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Plant-Like Protist (Algae Intro..)

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Plant-Like Protist (Algae Intro..)

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Unicellular aquatic Eukaryota organism that do photosynthesize. Plant-like protist. This presentation provides a generalize idea of protist focusing specifically on some characteristics of protist as well as their division.

Unicellular aquatic Eukaryota organism that do photosynthesize. Plant-like protist. This presentation provides a generalize idea of protist focusing specifically on some characteristics of protist as well as their division.

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Plant-Like Protist (Algae Intro..)

  1. 1. Plant-like Protist (Algae) Fasama Hilton Kollie Lecturer, Department of Biology Mother Patern College of Health SciencesFebruary 7, 2019
  2. 2. Lesson Outline 1. Overview of Algae 2. Evolution and General Characteristics of algae 3. Reproduction in algae 4. Classification of algae 5. Types of algae
  3. 3. Lesson Objectives • Upon completion of this lesson, students will be able to; 1. Define the term algae 2. Identify the general characteristics of algae 3. Describe the process of reproduction in algae 4. Describe the classification of algae
  4. 4. What are Algae?
  5. 5. Overview of Algae • Algae are a diverse group of aquatic organisms that have the ability to conduct photosynthesis • They are members of the kingdom Protista and are placed in the division Thallophyta along with Fungi and Lichens • They are distinguished by their photosynthetic pigments and other characteristics…
  6. 6. Overview of Algae Cont’d… • Photosynthetic algae possess one or more chloroplast per cell and can convert light energy to chemical energy • Chlorophyll a server as the primary photosynthetic pigment • Most algae chloroplast contain a protein- rich structure called Pyrenoid
  7. 7. Pyrenoid: • They are proteinaceous bodies • Considered as the organelle of synthesis and storage of starch • It function as the centers of carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation
  8. 8. Overview of Algae Cont’d • Many algae cells have a light detector consisting of a complex of pigments • Eyespot are common pigment that aid algae in its response to stimulus
  9. 9. Endosymbiotic Event In The Evolution of Algae • The diversity of algal phyla coupled with the number of membranes surrounding their chloroplast suggests that these organisms underwent different endosymbiotic events • Initial endosymbiotic event is Primary Endosymbiosis • Chloroplast with three membranes are products of Secondary Endosymbiosis
  10. 10. Proposed Endosymbiotic Events In The Evolution of Algae
  11. 11. Endosymbiotic Event In The Evolution of Algae Cont’d • In primary endosymbiosis, a photosynthetic prokaryote was engulfed by a heterotrophic cell • Resulting cell evolved into an algae • In secondary endosymbiosis, an alga was engulfed by another heterotrophic cell • Each endosymbiotic event added another membrane to the chloroplast
  12. 12. Endosymbiotic Event In The Evolution of Algae • Many other algae have chloroplasts that are surrounded by four membranes • Algal cells with three or four chloroplast membranes may have a higher rate of glucose production
  13. 13. General Characteristics of Algae • Majority of algae live in aquatic environment • These organisms can thrive in freshwater, lakes or in saltwater • Habitat
  14. 14. • Habitat Cont’d… • They can also endure a range of temperature, oxygen or carbon dioxide concentration • Eg: Giant Kelp, Green algal (Dunaliella salina) • Planktonic are free-floating algae that live within illuminated regions of water Giant kelp Dunaliella salina
  15. 15. • On the basis of habitat, algae are classified into three groups: 1. Aquatic algae 2. Terrestrial algae 3. Algae of unusual habitats • Habitat:
  16. 16. Aquatic Algae: • Two types: Fresh water and marine water • Fresh water: Occurs in ponds, lakes, rivers etc • Eg: Spirogyra • Marine water: Occurs in saline condition (sea and oceans) • Eg: member of brown and red algae (Sargassum)
