Fish farming or pisciculture involves raising
fish commercially in tanks or enclosures such
as fish ponds mostly for food .
• It is the cultivation of marine organisms including fish, sea weed
or shell fish
• Fish hatchery
This involves breeding juvenile fish to release them in wild
or sell them .
Fish farming can be categories into three main classes
the fish feed entirely from the food web within the pond
which maybe enhanced by the edition of fertilizer and manure
the fish still obtain significant nutrition from the food web
within their pond . But they’re also given supplementary feed
the fish are kept in a high stocking density . Fish are
totally dependent on supplementary food. This also need high
inputs and management of water quality .
TYPES OF FISH FARMING
• Fish pond culture (single specie , composite fish culture )
this is the traditional method of extensive fish farming
• Cage system farming
fish cages are placed in lakes , rivers, an ocean , or also
called offshore cultivation
• Grass carp
• Silver carp
• Common carp
• Milk fish
• Amur catfish
• Nile tilapia
STARTING A FISH FARM
• Site selection
• Selection of fish species
• Construction of structures
• Building an optimum ecosystem
• Introduction of fishes
• Maintenance and care
• When thinking of setting up a fish farm, the first
step is selecting the site which depends on
topography , potential flooding or drought
,climatic condition,transport , water availability
SELECTION OF SPECIES
• Selection of species is dependent on regions
,the climate , hardiness of the species ,
prolificacy of specie ,
CONSTRUCTION OF STRUCTURES
• The main structures in fish farms are fish tanks/ ponds
• holding tanks
these tanks are used as quarentines, to acclimate new fishes
• Breeding tanks
these tanks are used for the process of breeding and are also
• Rearing tanks
these are the largest in size and the fish spend most of their
farm life in these tanks .( grow-in)
• Water inlet/ source
Water source could be some nearest canal , river , lake or a
these supply oxygen and provide water flow
• Filtration system
removes debris and waste .
BUILDING THE ECOSYSTEM
• The ponds are filled and run for two to three weeks without
adding the fish to start the nitrogen cycle which ensures
optimum pH , level of nitrates and nitrites needed for healthy
fish stock .
INTRODUCTION OF FISHES
• The fishes are first kept in quarantines tanks to
acclimate them with residual water conditions gradually
, to avoid sudden shocks .
• In extensive farming growth of natural food is in ponds is
stimulated by the use of fertilizers while in intensive farming
commercial ffod usually in the form of pellets is given .it might
be made up of vegetables or fish oil and proteins .
MAINTENANCE AND CARE
Special care is needed during the first few weeks after hatching .
General measurements include changing water level with
temperature providing food and fertilizers regularly filtering and
aerating the water .observation for disease symptoms should be
made to avoid infestation
• Harvesting involves lowering the water
level so the fish are easier to catch .a fine
net is used to take fish out of water into
• When the breeding season arrives , the breeder specimens are
taken out into the breeding tanks . Where they might be injected
with breeding hormones depending on the species.
methods of breeding
breeding can be classified into two main methods .
• Natural breeding
• Manual breeding
• In this type the fishes perform their mating rituals and breed by
themselves , though this behavior might be introduced through
• Mature fishes are selected and the females are fist taken out of
water covered in damp towels . Pressure is applied on their
abdomen against their vent to release eggs , which are
collected in a container .
• Male fishes are milted in the same way , milt is mixed with the
eggs so they can be fertilized . These eggs can then be placed
into hatcheries .
• Fin rot
symptoms ;blood on edges of fins , expose of fin rays ,
treatment ; Treat the water or fish with antibiotics
symptoms; problem in breathing , clamped fins, loss in appetite .
treatment ; quinine hydrochloride at 30 mg per litre
VISIT TO FISH HATCHERY RAWAL TOWN
We paid a visit to the fish hatchery rawaal town .
• The hatchery had two main buildings , the jar hatchery and the
• It also had an admin block with office for customer services.
THE JAR HATCHERY:
• Even though the building was named jar hatchery , the jar
hacthery inside wasn’t functioning from years as its capacity
couldn’t fulfill the requirements.
• Circular breeding tanks were used instead as conditioning or
• It also had holding tanks for breeder fishes.
• One circular pond had some trout babies in it.
THE REARING PAANDSSSSS:
• There was a total of 7 rearing ponds , each one spread across
app. 1.5 acres .
• Only one pond was functional and housed 200 breeder
individuals of rohu and grass carp species.
• This pond was filled with trunks and branches of eucalyptus as
a protection of fishes against aerial predators.
Breeding process starts with the withdrawal of fishes from the
adjoining rawal dam in the months of feb and march.
The breeding starts in the months of April , May . During these
months breeder fishes are taken out of the rearing ponds and
placed in the holding ponds inside the hatchery.
These fishes stay in these for atleast 7 hours and are then
transffered to the circular ponds .
• Then they are injected with ovaprim , this nourishes the eggs
and boosts breeding behaviour.
• After 5 – 7 hours of injection the fishes are ready to spawn.
• Rohu and Mori species breed naturally in the circular tanks and
then they are removed as the finish egg laying and fertilization.
• Other species don’t breed naturally so they are spawned
• Injected fishes are taken out of the circular tanks when they are
ready and hand spawned.
• The fishes are first cleaned with a clothe and then covered in a
damp towel .
• Pressure is applied on the fishes across abdomen to the vent.
• Females release eggs and males release milt.
• The eggs are released into plastic tubs followed by milt.
• Eggs and milt are mixed with a chiken feather to avoid any
damage to their fragile structures.
• The eggs sit in the tub until they swell to a proper size , which is
a sign of fertilization.
• Then they are transfered to the circular tanks which are made
ready prior to the additions.
• The eggs develop into fries in around 24 hours of fertilization .
• These fries depend on their yolk sac ( food source attached to
lower abdomen) for food for the first 3 days of their life.
• After these 3 days they are transferred into the rearing ponds
where they grow the rest of their hatchery lives which ranges
from 3 to 5 months.
• Their first supplementary food is rice porridge and daphnia ( tiny
organisms cultured in the pond itself by the addition of manure).
• No special care practices are usually made.
• Water quality is taken into consideration , its flow and aeration is
• Regular feeding is done , and inspections are made for any
mortalities , diseases etc.
• The babies are harvested using nets , workers
go inside the ponds and use nets to take out
• First withdrawal is made at 3 months . At this
point the fries mostly are the size of an inch
• Some babies are grown on to around 5
months of age and they grow up to a size of 3
• This hatchery only sells fries .
• The fries are sold in a minimum stock of a 1000
• 3 month old fries are sold for Rs. 2500 for 1000 fries.
• The 5 month old fries are sold for Rs. 5000 per 1000