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Evolution of Computer

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Computers when invented by Charles Babbage only viewed it as a computing machines. However it is only recently that computer has evolved more rapidly. Through its complex systems and processing capabilities computers can be used to manipulate databases.

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Evolution of Computer

  1. 1. I.T. for Management Chapter 2 Evolution of Computer
  2. 2. Introduction to computers• Computer have evolved over past 50–60 years through idea of computing machines has been much older• Inventors Charles Babbage had thought of adding machine through precision engineering required to implement such devices was missing at that time.• It is only early part of the last century that the concept of computer evolved rather rapidly
  3. 3. Hardware Evolution
  4. 4. Hardware Evolution• These second generation computers were much smaller than valve based computers• With evolution of the microprocessor,the power of computer was implanted into small silicon chip• A microprocessor includes the entire functionality of CPU along with local processing memory ……… ..Cont
  5. 5. Hardware Evolution• Solid state electronics devices combined with evolution of concept of software made it possible to make computers versatile& therefore more suited for a variety of Business & Scientific applications• The performance improvement in the computer system happened due to the design of a Shorter_ electronic path• What set apart was however the concept of software
  6. 6. Historical evolution of microprocessors Name Date Data width 8080 1974 8 bits 8088 1979 16 bits 80286 1982 16 bits 80386 1985 32 bits 80486 1989 32 bits Pentium 1993 64 bits Bus Pentium2 1997 64 bits Bus Pentium3 1999 64 bits Bus Pentium4 2000 64 bits Bus
  7. 7. Basic Functions of microcomputer chip• Point to certain data in memory• Fetch the data• Perform basic Arithmetic Logic update (ALU) operations• Perform other control operations• Put results to memory
  8. 8. Evolution of Software• The evolution of operating system & language made computers more reliable• In early 70’s & 80’s Unix was very popular mainly because of portability• Unix has provided an escape from the proprietary operating systems such as Digital VAX ……..Cont
  9. 9. Evolution of Software• Unix also separated hardware business from software• Apple developed CPM in early 80’s• Microsoft developed MSDOS for IBM compatible desktop computers• Several versions of DOS were developed (upto version 6.2)during 1980-90• Microsoft introduced GUI windows OS which revolution …….. Cont
  10. 10. Evolution of Software• Microsoft introduced Win95 ,Win 98,Win 2000 Win2003 in respective years• Windows server,client used for networking• XP & windows Vista are latest in the Microsoft family• Linux operating system available free on internet
  11. 11. Evolution of Languages• The machine level instructions also known as Micro-code were the earliest forms of software• They made computer versatile• Machine level instructions are 0 & 1form which is also called binary• Binary instructions are easy for a computer to understand & all electronics based on 0 & 5 volt• 0 & 5 Volt represents 0 &1 level ……… Cont
  12. 12. Binary Notation• The entire electronics of a computer uses the principle of a switch• It is either switched off represents 0• It is either switched on represents 1• Decimal systems where each digit varies fro 0-9• In binary only 2 digits 0 & 1 ……….Cont
  13. 13. Machine Language Programming• The CPU works on the principle of Array of switches• It is necessary to write programmes using 0 &1 for CPU to work• In early days of computing this was indeed what was done
  14. 14. Assembly Languages• The Assembly language exploited the capability of microprocessor• Yet use short form / pnemonic English like notations• Thus to add two numbers A & B• AD A,B• LD A 00012 (Load Value of A to to memory location 00012)• In the computers the human language instructions are converted by the assembler into a hardware program
  15. 15. Beginning of Business computing• The Cobol computer language was developed by a formal committee• The Cobol language was designed to express the data processing needs of a business• COBOL, FORTRAN and Pascal are Procedural in nature
  16. 16. Language for Online & interactive work• We need information instantly & online• With on line programming it is possible for users to query database directly• This new paradigm introduced new 4th generation language called 4GL• SQL structure query language which is standard query language for Database System allows user to perform manipulation in database
  17. 17. • I.T. for Management End of Chapter 2
  • SanjeebDeb

    Sep. 2, 2018
  • moozicfreak

    May. 8, 2015

Computers when invented by Charles Babbage only viewed it as a computing machines. However it is only recently that computer has evolved more rapidly. Through its complex systems and processing capabilities computers can be used to manipulate databases. For more such innovative content on management studies, join WeSchool PGDM-DLP Program: http://bit.ly/ZEcPAc

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