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研究方法の概論(research basics)

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研究方法の概論(research basics)

  1. 1. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” 「初歩だよ、福岡UX勉強会君」 Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology 研究方法の基礎定義及び一般的な間違い Cruz Christian クルッツ・クリスチャン
  2. 2. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology RE SEARCH 2 74
  3. 3. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology 1000 pt Systematised effort to gain new knowledge 研究とは体制的に新しい知識を身につける事です。 3 74
  4. 4. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Random decisions over CREATIVITY Precise Control over INNOVATION 創造力のランダムな 決定 イノベーションの正確な 管理 RE SEARCH Systematised effort to gain new knowledge 研究とは体制的に新しい知識を身につける事です。 4 74
  5. 5. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology A GOOD research is ‣ SYSTEMATIC体制的: Reject the use of guessing & intuition, but DOES NOT rule out creative thinking ‣ CONTROLLEDコントロール: Variables are identified & controlled, wherever possible ‣ LOGICAL論理的: Guided by rules of logical reasoning & logical process of induction& deduction • Deduction (Aristotle)推論 - “From whole to part” • Induction (Francis Bacon) 帰納 - “From number of Observations” ‣ EMPIRICAL実証的: Provide a basis for external validity to results (validation) ‣ REPLICABLE重複: Verified by replicating the study ‣ SELF CORRECTING自ら修正: Built in mechanism & open to public scrutiny by fellow professionals 5 74
  6. 6. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Descriptive 叙述的 Analytical 分解的 WHAT? WHY? 何? なぜ? Applied 応用的 Fundamental 理論的 Problem 問題 Theory 理論 Quantitative 数量的 Qualitative 質的 How much, many, fast, heavy, long? etc. いくつ、どのぐらい?など HOW? どう? Conceptual 概念的 Empirical 実証的 Abstract idea Applied idea 抽象的アイデア 応用的アイデア Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology TYPES of research 6 74
  7. 7. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Descriptive 叙述的 Analytical 分解的 WHAT? WHY? 何? なぜ? The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs as it exists at present. The methods of research used in descriptive research are survey methods of all kinds, including comparative and correlational methods. The analytical research usually concerns itself with causeeffect relationships Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology TYPES of research 7 74
  8. 8. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industrial/ business organisation. ”Discover a solution for some pressing practical problem" Concerned with generalisations and with the formulation of a theory. Applied 応用的 Fundamental 理論的 Problem Theory 理論 問題 TYPES of research 8 74
  9. 9. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount. Qualitative research, on the other hand, is concerned with qualitative phenomenon, i.e., phenomena relating to or involving quality or kind. This type of research aims at discovering the underlying motives and desires, using in depth interviews for the purpose Quantitative 数量的 Qualitative 質的 How much, many, fast, heavy, long? etc. Why? なぜ? いくつ、どのぐらい?など TYPES of research 9 74
  10. 10. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology TYPES of research Conceptual research is that related to some abstract idea(s) or theory. It is generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to reinterpret existing ones. Empirical research relies on experience or observation alone, often without due regard for system and theory. It is data-based research, coming up with conclusions which are capable of being verified by observation or experiment. Conceptual 概念的 Empirical 実証的 Abstract idea Applied idea 抽象的アイデア 応用的アイデア 10 74
