportAnalysisCONTRACT PLANSSUPPLIER DOCSTECH MANUALS------------------------------DRAFTTech Maintenance PlansILS DB------------------------------------------------------------"ENGINEERINGBEST JUDGMENT"------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------AMPSAMPS is the computerized maintenancemanagement system for the ships usinga relational database. This schedules anddelivers maintenance instructions to themaintainers
  44. 44. A CM/PDM “umbrella” integrates the piecesA CM/PDM “umbrella” integrates the pieces Product data anddocuments arestructured andmanaged as content Production data istransactional and ismanaged as recordsand fieldsMRP / PRODUCTION MGMT• MBOM• Production planning• Production schedule• Procurement• Warehousing• Establish & release workordersProjectScheduleHRMAccountingCS2ContractCapability requirements Documentation requirementsPRODUCT MANAGEMENT( structured designs)MODELS:• Component definitions• Component hierarchies- System- Physical structural- AvailabilityOBJECTS MANAGED• Drawings• Parts lists• Configurations• Component specificationsand attributesDOCUMENT CONTENT( structured documents)MODELS:• Element definitions- Content- Attributes• Element hierarchies• Element sequencesOUTPUT OBJECTS• Contract/subcontractdocuments• Procedures/instructions• Deliverable documents• All other controlleddocumentsCOMMON REQUIREMENTS• Config control / Change mgmt- Develop/Author- Release- Applicability, Effectivity• Workflow management- Configuration changes- Document changes- Other business objects• Track and control source dataLink element to componentManage elementsOmega PSLSAR DatabaseManageproductionactivitiesEBOMEBOMDocument changesCatalogueDrawingsENGINEERINGCHANGESee, Windchill, TeamCenter
  45. 45. DESIGN / ENGPRODUCT DATAMANAGEMENT• Product Model• CAD / DrawingMgmt• Config Mgmt• Eng Change• WorkflowProcessControl• Doco Revision& ReleaseDOCO CONTENTMANAGEMENTDOCUMENTAUTHORINGLSARDATABASELOGISTICANALYSISTOOLS(prime)PRODUCTCONFIGMANAGEMENT• Product Model• Drawing Mgmt• Config Mgmt• Change Request• WorkflowProcessControl• Doco Revision& ReleaseDOCO CONTENTMANAGEMENTMAINTENANCEMANAGEMENT• Schedule• ResourceReqs• Procedures• Completion• Downtime• Resource UsageRECORDINGREPORTINGANALYSISTOOLS(prime)MRPSYSTEM• Plan• Fabricate• AssembleSUPPLY SYSTEMchange requestconfigchangedoco changeECOchange effecteddocochangeorderreleaseddocochangeconfig changesEC /docochangerequestmaintenancehistorydocoupdatedocoserverAnalysis &optimisationorders receiptschange folderdoco changeshared systems?data changemaintdataupdateDOCUMENTAUTHORINGProviding better kProviding better knowledge managementnowledge management forforANZAC Ship in-service supportANZAC Ship in-service supportTotallyelectronictransfer!CSARS& ReleaseTeraTextAMPSconfigupdate
  46. 46. TeraText (SIM) document & content mgmtTeraText (SIM) document & content mgmtState of the art content mgmt system Native XML database optimised for scalability Repositories for structured/unstructured docs Concurrent indexing and retrival Application development tools (Ace or Java)• work flow• validation• extract• rendering (e.g., SGML to ASPMIS CDF / HTML / etc.) delivery (Web and other formats)100% Australian (RMIT/Aspect) IP100% sales & support in NA and EuropeRMIT Multimedia Database Systems: WebArchive LinkInQuirion Pty Ltd: WebArchive LinkTeraText: http://www.teratext.com [now owned by SAIC, supporting US National Security Agency]
