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Phylum Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta & Chlorophyta - Multicellular aglae

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Phylum Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta & Chlorophyta - Multicellular aglae

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These are the multicellular algae of the kingdom Protista. Phaeophyta are group of multicellular, eukaryotic organisms that belong to the class phaeophyceae in the division chromophyta.

These are the multicellular algae of the kingdom Protista. Phaeophyta are group of multicellular, eukaryotic organisms that belong to the class phaeophyceae in the division chromophyta.


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Phylum Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta & Chlorophyta - Multicellular aglae

  1. 1. Phylum Phaeophyta [Brown Algae] Presented by: Fasama Hilton Kollie Lecturer, Department of Biology Mother Patern College of Health Sciences March 11, 2019
  2. 2. Lesson Outline • Overview of the Phylum Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta • General characteristics of brown, red and green algae • Classification of red and green algae • Reproduction in multicellular algae; • Life cycle of Laminaria • Life cycle of Gracelaria • Chlamydomonas life cycle • Ulva life cycle • Ecological and economic importance of brown, red and green algae
  3. 3. Lesson Objectives • Upon completion of this topic, students will be able to; • Identify the basic features of brown, red and green algae • Identify how multicellular algae differs in structure and form from other members of the unicellular algae and one from another • Describe the structure and function of holdfasts, stipes, blades, bladders, and thalli multicellular algae • Draw and discuss the life cycles of luminaria, Gracelia, Chlamydomonas and Ulva ; indicating where meiosis and fertilization occurs
  4. 4. Phylum Phaeophyta: Brown Algae • Group of multicellular, eukaryotic organisms that belong to the class phaeophyceae in the division chromophyta • Commonly referred to as Brown algae • Consist of about 1,500 species • Only 6 of the above is found in freshwater • 99% are marine organisms
  5. 5. General Characteristics: Habitat & Habit • 99% of the brown algae species are found in the marine environment • They basically only exist in saltwater forms • Few freshwater organisms • Solitary, non-motile organism
  6. 6. General Characteristics: Size • Among the brown algae are the largest of all algae, the Giant kelps • May reach a length of over 100 ft (30 m) or more • Lobophora variegata • Seen in clear tropical waters in Bahamas • Grow's at a depth of 220 meters (730 feet)
  7. 7. Examples of Giant Kelps Macrocystis pyrifera Nereocystics luetkeana Laminaria saccharina (kelp)
  8. 8. • Consist of tiny species such as Ralfsia expansa, commonly know as tar spot Size Cont’d… Ralfsia expansa Ralfsia forgiformis Ralfsia verrucossa
  9. 9. General Characteristics: Morphology • Brown algae have a plantlike body called Thallus • The complete body of a seaweed • Thalli are typical of algae, fungi, lichens, and some liverworts. Sea lettuce (Ulva)
  10. 10. • Kelp thallus has three main parts • Holdfast • Stipe • Blades • Contain gas-filled floats (Bladder) Pneumatocyst Morphology Cont’d… Thallus
  11. 11. Thallus Morphology Representation
  12. 12. Thallus Morphology Representation
  13. 13. • Algin or alginic acid occurs on or in the cell walls of brown algae • It constitute about 40% of the dry weight of some kelps General Characteristics Cont’d…
  14. 14. General Characteristics: Locomotion • Has no locomotory organ or structure • Movement is possible due to water current
  15. 15. General Characteristics: Mode of Nutrition • Brown algae are generally photosynthetic • Consist of chlorophylls a and c • Plastid has large amount of fucoxanthin which gives them a characteristic brown or olive color • Their main food reserve is Laminarin
  16. 16. Reproduction In Brown Algae • Undergo both asexual and sexual reproduction • Several other brown algae reproduce asexually by fragmentation • Eg; sargassum Sargassum muticum
  17. 17. Sargassum Examples