  11. 11. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology 1. Defining the research theme or idea 研究テーマを設立 2. Formulating the research problem 研究問題を明確化 3. Conceptual(or Theoretic) Framework 観念的枠組み 4. Development of working hypotheses 仮説を立てる 5. Preparing the research design 研究方法を立てる 6. Determining sample design 統計方法を立てる 7. Collecting the data データーを集計 8. Analysis of data データーを分析 9. Hypothesis-testing 仮説を検証 10. Generalisations and interpretation 結論とまとめ 11. Preparation of the report or the thesis 論文をまとめ EMPHASIS EMPHASIS Research PROCESS EMPHASIS EMPHASIS Execution of the project プロジェクトを実行 11 74
  12. 12. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Defining the research theme or idea 研究テーマを設立 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology A good idea is… 良いアイデアは… Personal Novel Useful 個人的 新た 有意義 To think a good idea one must REVIEW THE EXISTING RESEARCH. 良いアイデア考える為に先行研究を調べなければなりません。 12 74
  13. 13. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Formulating the research problem 研究問題を明確化 The problem Objectives 問題点 目標 Research Research Questions PROCESS Viability 実行可能性 Relevance Consequences 重要 結果 Convenience 利便 何? ! WHEN? いつ? Social relevance 社会的関連 The problem MUST express one or more relations between variables. The Objectives MUST be measurable. 問題点は必ず変数の 一つまたは一つ以上 と関連する。 An objective MUST NOT contain moral or aesthetic judgments. ! WHO? 誰? WHY? Practical Implications なぜ? 具体的結果 目標は必ず測定可能。 ! 目標は必ず道徳また は美感覚を含めない。 ! ETC… HOW? ETC… どうやって? など・・・ など・・・ 74 Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology 研究質問 WHAT? 13 ! Theoretical value 理論的価値 ! Methodological value 方法論的価値
  14. 14. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 Research Measuring sets of variables or quantities and their relationship to one another MEASUREMENT ! 態度測定Attitude measurement アンケートQuestionnaire 一定試験と目録Standardised test and inventories PROCESS Understanding the qualities of a specific field of inquiry Quantitative 数量的 Qualitative 質的 How much, many, fast, heavy, long? etc. HOW? どう? いくつ、どのぐらい?など Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology ETHNOGRAPHY ! Interviewインタビュー Focus Groupフォーカスグループ ETCなど Research PROCESS 14 74
  15. 15. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Measure 測定 To assign empiric(quantifiable) indicators to abstract concepts 抽象概念を量的指標化する Observable Data 観測可能なデータ Hypotheses relation 仮説関係 Answer 結果 15 74
  16. 16. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 data Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology knowledge information 知識 情報 データ Variable 変数 A property which can change and its variations can be measured. 変化する特徴、この特徴が計る事が出来る。 Our personal map/model of the World 世界の個人的なモデル。 Data is raw and unorganised fundamental facts. Numerical values ! データとは、未処理あるいは未組 織な基礎的事実のことです。 「数値」 When data is processed, organised, structured or presented in a given context so as to make it useful, it is called Information. Meaning データが処理、整理、 構造化されると、役立 つデータになり、情報 と呼ばれています。 「意味」 16 74
  17. 17. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 Research PROCESS A property which can change and its variations can be measured. Variable 変数 data Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology 変化する特徴、この特徴が計る事が出来る。 データ information Variable 変数 Watch times 情報 Watch times month A B C D E F G January January 2 4 31 6 8 1 8 February February 3 7 28 3 5 1 3 March March 1 4 31 8 3 1 3 April April 4 8 30 4 4 4 4 May May 5 3 31 5 2 1 5 June June 12 3 30 6 1 2 1 July July 5 14 31 5 4 5 3 August August 6 6 31 7 1 2 3 September September 8 8 30 8 4 2 3 October October 3 6 31 5 5 2 1 November November 5 4 30 5 7 2 2 December December 1 0 31 12 8 1 1 month times KEEP CALM AND LOVE Evangelion 17 74
  18. 18. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Collection Instrument 手法 VALIDITY 妥当性 The degree in which an instrument really measures what is intended to be measured. 本当に測定する手法の程度は 意図している測定です。 RELIABILITY 確実性 The degree in which the repeated application produces the same results. 繰り返す適用の程度は同じ結果を 生成している 18 74