  17. 17. Terrestrial Algae: • Found in soil, rocks, moist wall, tree trunks etc • Examples: Spirogyra, Vaucheria, Fritschiella found on the surface of soil Algae on a tree trunkSpirogyra Vaucheria
  18. 18. Algae of Unusual Habitat: • Halophytic algae: found in highly saline water (Ectocarpus, Polysiphonia) • Epipytic algae: On surface of other plants or algae (Oedogonium) • Epizoic algae: on animals - snails, fishes (Cladophora) Oedogonium Ectocarpus Cladophora
  19. 19. • Endozoic algae: grow inside animals (Zoochlorella) • Symbiotic algae: symbiotic association with fungi in lichen, in bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms Zoochlorella Algae of Unusual Habitat Cont’d: Lichen
  20. 20. • Parasitic algae: parasite on plants or animals • Eg: Cephaleuros; red rust • Thermophytic algae: grow in hot springs • Eg: Heterohormogonium Algae of Unusual Habitat Cont’d: Cephaleuros
  21. 21. • Nutrition: • Most algae are Autotrophs, specifically, photoautotrophs • Some algae are Heterotrophs • Others are Osmotrophic or Phagotrophic • Mixotrophic
  22. 22. Reproduction In Algae • The biological process by which new individual organisms “offspring” are produced from their “parents” • Three are two common methods of reproduction; • Asexual reproduction • Sexual reproduction
  23. 23. Asexual Reproduction: • Asexual reproduction takes place by a variety of spore formed in different algae, they include; • Zoospore • Aplanospores • Autospores Zoospores Aplanospores
  24. 24. Sexual Reproduction: • Three (3) main types 1. Isogamy 2. Heterogamy 3. Aplanogamy conjugation
  25. 25. Algae General Characteristics Cont’d… • Except Cyanophyceas (blue green algae, BGA) pigments in algae are found in membrane bound organelles called Plastids • In BGA, plastids are absent, pigments located at peripheral cytoplasm • Chromoplasm • Plastids are of two types: • Leucoplast – Colourless plastids • Chromoplast – Coloured plastids
  26. 26. Plastid forms In Algae: • Cup shaped: Clamydomonas, Volvox • Discoid: Voucheria, Chara • Girdle shaped: Ulothrix • Reticulate: Oedogonium, Cladophora • Spiral: Spirogyra • Stellate: Zygnema
  27. 27. Classification of Algae • Criteria of Classification • Algal pigmentation • Reserve foods • Flagellation
  28. 28. Classification of Algae • There are two (2) types of algae; 1. Unicellular algae 2. Multicellular algae
  29. 29. Unicellular and Colonial Algae • Algae evolved from single-celled organisms (made up of one cell) to colonial (made up of many individual cells living together) to multi-cellular (many specialized cells working together in one organism) Single celled Colonies Multi-cellular Time
  30. 30. Unicellular and Colonial Algae Cont’d • Most unicellular and small colonial algae belong to one of seven phyla; 1. Phylum Euglenophyta 2. Phylum Dinophyta 3. Phylum Bacillariophyta 4. Phylum Xanthophyta 5. Phylum Chrysophyta 6. Phylum Cryptophyta 7. Phylum Prymnesiophyta • Majority of these algae exit as phytoplankton; collection of microscopic, photosynthetic organisms
  31. 31. Multicellular Algae • Three phyla contain multicellular algae with complex cellular differentiation and tissue-level organization • Phylum Chlorophyta • Phylum Rhodophyta • Phylum Phaeophyta • Chlorophyta also includes unicellular species. However, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta are almost exclusively multicellular
  32. 32. Reference: • Nabors, Murray W., INTRODUCTION IN BOTANY. Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings, 1301 Sansome St., San Francisco, CA 94111. www.aw-bc.com • Singh, V.(2013): A text book of Botany, Rastogi Publications, Meerut, India. • Cryptogamic botany, Algae & fungi – Gilbert M. Smiths • A textbook of Algae - A.V.S.S Sambamurty
  33. 33. → Martin Luther King Jr. “The function of education is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically. Intelligence plus character – that is the goal of true education”