  18. 18. • Sexual reproduction is common and associated with gametes • They have a life cycle in which there is an alternation of heteromorphic generations • Brown algae have large and conspicuous sporophyte • Gametophyte is microscopic Reproduction In Brown Algae Cont’d..
  19. 19. Laminaria Life Cycle
  20. 20. Red Algae [Phylum Rhodophyta]
  21. 21. Phylum Rhodophyta: Red Algae • A large Phylum of the Kingdom Protista, consisting of mostly multicellular aquatic organisms • Commonly referred to as Rhodophytes or Red algae • Appx 5,000 species • Eg: Polysiphoni, Porphyra, Batrachospermum, Corallin
  22. 22. General Characteristics Cont’d… • Red algae may have been the first eukaryotes formed by endosymbiosis involving photosynthetic prokaryotes • Found in both marine and freshwater environment • Approximately 5% of the red algae occur in freshwater environments with greater concentrations found in the warmer area • Consist of thallu-like body measuring up to about 10 centimeters (3.9 inches) in length
  23. 23. General Characteristics Cont’d… • Different species may be free living, epiphytic, or parasitic • Contain chlorophyll a and d • Phycoerythrin, Phycocyanin, and allophyocyanin as accessory pigments • cell walls of red algae have cellulose as a framework and mostly mucilages in nature containing agars and carageenans
  24. 24. General Characteristics Cont’d… • Some do contain calcium carbonate in their cell wall. Such organisms are commonly referred to as Coralline algae • Not all red algae are red, Some are blue-green or olive • Absence of flagella and centriole Coralline algae
  25. 25. Classification of Red Algae • There are two classes of red algae namely: • Florideophyceae • Bangiophyceae • Both Florideophyceae and Bangiophyceae comprise 99% of red algae diversity in marine and freshwater habitats.
  26. 26. • Filamentous structure • Pseudoparenchymatous • Apical growth, Complex oogamy (triphasic) • Eg: Gracilaria, Ceramiales etc Classification of Red Algae • Florideophyceae (98%): Gracilaria spp.
  27. 27. Gracilaria hayi Collaline algae Agardhiella Ceramiales
  28. 28. • Unicellular, filament, blade structure • Have diffuse growth pattern • E.g. Porphyra Classification of Red Algae • Bangiophycidae (1%): Porphyra
  29. 29. Reproduction In Red Algae • Red algae are know for the complexity of their life cycles • Most have three(3) multicellular phases; • A haploid gametophyte • Two diploid sporophytes • One of the sporophytes phases, Tetrasporophyte, produces spores called tetraspores by meiosis • Tetraspores germinate and grow into male or female gametophyte
  30. 30. Reproduction In Red Algae • Male gametophytes release nonflagellated gametes, called spermatia • Spermatia is transported to female gametophyte via water current • Following fertilization, the zygote divides repeatedly by mitosis, producing the second sporophyte phase, Carposporophyte • This remain attached to the female gametophyte
  31. 31. Gracelaria Life Cycle
  32. 32. Reproduction In Red Algae • Carposporophyte releases spores called carpospores • This develop into new tetrasporophytes
  33. 33. Economic Importance • Red algae are ecologically significant as primary producers, providers of structural habitat for other marine organisms, and their important role in the primary establishment and maintenance of coral reefs. • Some red algae are economically important as providers of food and gels. For this reason, extensive farming and natural harvest of red algae occurs in numerous areas of the world
  34. 34. Green Algae [Phylum Chlorophyta]
  35. 35. Phylum Chlorophyta: Green Algae • Green algae • From two Greek roots chloros- “Green” and phyta – “Plant” • The reference is to the typical color of member of the phylum • 7,500 extant species
  36. 36. General Characteristics: Habitat & Habit • Most live in fresh water • Some serve as seaweeds or parts of phytoplankton in oceans • Others are terrestrial, growing in moist places favored by mosses and ferns • Some establish symbiotic relationships with other organisms • Eg: Lichens
  37. 37. General Characteristics: Size • Some are unicellular and microscopic • The green alga Micromonas is only 1 µm in diameter— the smallest eukaryotic cell known Micromonas pusilla
  38. 38. General Characteristics: Morphology • Green algae species shows different body type • Some may be unicellular • Some colonial • Filamentous as in Ulothrix and Spirogyra • Some plant-like marine forms as in Fristschiella and Ulva Chlamydomonas