  19. 19. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Collection Instrument 手法 VALIDITY RELIABILITY 妥当性 確実性 Factors that affect Validity and Reliability 妥当性と確実性に影響を与える要因 Improvisation Morphology 即興 形態論 e.g. Intelligence measurement e.g. Behaviour measurement e.g. Not enough space for writing e.g. Too small characters Environment Empathy 環境 共感 e.g. Weather e.g. Lunch time e.g. Complicated language e.g. economical background e.g. educational background Cultural Context and Time 文化的文脈と時間 19 74
  20. 20. Collecting the data データーを集計 Research PROCESS What is measuring the instrument? (items scales) Maker(Trek, Peugeot, Hammer, etc.) メーカ 74 Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Category Quantity 部門 手法は何を測定するのか? Variable 変数 20 “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” 分量 Nominal 名義 Type(Mountain bike, Tourer, Road Racer, etc.) タイプ Components Maker(Shimano, Campagnolo, etc.) 要素のメーカ Age 期間 USED BICYCLE 中古自転車 Condition (Excellent, Acceptable, Poor) 状態(良い, まあまあ, 悪い) Ordinal 順序 Price 値段 Measurement Size of frame フレームのサイズ 測定 Number of gears(2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12…) 変速の数量 Discrete 個別 Qualitative Interval 間隔 HOW good? ratio 比率
  21. 21. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 MEASUREMENT 態度測定Attitude measurement Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 attitude 態度 Learned predisposition to react in favor or against to objects or symbols 態度は物がシンボルに対する賛成か反対かを反映する学習の偏向です。 21 74
  22. 22. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 MEASUREMENT 態度測定Attitude measurement Research ! 態度は物がシンボルに対する賛成か反対かを反映す る学習の偏向です。 態度 74 Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 Learned predisposition to react in favor or against to objects or symbols ATTITUDE PROCESS 22 Attitudes are INDICATORS of conduct but NOT the conduct itself. ! 態度は、行動ではなく、行動の指標です。 ? Attitudes are symptoms only. ! 態度は兆候だけです。
  23. 23. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 MEASUREMENT 態度測定Attitude measurement Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 Attitude measurement 態度測定 Attitude Scales 態度スケール Likert Scale Semantic Differential リッカート尺度 SD法 23 74
  24. 24. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 MEASUREMENT 態度測定Attitude measurement Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 Likert Scale リッカート尺度 Statement 陳述 Scoring 得点 1.Strongly disagree 1.全く同意できない 2. Disagree 2.同意できない Reaction 反応 3. Neither agree nor disagree 3.どちらともいえない 4. Agree 4.同意できる 5.Strongly agree 5.非常に同意できる 1 -2 5 2 -1 4 3 0 3 4 1 2 5 2 1 24 74
  25. 25. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 MEASUREMENT 態度測定Attitude measurement Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 Codebook (Likert Scale) コードブック (リッカート尺度) Variable Item Category Codes Column 変数 アイテム カテゴリー コード化 列 1.Strongly disagree 1.全く同意できない 2. Disagree 2.同意できない 3. Neither agree nor disagree 3.どちらともいえない 3 4 5 1 2. Disagree 2.同意できない 陳述 n 2 1.Strongly disagree 1.全く同意できない Statement n 1 5.Strongly agree 5.非常に同意できる 陳述2 5 4. Agree 4.同意できる Statement 2 4 2. Disagree 2.同意できない 陳述1 3 1.Strongly disagree 1.全く同意できない 何を測定するのか? 3. Neither agree nor disagree 3.どちらともいえない 5.Strongly agree 5.非常に同意できる Statement 1 2 4. Agree 4.同意できる What is being measured 1 2 3. Neither agree nor disagree 3.どちらともいえない 3 4. Agree 4.同意できる 4 5.Strongly agree 5.非常に同意できる 5 1 2 n 25 74
  26. 26. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 MEASUREMENT 態度測定Attitude measurement Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 Data Matrix データー行列 Subject Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4 Column n 回答者 列1 列2 列3 列4 列n 1 1 2 5 1 3 2 2 3 4 2 3 3 3 2 5 3 2 4 4 5 4 3 2 5 5 3 3 3 4 6 1 2 2 2 2 7 2 1 3 1 1 8 4 2 4 2 2 n o p q r s 26 74