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Algae are diverse group of photosynthetic organism that are not Plant
    A large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic
    POLYPHYLETIC:
    In that, all did not originate from the same ancestors.
    However, they share similar characteristics as plant-like protist
    PHYCOLOGY: sub-branch of botany that studies algae
    The absence or present of pigment is the main basis of distinguishing one algae from another
    Algae are distinguished by:
    1. Photosynthetic pigments
    2. Morphology
    3. Flagella/No flagella
  • Chloroplast serve as organelles for photosynthesis
    Major pigments in algae:
    Chlorophyll, Carotenoids (carotenes and xanthophyll) and Phycobilins
    Primary pigment: Chlorophyll a
    Secondary pigment: Chlorophyll b, c, d, f, fucoxanthin, phycoerythrin,
  • A protein body in the chloroplasts of algae and hornworts that is involved in carbon fixation and starch formation and storage.
    Carbon fixation or Carbon Assimilation is the conversion process of inorganic carbon (carbon dioxide) to organic compounds by living organisms
    CO2 – C3H7O6P
    Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
    Done by these processes:
    Photosynthesis
    Chemosynthesis [occurs in the absence of sunlight]
    Appx. 258 billion tons of carbon dioxide are converted by photosynthesis annually.
    The majority of the fixation occurs in marine environments, especially areas of high nutrients
  • EYESPOT [stigma]
    Is a light-sensitive pigmented spot on the bodies
    A rounded eye-like marking on an animal, especially on the wing of a butterfly or moth.
    invertebrates such as flatworms, starfishes, and microscopic crustaceans, and also in some unicellular organisms.
    FUNCTION
    eyespot is similar to an eye of a human. It helps organisms pick up light waves to help the organism live and function.
  • Endosymbiosis played a key role in the evolution of algae
  • Environment can be either terrestrial or acquatic
    Acquatic environment constitute
    Freshwater [lakes and ponds, rivers, streams, springs, bogs, and wetlands]
    Marine water
  • Dunaliella salina is a type of halophile green micro-algae especially found in sea salt fields
  • Aquatic environment constitute
    Freshwater ecosystem
    [lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, springs, bogs, and wetlands]
    Marine ecosystem
    [salt marshes, wetland, estuaries, mangroves, coral reefs]
    Freshwater Vs. Marine
    Difference is based on salinity (The concentration of dissolved salt in a given volume of water)
    Freshwater has about 0.05% salt whereas 3.5 percent of the weight of seawater comes from the dissolved salts.
    Only 1% fo the whole water body in earth is freshwater. 99% is marine water
    Salt in the ocean comes from rocks on land.
    The rain that falls on the land contains some dissolved carbon dioxide from the surrounding air. This causes the rainwater to be slightly acidic due to carbonic acid (which forms from carbon dioxide and water).
    As the rain erodes the rock, acids in the rainwater break down the rock. This process creates ions, or electrically charged atomic particles. These ions are carried away in runoff to streams and rivers and, ultimately, to the ocean. Many of the dissolved ions are used by organisms in the ocean and are removed from the water. Others are not used up and are left for long periods of time where their concentrations increase over time.
    Two of the most prevalant ions in seawater are chloride and sodium. Together, they make up over 90 percent of all dissolved ions in the ocean. Sodium and Chloride are 'salty.'
    The concentration of salt in seawater (salinity) is about 35 parts per thousand, on average. Stated in another way, about 3.5 percent of the weight of seawater comes from the dissolved salts.
  • Vaucheria is a genus of Xanthophyceae or yellow-green algae
    Vaucheri disperma
  • Oedogonium is a genus of filamentous green algae, with unbranched filaments that are one cell thick.
    Usually attached to aquatic plants by a holdfast
    Cladophora is a genus of reticulated filamentous Ulvophyceae (green algae)
  • Zoochlorella is a genus of green algae comprising one species, Z. parasitica.
    Zooxhlorella establish a relationship with marine organisms and some invertebrates
    As symbionts, zoochlorellae use carbon dioxide and nitrogenous and phosphorous wastes and, in illuminated conditions, provide oxygen and useful nutrients to their hosts.
    LICHEN [algae and fungus]
    The fungus breaks down the substrate (even rock), providing nutrients for the alga. The alga is photosynthetic, providing energy for the fungus
  • Cephaleuros is a genus of parasitic green algae comprising approximately 14 species. Its common name is red rust.
    The alga is parasitic on some important economic plants of the tropics and subtropics such as tea, coffee, mango and guava causing damage limited to the area of algal growth on leaves
    VARIEGATED LEAF:
    A leaf which has both green and non-green parts. As the green parts contain chlorophyll they photosynthesize, but the non green parts do not contain chlorophyll, so they cannot absorb sunlight
  • Photoautotrophs are capable of synthesizing their own food from inorganic substances using light as an energy source
    There exist certain algal species that need to obtain their nutrition solely from outside sources; that is, they are heterotrophic.
    Some unicellular species of green algae, many golden algae, euglenids, dinoflagellates, and other algae have become heterotrophs (also called colorless or apochlorotic algae)
    Mixotrophy is a mode of cultivation, where heterotrophic and autotrophic modes work simultaneously, leading to utilization of inorganic and organic carbon in the presence of light.
  • SPORE:
    One-celled, reproductive unit capable of giving rise to a new individual without sexual fusion
    A haploid reproductive cell which gives rise to a gametophyte [In plants showing alternation of generation]
    ZOOSPORE
    spore of certain algae, fungi, and protozoans, capable of swimming by means of a flagellum.
    Eg: Ulva zoospore (green algae)
    APLANOSPORES
    nonmotile asexual spore
    AUTOSPORES
    An autospore is a non-motile (non-flagellated) spore that is produced within a parent cell, and has the same shape as the parent cell, before release
    HYPNOSPORE
    Hypnospore is a very thick-walled asexual resting spore (as of various green algae)
    EXOSPORES [Fungi and algae]
    ENDOSPORES [Bacteria or some plant]
    CYST[Thick wall spore formed during unfavorable condition]
  • APLANOGAMY
    having nonmotile gametes
    It implie the fusion of two non-flagellate gametes
    Morphologically similar but physiologically dissimilar
    Eg: Order Conjugales
  • Reserve Food [Starch, some protein/fats and oil]
    Paramylon granules
    Laminarin
    Leucosin
    Chloroplast
    Eyespot

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