  39. 39. Morphology Cont’d… • The cells possess one to many chloroplast • Green algae have Chlorophyll a and b, carotenes and xanthophylls • They store starch inside plastids as a food reserve
  40. 40. General Characteristics Cont’d… • Green algae share numerous characteristics with plants ̶ Have chlorophylls a and b ̶ Use sugar and starch as food reserves ̶ Many have cell walls of cellulose
  41. 41. Classification of Green Algae • There are several classes of green algae that comprise of about 7,500 extant specie • Class Chlorophyceae • Class Ulvophyceae • Class Charophyceae
  42. 42. Class Chlorophyceae: Chlamydomonas • Most unicellular or colonial organisms • Eg; Chlamydomonas • A unicellular freshwater alga commonly found in ponds • Each cell has two flagella with single chloroplast • Reproduce both asexually and sexually
  43. 43. Morphology of Chlamydomonas reinhardii
  44. 44. Class Chlorophyceae • Both methods begin when a mature, haploid cell divides two or more times by mitosis, producing up to 16 daughter cells • These cells develop flagella before breaking out of parent cell’s wall • In asexual reproduction, the daughter cells are zoospores • They develop directly into mature haploid cells
  45. 45. Class Chlorophyceae Cont’d… • In sexual reproduction, daughter cells are gametes • Gametes are Isogametes and are designated either + or – mating type • Zygote form by fusion of + and – mating type which secretes a thick wall • The wall zygote is know as a zygospore • The zygote produces four flagellated haploid cells inside the wall by meiosis
  46. 46. Chlamydomonas Life Cycle Zygospore
  47. 47. Chlorophycean: Chlorella • Chlorella is another unicellular chlorophycean • It’s studied as one of the possible food source for humans • Almost entirely digestible • It weights almost 50% protein • It grows rapidly in sewage or waste medium
  48. 48. Chlorophycean: Volvox • Volvox is the best-known colonial chlorophycean • It consist of few hundred to thousand photosynthetic cells arranged in a single layer at the surface of a hollow sphere • Consist of a light detector • This controls the beating of their flagella and directs the colony toward light
  49. 49. Class Ulvophyceae • Ulva is a marine ulvophycean • Found attached to rocks in tide pools and exposed areas Sea lettuce (Ulva)
  50. 50. Class Ulvophyceae Cont’d… • Reproduce asexually and sexually • Life cycle involves an alternation of isomorphic generations • Both are bright green, flat thalli resembling a thin rubbery leaf of lettuce • Gametophytes are designated + or – mating string
  51. 51. Life Cycle of Ulva
  52. 52. Class Ulvophyceae Cont’d… • Example of other ulvophyceans • Acetabularia • Cephaleuros • Cladophora, Codium • Acetabularia is usually found in warm tropical water where it exist as a single cell for most of its life • Cephaleuros lives on the leaves of tea plants and is responsible for red rust
  53. 53. Other Forms of Ulvophyceans Cladophora CladophoraCodium
  54. 54. Class Charophyceae • Charophyceans include unicellular, colonial, and multicellular green algae • The Coleochaetles and Charales are the two orders of charophyceans with the closest relatives of plants • Coleochetales consist of filamentious algae that live in shallow regions of freshwater • Eg: Coleochaete
  55. 55. Class Charophyceae • Charales charophyceans form mineralized cell walls • Contains CaCO3 and MgCO3 • Stoneworts • Eg: Chara
  56. 56. Reference • Nabors, Murray W., IntroductionTo Botany. Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings, 1301 Sansome St., San Francisco, CA 94111. www.aw-bc.com • https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alginic_acid • Davies,JC (2002). "Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis: pathogenesis and persistence". Paediatric Respiratory Reviews.
  57. 57. “Disciplining yourself to do what you know is right and important, although difficult, is the highroad to pride, self esteem, and personal satisfaction. ” Margaret Thatcher
  58. 58. Nelson Mandela “ What counts in life is not the mere fact that we have lived. It is what difference we have made to the lives of others that will determine the significance of the life we lead.”