  47. 47. SIM DCMS architectureSIM DCMS architectureUpload Navy supplied filesfor Validation.Upload ILS DB data.Upload Graphics files.ILS DBNavyvalidationdataNewgraphicsAnnotations,Graphic files,SourceReferenceDataDocumentViewingthrough WEBbrowser FrameMakerSGML editorWEB Fill-InFormsWEB ElectronicIntrayOn-Line Validationagainst Tenix andNavy Supplied DataASPMISformatfilesRegistersourcedocsArtistSupplierClientContentManagementSIM DCMSConfigurationDocumentManagementProcessManagementE-mailDeliveryDailyExternal Data UploadsManaged Objects Authorised Viewer Authoring ProcessesConfiguration, parts dataASPECTImplementationSIM DCMS(RMIT product)As providedUpload Navy supplied filesfor Validation.Upload ILS DB data.Upload Graphics files.ILS DBNavyvalidationdataNewgraphicsAnnotations,Graphic files,SourceReferenceDataDocumentViewingthrough WEBbrowser FrameMakerSGML editorWEB Fill-InFormsWEB ElectronicIntrayOn-Line Validationagainst Tenix andNavy Supplied DataASPMISformatfilesRegistersourcedocsArtistSupplierClientContentManagementSIM DCMSConfigurationDocumentManagementProcessManagementE-mailDeliveryDailyExternal Data UploadsManaged Objects Authorised Viewer Authoring ProcessesConfiguration, parts dataASPECTImplementationSIM DCMS(RMIT product)As provided
  48. 48. Client Review/AnnotateRelease for DeliveryIdentify Requirement and Create Work ItemSupervisorAuthorsQA/SupervisorAcceptCheck Out• modify metadataline itemsCMCstriggers• update• open in FrameMaker+SGML;Check In• modify metadata• complete check inAuthor Release for Peer ReviewViewSign-Off asReviewedStage 1(Draft)Stage 2(Peer Review)Stage 3(Rework)AcceptCheck OutCheck InRelease for QA ReviewAnnotateSupervisor SetsPeer Review CompletionCirculate forClient ReviewStage 4(Client Review)• register/link source documentsTeraTextTeraText’s role based workflow for ANZAC Ship’s role based workflow for ANZAC Shipmaintenance proceduresmaintenance procedures
  49. 49. SIM (= TeraText) DCMSSIM (= TeraText) DCMS
  50. 50. Author Check-in/Check-outAuthor Check-in/Check-outCheck-inCheck-inCancel Check-inCancel Check-inRelease to QARelease to QACheck-outCheck-outRelease toRelease toPeer ReviewPeer Review
  51. 51. Work Flow IconsWork Flow IconsACTION ICONAccept authorship of changesAccept authorship of redrafting changesRelease document after drafting (authors)Release document after re-drafting (authors)ViewSign off (peer reviewer)CheckoutReturn to worklistsUpdate MetadataCancel CheckoutCheck inComplete check inUpdate Metadata
  52. 52. Browser view (1) - metadata, multipleBrowser view (1) - metadata, multipleapplicabilityapplicability} 2 configured itemsagainst 1 routine
  53. 53. Browser view (2) - misc metadataBrowser view (2) - misc metadataTwo-way link!Two-way link!Navy specific work centres, labour codesNavy specific work centres, labour codes
  54. 54. Browser view (3) - dual language textsBrowser view (3) - dual language textsRNZN TextRAN Text
  55. 55. Metadata error trappingMetadata error trapping Stop Lights (Validation)Stop Lights (Validation)Click the light to see problemClick the light to see problem
  56. 56. Dual language elementsDual language elements No. of new lines to addNo. of new lines to addBrowser edit (2) - dual language metadataBrowser edit (2) - dual language metadata
  57. 57. Structured authoring environmentStructured authoring environment
  58. 58. Structure view with an errorStructure view with an errorNote is not allowed infront of a warningBroken here
  59. 59. Tenix’s ANZAC measured improvements withTenix’s ANZAC measured improvements withSIM/TeraTextSIM/TeraTextTenix’s Ship 05 delivery challenge Client difficulties feeding flat files into AMPS Documentation configuration management issues Client threat to not accept 05 if still dissatisfiedTeraText saved our bacon• Condensed 8,000 procedures for 4 ships to 2,000 class-setof ‘SGML records’ for 10 ships– 5 people completely reworked 2,000 routines in around 3,000person/hours• Routines delivered for Ship 5 CUT 80%• Subsequent content deliveries CUT 95%• Keyboard time for one change CUT more than 50%• Change cycle time CUT from 1 year to daysClient is now our best reference (See Hall 2001)