  27. 27. Collecting the data データーを集計 MEASUREMENT 態度測定Attitude measurement 27 “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Research PROCESS 74 Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 Likert Scale リッカート尺度 Subject 回答者 Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4 列1 列2 列3 列4 Level of Agreement (per Subject) Average 平均 1 2 5 1 2.25 2 2 3 4 2 2.75 3 3 2 5 3 3.25 4 4 5 4 3 4 5 5 3 3 3 3.5 6 1 2 2 2 1.75 7 2 1 3 1 1.75 8 4 2 4 2 3 4 Agreement Level 1 5 4 3 2.25 1.75 0 Subject 1 Subject 2 2 5 2 3 4 2 3 3 2 5 3 4 4 5 4 3 5 5 3 3 3 6 1 2 2 2 7 2 1 3 1 8 4 2 4 2 Average 平均 2.75 2.5 3.75 2.125 Subject 4 Column 2 Subject 5 Subject 6 Column 3 Subject 7 Column 4 Subject 8 Average 5 1 2 Subject 3 Level of Agreement Average (per Statement) 4 Agreement Level 1 1.75 1 Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4 列1 列2 列3 列4 1 3 2.75 Column 1 Subject 回答者 3.5 3.25 3.75 3 2 2.75 2.5 2.125 1 0 Statements Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4
  28. 28. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 Research PROCESS 74 Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 MEASUREMENT 態度測定Attitude measurement Percentage of Selections (Statement 1) 18% 28 25% Percentage of Selections (Total) Likert Scale 20% リッカート尺度 30% 5% 3% 23% 17% 11% 50% 1.Strongly disagree 4. Agree 2. Disagree 5.Strongly agree 3. Neither agree nor disagree 1.Strongly disagree 4. Agree 2. Disagree 5.Strongly agree 3. Neither agree nor disagree
  29. 29. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 MEASUREMENT 態度測定Attitude measurement Comparission of the Agreement Level Average and Best Possible Selection Level of Agreement 5 5 4 3.75 3 2.75 2 2.5 1 0 Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Average Column 4 Likert Scale Best Possible リッカート尺度 Comparission of the Agreement Level for Each Statement (Number of selections) 40 Number of People 30 27 23 20 20 20 20 14 10 10 10 7 1 0 13 7 2 Statement 1 10 7 4 2 1.Strongly disagree 5.Strongly agree 10 5 1 Statement 2 10 Statement 3 2. Disagree 1 1 1 Statement 4 2 1 1 Statement 5 3. Neither agree nor disagree 3 5 2 Statement 6 4. Agree 29 74
  30. 30. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 MEASUREMENT 態度測定Attitude measurement Semantic Differential SD法 Dimension 次元 Positive adjective Scoring Negative Adjective 積極的形容詞 得点 消極的形容詞 3 7 1 0 -1 -2 2 GOOD 2 1 0 -1 -2 6 5 4 3 2 ○ -3 BAD 1 30 74
  31. 31. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 MEASUREMENT 態度測定Attitude measurement Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 Codebook(Semantic Differential) コードブック (SD法) Dimension Bipolar Adjectives Pair Codes Column 次元 正反対的形容詞双 コード化 列 2 1 What is being measured Positive adjective 1 Negative Adjective 1 何を測定するのか? 積極的形容詞1 消極的形容詞 0 1 -1 -2 2 1 Positive adjective 2 Negative Adjective 2 積極的形容詞2 消極的形容詞2 0 2 -1 -2 2 1 Positive adjective n Negative Adjective n 積極的形容詞 n 消極的形容詞 0 -1 -2 n 31 74
  32. 32. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 MEASUREMENT 態度測定Attitude measurement Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 Data Matrix データー行列 Subject Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4 Column n 回答者 列1 列2 列3 列4 列n 1 1 2 5 1 3 2 2 3 4 2 3 3 3 2 5 3 2 4 4 5 4 3 2 5 5 3 3 3 4 6 1 2 2 2 2 7 2 1 3 1 1 8 4 2 4 2 2 n o p q r s 32 74
  33. 33. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 MEASUREMENT 態度測定Attitude measurement Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 Semantic Differential SD法 Dimension 1 Dimension 2 Dimension 3 Dimension 4 Average +/-1 4 1 3 1 2.25 +/-2 4 1 2 2 2.25 +/-3 4 1 3 3 2.75 +/-4 5 2 2 4 3.25 +/-5 3 3 2 4 3 +/-6 4 4 2 4 3.5 +/-7 2 5 2 4 3.25 +/-8 3 5 2 4 3.5 +/-9 4 5 2 4 3.75 + / - 10 5 4 2 4 3.75 + / - 11 3 3 3 3 3 + / - 12 2 4 4 2 3 + / - 13 3 3 5 2 3.25 + / - 14 2 4 3 2 2.75 + / - 15 2 3 2 2 2.25 + / - 16 2 2 2 2 2 + / - 17 3 1 3 1 2 + / - 18 4 4 4 1 3.25 + / - 19 3 5 5 1 3.5 + / - 20 2 2 5 2 2.75 33 74