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Multicellular eukaryotic organism that belonging to a large group of organisms that includes many seaweeds,
    typically olive brown or greenish in color.
    They contain xanthophyll in addition to chlorophyll.

    Chromista is an eukaryotic kingdom, probably polyphyletic
    Includes all organisms that in which their plastid contain chlorophyll a and c
    as well as various colorless forms that are closely related to them.

    as well as various colorless forms that are closely related to them.

    265 known genera
    Marine environment [Majority]
    Freshwater [few]

  • Usually the largest, in terms of size, group of plant-like protist

    Macrocystis pyrifera, [giant kelp or giant bladder kelp]
    Giant kelp is one of four species in the genus Macrocystis
    Individual algae may grow to more than 45 metres (150 feet)
    Giant kelp grows in dense stands known as kelp forests,
    which are home to many marine animals that depend on the algae for food or shelter.
    The primary commercial product obtained from giant kelp is ALGINATE
    but humans also harvest this species on a limited basis for use directly as food, as it is rich in iodine, potassium, and other minerals

    The height of each storey is based on the ceiling height of the rooms plus the thickness of the floors between each pane.
    Generally this is around 10 feet (3 m)
    A plant body that is not differentiated into stem and leaves and lacks true roots and a vascular tissue system.
    Thalli are typical of algae, fungi, lichens, and some liverworts

    Structure that attached the organism to substrates

    Substrate: A surface that serves as a base for a sessile marine organism

    Stem-like structure which serves as a connective unit
    It connects the blades to the holdfast

    leaf-like structure which aids in the process of photosynthesis
    Its meristematic region is at its tip of base where the bladder is situated
    Blades c
    Air-filled floats
    Structure that contains air, specifically carbon monoxide, for buoyancy
    The function of this particular gas has not yet been determined.
  • Alginic acid
    is a naturally occurring hydrophilic colloidal polysaccharide obtained from the various species of brown seaweed (Phaeophyceae).

    Alginic acid, also called algin or alginate,
    is a polysaccharide distributed widely in the cell walls of brown algae, where through binding with water it forms a viscous gum.
    Combined with water, it turns into a gel that sets firmly enough to use as a mold.

    Alginate is a biomaterial that has found numerous applications in biomedical science and engineering due to its favorable properties, including biocompatibility and ease of gelation. Alginate hydrogels have been particularly attractive in wound healing, drug delivery, and tissue engineering applications to date, as these gels retain structural similarity to the extracellular matrices in tissues and can be manipulated to play several critical roles. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of general properties of alginate and its hydrogels, their biomedical applications, and suggest new perspectives for future studies with these polymers.

    Alginate absorbs water quickly, which makes it useful as an additive in dehydrated products such as slimming aids, and in the manufacture of paper and textiles. It is also used for waterproofing and fireproofing fabrics, in the food industry as a thickening agent for drinks, ice cream and cosmetics, and as a gelling agent for jellies
  • Laminaria saccharina

    The molecule laminarin is a storage glucan found in brown algae. It is used as a carbohydrate food reserve in the same way that chrysolaminarin is used by phytoplankton, especially in diatoms.

    Laminaria is a source of the relatively rare element, iodine, which is commonly used to promote thyroid health.[13]
    Certain carbohydrates such as mannitol, laminarin, and alginate can be extracted from laminaria. Mannitol is used to decrease high intraocular pressure, and to lower excessive intracranial pressure. Laminarin has two forms, soluble and insoluble. The soluble form of Laminarin has high antitumor activity, can be used in the treatment of antibiotic-resistant nosocomial infections, can aid in normalizing enteric metabolism, helps to improve enzymatic processes of the intestine and does not possess antigenic or pyrogenic properties. Laminarin continues to be of active study in today’s medical field
  • Laminaria is a genus of 31 species of brown algae commonly called "kelp“

    Laminaria expresses a haplo-diplophasic life history, in which it alternates from a macroscopic thallic sporophyte structure, consisting of the holdfast, a stipe, and the blades,
    to a filamentous, microscopic gametophyte

    The sporophyte structure of laminaria can grow to 7 metres (23 ft), which is large in comparison to other algae, but still smaller than the giant kelps such as Macrocystis and Nereocystis, which can grow up to 40–50 metres (130–160 ft).

    In an isomorphic alternation of generations (found in some algae, for example) the sporophyte and gametophyte are morphologically similar or identical; in a heteromorphic alternation of generations they are dissimilar (e.g. in mosses the gametophyte is the dominant and conspicuous
  • Phylum Rhodophyta consist of a large group of eukaryotic, multicellular organisms commonly referred to as red algae

    Called red algae due to the characteristic colour showed by these organisms
    Though not all organism under this division do portray a red colour
    Some have the dominant pigment, Phycobillin and charactenoid, which gives them their characteristic red or pink colour

    5,000 extant species
    2nd larges of the multicellular algae
    3rd larges of both multicellular and unicellular algae [chlorophyta 7,500, Bacillariophyta 5,600, rhodophyta 5,000, Dinophyta 3,000 and the least cryptophyta 200]
  • Gracilaria is a genus of red algae (Rhodophyta) notable for its economic importance as an agarophyte, as well as its use as a food for humans and various species of shellfish
  • It is assumed by phycologist that Red algae may have been the first eukaryotic organism formed by endosymbiosis

    Marine (majority)
    Freshwater ( about 100 species have been study)