  60. 60. ReferencesReferences Westralia tragedy -http://www.navy.gov.au/fleet/O195westralia/boi/report.htm Longford gas plant -http://www.qmc.com.au/docs/conferences/QMC_2000/conf_clarke.pdf;http://www.dnv.com/dnvframework/forum/articles/forum_2000_02_12.htm;http://www.ourcivilisation.com/decline/gasbang.htm;http://www.ema.gov.au/5virtuallibrary/pdfs/vol15no3/Technicalexpertise as a contributing factor in three disasters.pdf
  61. 61. Extending Web technologyPart 3Part 3
  62. 62. Capturing contextual knowledge: AnnotationsCapturing contextual knowledge: AnnotationsAnnotation functions are the key to convertingauthors implicit contextual knowledge to codifiedexplicit knowledgeLinks are 2-way Document authors IP for future reference Change managementPRIMARYOBJECTS(i.e., <para>)PRIMARYOBJECTS(i.e., <para>)METADATA-------------------------PRIMARY LINK-------------------------ANNOTATIONTEXT-------------------------SECONDARYLINKSOTHERDELIVERABLESANDSOURCEDOCUMENTS1:10:manyPRIMARYOBJECTS(i.e., <para>)
  63. 63. AnnotationsAnnotationsAnnotations provide the key to capturingcontextSource registry referenceAnnotation maybe added hereYellow markerindicates that anannotation existshere. Click onmarker to see it
  64. 64. ReviewersWeb authoringWeb authoringReview /annotatePMDTRSDefine systems/components/parts lists, etc.LogisticSupportAnalystsAuthorsSUPPLIERSOURCEDOCSQuery/validateReference/annotateCrossRefValidate/deliverFragment/query/re-useCrossReferenceCrossReferenceRegisterAuthor/editReview / annotate------------------------------SIMQuery /ReuseILSDB--------------------------------------------------PeersLibrarian --------------------------------------------------SIMAMPSClientUpdatemasterconfigdata
  65. 65. Closing the circle withoperational knowledge
  66. 66. SHIP SPECIFICCONFIGUREDMAINTENANCEROUTINESSummary:Summary: HowHow TENIXTENIX closeclosess the circlethe circleCONTRACTS TECHNICALMAINTENANCEPLANSSUPPLIER SOURCEDOCUMENTSSAFETYCORRESPONDENCEENGINEERINGCHANGESAUDIT AND LOGISTICSANALYSISASSET MAINTENANCEPLANNING SYSTEMAMPSTECH AUTHORMAINT. ENGINEERCOMPLETIONREPORTCLIENTMASTERDATA FILESILS DB / LSAR DB• Line item details• Config details• Eng. ChangesCLASS SYSTEM ANALYSIS ANDREPORTING SOFTWAREMAINTENANCE AUDIT FUNCTIONMAINTAINER COMPLETINGMAINTENANCE ACTIONTERATEXTDBASPMISTRANSFERCSARSSHIP SPECIFICCONFIGUREDMAINTENANCEROUTINESSHIP SPECIFICCONFIGUREDMAINTENANCEROUTINES
  67. 67. CSARS: Class Systems Analysis And ReportingCSARS: Class Systems Analysis And ReportingSoftwareSoftwareTenixs TE&V role with OARRSData collection completed 19 Oct 00ILS TE&V completion Dec 01Operators needed improved software toolfor analysing ‘actual’ system & equipmentperformanceMeans of conducting:ReliabilityAvailabilityMaintainabilitySustainabilityRAMS Analysis
  68. 68. CSARS: What does it look like?CSARS: What does it look like?CalculationresultsRedundantequipment Non-criticalequipmentZoomDrill-downblockFailedthresholdPrintCalculationthresholdsAvailability Block Diagram:
  69. 69. Measures for RAMSMeasures for RAMSReliability = MTBF = (op hrs / failures)Availability = Ao = uptime / (uptime + downtime)Maintainability = MTTR = avge (TTR)Sustainability = MLDT = avge (job time - ADT - TTR)
  70. 70. CSARS: What does it do?CSARS: What does it do?Collects & validates operational dataRetrieves downtimes, spares usage, correctivemaintenance data from AMPSValidates dataCalculatesPerforms RAMS calculationsReports RAMS resultsAnalysesAllows ad-hoc system analysisIsolates deficient equipment within systemShows cause of equipment deficiency