  34. 34. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 MEASUREMENT アンケートQuestionnaire Research PROCESS Quantitative 数量的 questionnaire アンケート a set of questions about a certain variable 特定の変数についての質問のセット Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology 34 74
  35. 35. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 MEASUREMENT アンケートQuestionnaire Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 questionnaire アンケート CLOSED Delimited Categories or Alternatives of answers 限定するカテゴリーの自由な 答えあるいは提供された選択 肢からの答え ANSWER 1 ANSWER 2 ANSWER 3 ANSWER 4 OPEN 35 74
  36. 36. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 MEASUREMENT アンケートQuestionnaire Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 questionnaire アンケート CLOSED ANSWER 1 ANSWER 2 ANSWER 3 ANSWER 4 Advantages Disadvantages メリット デメリット Easy to answer (effortless) 答えやすい ! Faster 早い ! Easy to Codify コード化しやすい ! Easy to analyse 分析しやすい Due to their nature, these questions might limit the number of options and not really represent the respondents' point of view. 限定された選択肢からの答えのため、参加者の 本当の見解が見つからない可能性がある。 36 74
  37. 37. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 MEASUREMENT アンケートQuestionnaire Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 questionnaire アンケート OPEN Advantages Disadvantages メリット デメリット These questions allow the gathering of more detailed data about the measured topic Slower これらの質問は、測定されたトピックに関 するより詳細なデータの収集を可能にする Difficult to Codify 遅い ! コード化しづらい ! Difficult to analyse 分析しづらい 37 74
  38. 38. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 MEASUREMENT アンケートQuestionnaire questionnaire CLOSED OPEN アンケート ANSWER 1 ANSWER 2 ANSWER 3 ANSWER 4 ! BE Clear and Easy to understand わかりやすい、理解しやすい ! NOT be uncomfortable or disturbing 不快なことは与えない ! BE oriented toward a UNIQUE logical aspect. Questions must… 質問は必ず… 固有の論理の側面に行 ! NOT contain the answers or elements which negate the free will of the respondent 全く自由意志否定ません ! Be according to the social, cultural, and intellectual characteristics of the respondent 回答者の社会的・文化的・知的特性に応じたこと ! NOT express ideas supported by institutions, organisations, or groups. 組織やグループなどの考えを表現しない ! Include clear and easy to understand INSTRUCTIONS. わかりやすい、理解しやすい説明があり 38 74
  39. 39. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 MEASUREMENT アンケートQuestionnaire Research PROCESS 39 74 Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 questionnaire CLOSED OPEN アンケート ANSWER 1 ANSWER 2 ANSWER 3 ANSWER 4 A questionnaire should… アンケートは…すべき Contain introductory questions of a neutral nature (age, sex, job, etc.) so the respondent can get accustomed to the situation. 回答者は慣れるためにニュートラル 質問があります(年齢、性別、仕事、など) ! Include (depending on the necessity) verification questions 検証質問があり(必要性による) Depend on wether the answers really reveal the necessary information. ! 答えは本当に必要な情報を表示しているかどうか Not ask unnecessary or unjustified questions in order to keep the answer time on a "comfortable scope" 不必要な質問が含まれていない
  40. 40. Collecting the data データーを集計 Research PROCESS What is measuring the instrument? (items scales) Maker(Trek, Peugeot, Hammer, etc.) メーカ 74 Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Category Quantity 部門 手法は何を測定するのか? Variable 変数 40 “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” 分量 Nominal 名義 Type(Mountain bike, Tourer, Road Racer, etc.) タイプ Components Maker(Shimano, Campagnolo, etc.) 要素のメーカ Age 期間 USED BICYCLE 中古自転車 Condition (Excellent, Acceptable, Poor) 状態(良い, まあまあ, 悪い) Ordinal 順序 Price 値段 Measurement Size of frame フレームのサイズ 測定 Number of gears(2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12…) 変速の数量 Discrete 個別 Qualitative Interval 間隔 HOW good? ratio 比率