    They have a thallus-like body
    An undifferentiated by that is not differentiated into true roots, stem and leaves
    Free living, epiphytic or parasitic

    Phycobilins and carotenoids give many red algae their characteristics red or pink color

    Phycocyanin absorp orange and red and give out blue colour
    Allophyocyanin absorbs red light only and gives out blue colour
  • Note: Not all red algae are red
    Eg: Halosaccion, specific species (Chandrus crispus) are often blue-green or olive
    They contain less of phycobilins and carotenoids but other dominant accessory pigments associated with such colour

    Cell Wall Component:
    Cellulose (agar and carageenans)
    Calcium carbonate (coralline)
  • Red algae are classified into tow classes on what basis?
  • Florideophytceae
    Why the name?
    The largest group of red algae that colonized a marine ecosystem (98%/99%)
    Thread-like in appearance (filamentous)
    Triphasis (life cycle of 3 phases)

    Pseudoparenchymatous? Meaning……………………………….
    pseudoparenchyma A tissue that superficially resembles plant parenchyma but is made up of an interwoven mass of hyphae (in fungi) or filaments (in algae).

    Examples of pseudoparenchymatous structures are the fruiting bodies (mushrooms, toadstools, etc.) of certain fungi and the thalli of certain red and brown algae.

  • 2nd most abundant red algae in marine environment
    1% of the 99% of marine red algae

    Interestingly, Vast majority of red algae a multicellular
    However, unicellular form also exist
    Class Bangiophycidae consist of unicellular species
    This number is infinitesimal / mammoth

    Have diffuse growth pattern meaning………
    Diffuse Pattern. A morphologic architectural pattern in which a cellular population is distributed in a relatively uniform fashion throughout a specified tissue area; not focal.

  • Red algae are best known for the complexity of their life cycle
    Most organisms here have 3 Multicellular phases:
    1 - Haploid gametophyte
    2 – Diploid sporophyte

    Sporophyte phase:
    Carposporophyte (2nd sporophyte phase)
    Tetrasporophyte (1st sporophyte phase)

  • Red algae are best known for the complexity of their life cycle
    Most organisms here have 3 Multicellular phases:
    1 - Haploid gametophyte
    2 – Diploid sporophyte

    Sporophyte phase:
    Carposporophyte (2nd sporophyte phase)
    Tetrasporophyte (1st sporophyte phase)

    The entire life cycle of Gracelaria begins with the 1st sporophyte phase, tetrasporophyte
    Tetrasporophyte produce spores from the thallus body called tetraspores
    Under conducive conditions, right temp, available water etc, tetraspores undergo meiosis and develop into gametophytes
    Male gametophytes release nonflagellated games, called spermatia
    Spermatia is transported to the female gametophyte via water current
    Following fertilization, the zygote divides repeatedly by mitosis, producing the second sporophytes phase, carposporopyte
    Carposporophytes releases spores called carpospores
    Carpospores develop into new tetrasporophyte
    The cycle continues
  • Ecological Importance
    Serve as primary producers
    Provide habitat for other marine organisms
    Helps in maintaining coral reefs

    Economic Importance
    Source of food
    Provide gels (cell wall is made of cellulose but is gelatinous/mucilage/gel-like)
    Agar and carrageenan serves as hardeners
  • Multicellular eukaryotic organisms
    Called Green algae for short due to their appearance – Green
    Chlorophyta – “ Green” – “Plant”
    7,500 species
    Largest group of algae to exist

    They are of particular interest because the group from which land plants evolved, the charophyta, are green algae.

    The "green algae" is a paraphyletic group because it excludes the Plantae. Like the plants, the green algae contain two forms of chlorophyll, which they use to capture light energy to fuel the manufacture of sugars, but unlike plants they are primarily aquatic.
  • Micromonas pusila
    Smallest know eukaryotic organism

    Micromonas is a group of small unicellular pear-shaped micro-algae that do not have a cell wall

  • Carotene and Xanthophyll are types of plant pigments that plays a role in the metabolism of plants. 