  71. 71. Where CSARS fitsWhere CSARS fitsCdBCommercialDatabaseCdBCommercialDatabaseILS transactioncosts(contractor only)FASFleet ActivityScheduleFASFleet ActivityScheduleMissionavailabilityrequirementsAMPSAsset Maintenance& Planning SystemAMPSAsset Maintenance& Planning SystemILS transactiondata (planned andcorrective)CMMConfigurationManagement ModuleCMMConfigurationManagement ModuleSystem hierarchyand ILS baselinerequirementsRectifyReportInvestigateCalculateCSARSALLOWANCESPROCEDURESENGINEERING
  72. 72. Where does CSARS help?Where does CSARS help? Informed Decision Making• Determine existing capability• Prioritise tasks for maintenance• Manage repairables and materiel support• Determine effectiveness of support• Analyse costs Continuous Improvement• Data collection and reporting mechanisms• O, I & D level planned maintenance• Financial Forecasting• Estimating required inventory for “Surge” Capacity
  73. 73. Intranet KM tools in the frontend of the business cycle
  74. 74. Simplified doco cycle for a large projectSimplified doco cycle for a large projectSUMMARYSYSTEMASYSTEMBSYSTEMCSYSTEMDSYSTEMYSYSTEMZPROJECTADESIGNSTUDYSUMMARYSYSTEMASYSTEMBSYSTEMCSYSTEMDSYSTEMYSYSTEMZPROJECTATenderResponseCONDITIONSSYSTEMASYSTEMBSYSTEMCSYSTEMDSYSTEMYSYSTEMZPROJECTAContractPROJECTASub-ContractACONDITIONSSPECSSUMMARYSYSTEMCSYSTEMDSYSTEMFSYSTEMNSYSTEMYSYSTEMZPROJECTBDESIGNSTUDYShort ListNegotiate!& AmendPROJECTASub-ContractBCONDITIONSSPECSPROJECTASub-ContractCCONDITIONSSPECSPROJECTASub-ContractZCONDITIONSSPECSSubcontractsNegotiate!!AmendSupplier source dataReview/edit/sign-off& deliverReview/edit &Sign Off!Review/edit/deliver/maintain/amend20 - 30 year lifetime!Requirements & specificationsProceduresInstructionsPlans PROJECTACorporateInstructNegotiateDesign Study for theNext New ProjectShort ListSYSTEMASYSTEMBSYSTEMCSYSTEMDSYSTEMYSYSTEMZPROJECTAILSDELIVERDeliverableDocuments
  75. 75. The central role for contractsThe central role for contractsClient’s RFT states capability requirementsBids/tendersSuppliers’ proposalsMany bids to win one contractComplex projects require a “virtual enterprise”Primes flow down obligations and requirementsFlowdown negotiations bigger than Client negotiationContracts are the agreed legal interfacesTendering and contract admin costs are asignificant part of overall project acquisitionCosts subtracted from capability budget
  76. 76. Contracts as a knowledge mgmt interfaceContracts as a knowledge mgmt interfaceClient requirements for a product should bedistilled into content of a contractMost supplier activities relate back to satisfyingthe contractually specified requirementsEssential management systems on both sidesneed to be tied into the interfaceRequirements for the interface• Correct• Available• Useable• Faster• Better• Cheaper
  77. 77. Known Department of Defence issuesKnown Department of Defence issues Australian National Audit Office Reports Jindalee Operational Radar Network Audit Report No.28, 18/06/1996 -http://tinyurl.com/cz6opvb New Submarine Project Audit Report No.34, tabled 24/03/1998 -http://tinyurl.com/cpxzb3q Management of Major Equipment Acquisition Projects Audit ReportNo.13, 11/10/1999 - http://tinyurl.com/cq2qqv4 Amphibious Transport Ship Project Audit Report No.8, 07/09/2000 -http://tinyurl.com/dyk6pdh McIntosh/Prescott Collins Class Sub report -http://tinyurl.com/cq7u929 Defence Efficiency Reform Program Australian Defence and Industry Strategic Policy Statement (1998) DAO → DMO Reorganisation
  78. 78. Prime contractor production/mgmt issuesPrime contractor production/mgmt issuesEffective contract management critical tobusinessPrime contractor multiplies all processinefficiencies many times over!Customer presents ideas, supplier must offer solutionsTenders won must pay for all lost tenders (× 10)One contract flows down to many subcontracts (× 100)Comparatively unskilled authors (x 2)Client pays for all suppliers’ inefficiencies!