  41. 41. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Measurement Scales 測定スケール Calculation Category Quantity 計算 部門 分量 Nominal 度数分布 Median and Percentiles 中央値、パーセンタイル Add or Subtract Interval ratio 名義 Frequency Distribution Ordinal 順序 間隔 比率 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ X 足し算、減算 X X Arithmetic Mean, standard deviation, standard error of the mean X X X X 平均、標準偏差、標準誤差 Ratio, coefficient of variation 比率、微系数 Likert Scale ! Semantic Differential X Likert Scale Semantic Differential ! 41 74
  42. 42. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Cross-Breaks | Cross-Tabulations クロス集計 age gender income health 年齢 性別 給料 健康 42 74
  43. 43. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS “Statistical Thinking” 統計的な考え Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology 43 74
  44. 44. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Summarising our experience so that we and other people can understand its essential features. 皆が分かるために我々の経験をまとめます ! Using the summary to make estimates or predictions about what is likely to be the case in other (perhaps future) situations. 未来を予測するためにその経験を使います 2010 18歳 2011 19歳 2012 20歳 2013 21歳 ? 44 74
  45. 45. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Statistics 統計 Descriptive Statistics 要約統計量 Methods to summarise or describe our observations A set of methods used to collect or process or interpret quantitative data. 統計とは数量的なデータを集計し、手順 を整理する及び判断する手法。 Inferential Statistics 推計統計量 Using those observations as a basis for making estimates or predictions, i.e. inferences about a situation that has not been observed. 45 74
  46. 46. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS 46 74 Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Population 母集団 ! Refers to ALL the finite or infinite collection of items under consideration. 母集団とは、調査対象のとなる数値,属性等の源となる集合全体を意味する。 Sample 標本 ! A portion from a population 標本とは、母集団の部分集合のこと Sampling 標本調査 Representatively generalise from a Sample to the population 標本は母集団を代表する
  47. 47. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 n = Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology ((k2)×N×p×q) ((e2×(N-1))+((k2)×p×q)) Sampling 標本調査 n = (N×σ2×k2) ((N-1)e2+σ2×k2) 47 74
  48. 48. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS 母集団 n:Sample size" n = ((e2×(N-1))+((k2)×p×q)) 標本サイズ k:confidence value [constant不変量]! 信憑性 1.15 1.28 1.44 1.65 1.96 2 2.58 75% k 80% 85% 90% 95% 95.5% 99% e:error margin 信憑性 [constant不変量](difference between the results that might be obtained applying the survey or experiment to the total population and the sample)! 誤差 0.01 e p: q: 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 7% 8% 9% subjects proportion which posses the studied characteristic.! ! subjects proportion which DOES NOT posses the studied characteristic, that is to say, 1-p. p = q = 0.5 74 Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology ((k2)×N×p×q) N:Total Population" 48 誤差
  49. 49. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research n = N:Total Population" 母集団 n:Sample size" PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology (N×σ2×k2) ((N-1)e2+σ2×k2) 標本サイズ k:confidence value [constant不変量]! 信憑性 1.15 1.44 1.65 1.96 2 2.58 75% k 1.28 80% 85% 90% 95% 95.5% 99% e:error margin 信憑性 [constant不変量](difference between the results that might be obtained applying the survey or experiment to the total population and the sample)! 誤差 0.01 e 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 7% 8% 9% σ:standard deviation = 0.5! 標準偏差 誤差 49 74
  50. 50. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Total Population" 母集団 N ! STRATUM(h) 74 Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Sample" 標本 n Total Population STRATUM! Sub-sample! 母集団の層化" 標本の層化" (Nh) (nh) 1st year" students Nh1 nh1 2nd year" students Nh2 nh2 3rd year" students Nh3 nh3 4th year" students Nh4 nh3 層化 50 Sampling 標本調査 Stratified Sampling 層化抽出法