    Xanthophyll -> These are the yellow pigment of the leaves and are classified as accessory pigments which absorbs the wavelength that chlorophyll cannot absorb. They serve as protection to excessive amount of sunlight to prevent further damage in the plan

    Carotene -> These are orange photosynthetic pigments found in plants and plays an important role in photosynthesis
    There are four kinds of carotene known: alpha and beta carotene, lycopene and rhodopsin. Similar to xanthophylls, they have antioxidant properties.
  • Characteristics b/w Green algae and plants
    Photosynthetic eukaryote with chlorophyll a and b
    chloroplasts of green algae are enclosed in a double membrane just as a plant
    Store excess sugar as starch
    Cell wall made up of cellulose

    Green algae can be unicellular or multicellular whereas plants are multicellular organisms
    Algae mostly dwell in aquatic environment where plants can survive both and land and in water
    Algae lacks vascular tissues, plants do have vascular tissues
  • What is the basis of classification of algae? The presence or absence of pigments is the main basis of classification of algae. Chlorophyceae: Chlorophyll a and b are present in them and impart green colour.
  • Chlamydomonas is a genus of green algae consisting of about 325 species
    all unicellular flagellates,
    found in stagnant water and on damp soil, in freshwater, seawater, and even in snow as "snow algae

    Red eyespot and a cell wall that lacks cellulose
  • What is the cell wall component of Chlamydomonas since it lacks cellulose?

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a single-cell green alga about 10 micrometres in diameter that swims with two flagella
    It has a cell wall made of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins

    any of a class of proteins that have carbohydrate groups attached to the polypeptide chain. Also called glycopeptide.s
  • Asexual Reproduction:
  • Zygospore:
    A thick-walled, resting spore formed by conjugation of two isogametes, as in certain primitive fungi and certain green algae.

    A zygospore is a diploid reproductive stage in the life cycle of many fungi and protists.
    Zygospores are created by the nuclear fusion of haploid cells.
    zygospores are formed by the fusion of unicellular gametes of different mating types.
  • Population of haploid (n) cells grow by repeated mitotic division
    Low nitrogen or other environmental change stimulates cell to develop into gametes. Games of different mating types (+ and _) are released
    Mating occurs b/w games of opposite types
    A diploid (2n) dormant zygote forms and develops a tough wall (Zygospore)
    Zygote divides by meiosis, yielding four haploid cells

    Considerable past research has shown that limiting nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus increases the cellular lipid content in microalgae.

    A thick-walled, resting spore formed by conjugation of two isogametes, as in certain primitive fungi and certain green algae.
    A zygospore is a diploid reproductive stage in the life cycle of many fungi and protists.
    Zygospores are created by the nuclear fusion of haploid cells.
    zygospores are formed by the fusion of unicellular gametes of different mating types.
  • The name Chlorella is taken from the Greek χλώρος, chloros, meaning “green”, and the Latin diminutive suffix ella, meaning “small”
    There are over 30 different species,
    but two types — Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella pyrenoidosa — are most commonly used in research (2).

    Chlorella is a genus of single-celled green algae belonging to the division Chlorophyta
    It is spherical in shape, about 2 to 10 μm in diameter
    Lack flagella
    contains the green photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll-a and -b in its chloroplast

    Many people believe Chlorella can serve as a potential source of food and energy because its photosynthetic efficiency
    Photosynthetic efficiency – is the fraction of light energy converted into chemical energy during photosynthesis is plants and plant-like protist

    Chlorella is a potential food source because it is high in protein and other essential nutrients;
    when dried, it is about
    45% protein,
    20% fat,
    20% carbohydrate,
    5% fiber, and
    10% minerals and vitamins.

    9 impressive health benefits of chlorella
  • Volvox is a polyphyletic genus of chlorophyte green algae in the family Volvocaceae
    It forms spherical colonies of up to 50,000 cells.
    They live in a variety of freshwater habitats
    were first reported by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in 1700
    The cells swim in a coordinated fashion
    The cells have anterior eyespots that enable the colony to swim towards light.
  • Ulva lactuca, also known by the common name sea lettuce
    Lactuca meaning lettuce
    They are group of edible for of green algae
    is an edible green alga in the family Ulvaceae.

    Ulva lactuca is a thin flat green algae growing from a discoid holdfast.
    It may reach 18 centimetres (7.1 in) or more in length
    Green to dark green in colour
    The chloroplast is cup-shaped
  • Syngamy (fertilization)
    the fusion of two cells, or of their nuclei, in reproduction.
  • Cladophora is a genus of reticulated filamentous Ulvophyceae (green algae)
  • Constitute unicellular, multicellular and colonial green algae
    Coleochetales filamentous

    Coleochaete is a genus of parenchymatous charophyte green algae in the order Coleochaetales
    They are haploid, reproduce both sexually and asexually
    Have true multicellular organization