  79. 79. Streamline biddingdocumentationfunnelSYSTEMBSYSTEMA50+ ENGINEERS & ANALYSTS ENTERING OWN WORKAPPROXIMATELY 600+ INDIVIDUAL WORD PROCESSED DOCUMENTS INCLUDED IN TENDEREACH INDIVIDUAL ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT FILE WILL BE WORKED ON BY MANYAUTHORSENGINEERS & ANALYSTS CREATE AND TYPE, LOCATE AND AMALGAMATE DATA & OBJECTSPRINT? - REVIEW & EDIT / RETURN FOR CHANGE, PRINT? - REVIEW & EDIT AGAIN1000’S OF SOURCE DATA ITEMS - MAY BE WP DOCUMENTS PRODUCED IN-HOUSE,PREVIOUS TENDERS, DDS DOCS, SUPPLIER SOURCE DATA IN UNKNOWN FORMAT,STANDARDS, GRAPHICS, SPREADSHEETS, DRAWINGS, CLIENT DOCUMENTS, ETCCOORDINATOR AND DOCO PRODUCTION TEAM PRINT 600+ FILES & ASSEMBLE REVIEWVOLUMESSUMMARYSYSTEMCSUMMARYSYSTEMASYSTEMBSYSTEMCSYSTEMDSYSTEMYSYSTEMZSUMMARYSYSTEMASYSTEMBSYSTEMCSYSTEMDSYSTEMYSYSTEMZSUMMARYSYSTEMASYSTEMBSYSTEMCSYSTEMDSYSTEMYSYSTEMZSUMMARYSYSTEMASYSTEMBSYSTEMCSYSTEMDSYSTEMYSYSTEMZSUMMARYSYSTEMASYSTEMBSYSTEMCSYSTEMDSYSTEMYSYSTEMZ   COORDINATOR & DOCO PRODUCTION TEAM VALIDATE 900+ ELECTRONIC FILES AGAINST DID CONTENTSDOCO PRODUCTIONTEAM PRINT MASTERCOPY FROM CDDIRECTORYDATA CONTROL PRINTS COPIESDOCO PRODUCTIONTEAM TRANSFERVALIDATEDSUBDIRECTORIES TOCD DIRECTORY -BURN CD ROMSENIOR MANAGERS REVIEW & EDIT CONTENT / STYLE ETC.DOCO PRODUCTION TEAM ASSEMBLES 900+ FILES INTO SUB-DIRECTORIESTECHNICAL SUPERVISORS AND MANAGERS REVIEW & EDIT TECH CONTENTTEXT EDITOR PROOFS FOR READABILITY AND ENGLISH USAGE Huge taskUses production resourcesDon’t reinvent knowledge Conflicting views of timeSupplier: crushing deadlineClient: inordinate delay Word processing frictionmultiplies task magnitudewastes resources & timemajor source of delay Delay generates crisisdisorientationpanicerror
  80. 80. Process improvementProcess improvementEffective knowledge mgmt maximises efficiencyConceptual tools Query and discovery Structured/controlled authoring environment Electronic routing• review• approval• tracking and reporting Links to source data Change management and tracking Links to other business processes• requirements analysis• awareness Establishment and reuse of precedents
  81. 81. May 1998 Tenix/Defence Meeting in CanberraMay 1998 Tenix/Defence Meeting in Canberra Hoped to set non-proprietary standards for data exchange Invigorate CALS and enforce compliance Provide consistent project management infrastructure Interchange standards for all stages of project lifecycle Two tiers of compliance Lower level for small projects/suppliers• System of templates available for free via Web (Smart 2000)• Word processed documents produced under templates should beconvertible to SGML (XML) by the large players Higher level for primes and major projects• SGML (XML) interchange standards able to support contentmanagement applications Small players may exchange documents with any large playerusing the word processing standard. Large players should havethe capacity to readily convert between the word processedformat and the corresponding format under DTD control. Killed by Defence Efficiency Reform and staff rotations
  82. 82. CLIENT REQUIREMENTSStructural conceptCLIENT REQUIREMENTSProposed demonstration projectProposed demonstration projectEverything derives from or relates backto the contractLOWER TIERLOWER TIERPRIMEPRIMEDAODAOPRIMEPRIMEPRIMEPRIMELOWER TIERLOWER TIERLOWER TIERLOWER TIERNAVYARMYRAAFPROTOTYPEselected doctypesRFTRESPONSECONTRACTLOWER TIERLOWER TIERPRIMEPRIMEDMODMOPRIMEPRIMEPRIMEPRIMELOWER TIERLOWER TIERLOWER TIERLOWER TIERNAVYARMYRAAFPROTOTYPEselected doctypesRFTRESPONSECONTRACTSTANDARDSDTDs, Word templatesfor selected doc types
  83. 83. SpeedLegal Pty Ltd (now Exari)SpeedLegal Pty Ltd (now Exari)Independent legal software developer, Queen St.,Melbourne: http://www.speedlegal.comSignificant relationships Legal XML Contracts WG CCH Australia/Wolters Kluwer PacificSmartPrecedent XML based precedent management and intelligent authoringsystem Round trip between XML and RTF Based on a DTD for the structural hierarchy of contractualdocumentsTenix trial implementation showed it would work Other players could not understand paradigm (in 2012 contract management still largely follows paperparadigm)

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