  51. 51. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Sampling 標本調査 Total Population STRATUM! 母集団の層化" (Nh) fh Calculation" 計算 Sub-sample! 標本の層化" (nh) 1st year! students Nh1 fh Nh1 x fh nh1 2nd year! students Nh2 fh Nh2 x fh nh2 3rd year! students Nh3 fh Nh3 x fh nh3 4th year! students Nh4 fh Nh4 x fh nh4 Total! students N fh = n/N n [constant 不変量] 51 74
  52. 52. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Sampling 標本調査 Every item has the same chance of being selected 各アイテムが選ばれる可能性は同じ Random Systematic ランダム 体制的 I = N/n I:Approximate integer! 近似整数! N:Total Population! 母集団! n:Sample size" 標本サイズ 52 74
  53. 53. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology ? Sampling 標本調査 Representatively generalise from a Sample to the population 標本は母集団を代表する Every important characteristic of the population is likely to have one or more representative in the sample The probability that a one-time-in-twenty phenomenon will not appear at all in a simple random sample of size 60 is 0.46 53 74
  54. 54. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Ayanami Rei Eva Units combat tactics 汎用人型決戦兵器の技術 80 points 点 Arithmetic mean = 60 相加平均 Standard Deviation(SD) = 5 標準偏差 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Asuka Langley History of the Second Impact セカンドインパクトの歴史 90 points 点 Arithmetic mean = 65 相加平均 Standard Deviation(SD) = 15 標準偏差 54 74
  55. 55. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS 5 mts Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Helvetica Regular 20 pts A X 50% ○ 50% 5 mts Helvetica regular 20 pts 55 74
  56. 56. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Helvetica Regular 20 pts 5 mts A Normal Curve of Distribution 正規分布曲線 99.7% 95% 68% 0.15% 2.35% -3SD 13.5% -2SD 34% -1SD 34% M +1SD 13.5% 2.35% +2SD 0.15% +3SD 56 74
  57. 57. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Normal Curve of Distribution 正規分布曲線 Whatever the height or width of the normal curve, the distribution of the area under it, is always the same. 正規分布曲線の高さまたは巾がいろいろあっても、曲線の下にある分布の面積はいつも同じです。 57 74
  58. 58. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Cross-Breaks | Cross-Tabulations クロス集計 Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 50 students 50人学生の心拍数 89 68 92 74 76 65 77 83 75 87 85 64 79 77 96 80 70 85 80 80 82 81 86 71 90 87 71 72 62 78 77 90 83 81 73 80 78 81 81 75 82 88 79 79 94 82 66 78 74 72 Look for patterns! パターンを探そう! 58 74
  59. 59. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 50 students 50人学生の心拍数 62 64 65 66 68 70 71 71 72 72 73 74 74 75 75 76 77 77 77 78 78 78 79 79 79 80 80 80 80 81 81 81 81 82 82 82 83 83 85 85 86 87 87 88 89 90 90 92 94 96 Frequency Distribution 度数分布 59 74
  60. 60. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 50 students 50人学生の心拍数 62 64 65 66 68 70 71 71 72 72 73 74 74 75 75 76 77 77 77 78 78 78 79 79 79 80 80 80 80 81 81 81 81 82 82 82 83 83 85 85 86 87 87 88 89 90 90 92 94 96 Frequency Distribution 度数分布 Frequency is the count of the occurrences of values within a particular group or interval 度数とは各階級に属する資料の個数のこと 90 BPM:2 69 BPM:0 60 74
  61. 61. 61 “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS 74 Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 50 students 50人学生の心拍数 62 64 65 66 68 70 71 71 72 72 73 74 74 75 75 76 77 77 77 78 78 78 79 79 79 80 80 80 80 81 81 81 81 82 82 82 83 83 85 85 86 87 87 88 89 90 90 92 94 96 Range = 34 Median = 79.5 Arithmetic mean = 79.1 Mode = 80-81 レンジ 中央値 相加平均 最頻値 Grouped Frequency Distribution Pulse-rate Nº students 心拍数 学生人数 60-64 2 65-69 3 70-74 8 75-79 12 80-84 13 85-89 7 90-94 4 95-99 1 50 Modal Class = 80-84 最頻値的なクラス Grouped Frequency distribution 度数(各グループの人数) グループ化された度数分布 14 13 12 Central Tendency 中心傾向 11 Statistical Dispersion 8 統計的ばらつき 7 7 4 4 3 2 1 0 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80-84 85-89 90-94 95-99 0 62 67 72 77 82 87 92 97 102 Pulse-rate 心拍数(BPM)
  62. 62. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Standard Deviation(SD) 標準偏差 In statistics and probability theory, standard deviation (represented by the symbol sigma, σ) shows how much variation or "dispersion" exists from the average (mean, or expected value). 標準偏差とは、統計値や確率変数の散らばり具合(ばらつき)を表す数値のひと つで σ で表す。 σ = √ ∑(X-X) Arithmetic mean = 80 相加平均 Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 50 students 50人学生の心拍数 Arithmetic mean = 79.1 相加平均 2 N 62 74
  63. 63. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 75 students [75人学生の心拍数] Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 50 students [ 50人学生の心拍数 ] 15 15 12 12 9 9 6 6 3 3 0 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 0 Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 100 students [100人学生の心拍数] 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 150 students [150人学生の心拍数] 15 15 12 12 9 9 6 6 3 3 0 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 0 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 63 74
  64. 64. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 200 students [200人学生の心拍数] 15 12 9 6 3 0 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 64 74
  65. 65. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 1000 students [1000人学生の心拍数] Normal Curve of Distribution 正規分布曲線 Median 中央値 Arithmetic mean 相加平均 Mode 最頻値 65 74
  66. 66. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 50 students [ 50人学生の心拍数 ] 14 11 8 1 ( ⨍(x) = e σ√2π ) 1" x-u! 2 σ 6 3 0 62 67 72 77 82 87 92 97 The Shape of the normal distribution is such that we can state the PROPORTION of the population that will lie between any two values of the variable. 正規分布の形は、変数の任意の2つの値の間にある口数の比率が計算できる。 Standard Deviation(SD) 標準偏差 ! Arithmetic mean 相加平均 66 74
  67. 67. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 50 students 50人学生の心拍数 62 64 65 66 68 70 71 71 72 72 Arithmetic mean = 79.1 73 74 74 75 75 76 77 77 77 78 相加平均 78 78 79 79 79 80 80 80 80 81 81 81 81 82 82 82 83 83 85 85 86 87 87 88 89 90 90 92 94 96 Arithmetic mean = 80 相加平均 Standard Deviation(SD) = 6 標準偏差 -1/2 SD -2 SD -1 SD +1 SD Z-Values 偏差値 Arithmetic mean = 80 相加平均 +1 1/2 SD +3 SD 67 74
  68. 68. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology M ± 1SD Point of Inflection Point of Inflection 編曲点 編曲点 68% of all observations (34%) -1SD (34%) M +1SD 68 74
  69. 69. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology 99.7% 95% 68% 2.35% 0.15% -3SD -2SD (1.96) 13.5% 34% -1SD 34% M 13.5% +1SD 2.35% +2SD (1.96) 0.15% +3SD 69 74
  70. 70. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology 1000 cars Arithmetic mean = 55 相加平均 Standard Deviation(SD) = 5 標準偏差 50 Km/H -1SD 50 M 55 +1SD 60 Km/H 70 74
  71. 71. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology 1000 cars Arithmetic mean = 55 相加平均 34% Standard Deviation(SD) = 5 50% 標準偏差 50 84% Km/H -1SD 50 M 55 +1SD 60 Km/H 71 74
  72. 72. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Ayanami Rei Eva Units combat tactics 汎用人型決戦兵器の技術 80 points 点 Arithmetic mean = 60 相加平均 Standard Deviation(SD) = 5 標準偏差 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Asuka Langley History of the Second Impact セカンドインパクトの歴史 90 points 点 Arithmetic mean = 65 相加平均 Standard Deviation(SD) = 15 標準偏差 72 74
  73. 73. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology 99.7% 95% 68% 2.35% 0.15% -3SD -2SD (1.96) Eva Units combat tactics 汎用人型決戦兵器の技術 50 History of the Second Impact セカンドインパクトの歴史 15 13.5% 34% 34% 13.5% 2.35% +2SD (1.96) 0.15% -1SD M +1SD +3SD 55 60 65 70 75 80 30 45 60 75 90 105 73 74
  74. 74. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology RE SEARCH 74 74

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