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Forest mensuration slide 1

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Forest Mensuration
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Forest mensuration slide 1

  1. 1. Forest Mensuration 35 lecture sessions
  2. 2. Syllabus Need, objective, accuracy units, habitat variables - basal canopy area, crown stem diameter, cover, density, diversity, etc. Techniques for estimating habitat variables, place of measurement, justification rules of breast height measurement, Measurement instruments - wooden scale, callipers, tape bark gauge and methods of use, errors, their elimination, comparison. Height measurement – methods, principles - ocular, instrumental, non- instrumental. Christen's, Smythies hypsometer, improvised calipers. Abney’s topographical Abney's level-theory demonstration. Haga altimeter, Spiegal relaskop, error sources correction, height of leaning tree, problem solving, Tree stem form - Metsger's theory, form factors, quotient height, taper table Contd…
  3. 3. Syllabus Volume measurement of felled trees stacked logs – empirical formulae and problem solving, volume measurement of standing trees – methods, concept, classification, application, volume tables, preparation of volume tables – graphical method, local volume table from general volume table, regression equation method, problem solving, measurement of age – methods of estimation, concept of growth rings, increment – current annual increment and mean annual increment, increment percent, increment boring, demonstration of Pressler'sborer, Stump analysis - theory & demonstration, Stem analysis – theory, demonstration and problem solving
  4. 4. Assessment • Examination – written one with 80% weightage, date will be announced in due course of time • Concurrent Assessment – group or individual efforts, presentation and exercise, 20% weightage, anytime during the sessions allotted with prior notice
  5. 5. Reference books  Elementary Forest Mensuration by M R K Jerram  Forest Mensuration by A. N. Chaturvedi and L. S. Khanna  Forest Measurements by Chapman and Meyer  Forest Mensuration by Donald Bruce & Francis Schumacher  Forest Mensuration – Tree Measurement by Pravin Agrawal  Silvicultural Research Code Volume III, The Tree and Crop Measurement Manual by A. L. Griffith and Jagdamba Prasad  http://sres-associated.anu.edu.au/mensuration  http://flash.lakeheadu.ca/~fluckai/Field-HP.html
  6. 6. Forest Mensuration  What?  Why?  Basic concepts, purpose, scope  Measurement -unit, errors, accuracy & precision, rounding off
  7. 7. What is Mensuration?  'Mensura' meaning 'measure‘ in Latin  Measurement of length, area, volume, mass and time i.e. determination in relation to some observed standard e.g. metre, kilogram, second, ampere, degree Kelvin etc.
  8. 8. Why measure anything?  To differentiate between quantitative and qualitative assessment  To remove personal bias and error (to a great extent)  For responsible use of forests and other natural resources
  9. 9. “When you measure what you are speaking about and express it in numbers you know something numbers, about it, but when you cannot (or do not) measure it, when you cannot (or do not) express it in numbers, you knowledge is of a meager and unsatisfactory kind.” Lord Kelvin
  10. 10. Forest Mensuration  A branch of Forestry that deals with the measurement of volume, growth and development of individual trees and stands, and the various products obtained from them  Since FM deals with the measurement of forest products, the requirement must be studied from the point of view both of producer and user  What is there?  How is changing ?  What can (and should) be done to manage? Forest Mensuration concerns with linear, area, volume & weight measurements.
  11. 11. “Forest Mensuration deals with the study of the volume of logs, trees, and stands, and with the study of increment and yield.” Henry S Graves
  12. 12. Basic concepts of Forest Mensuration  Individual tree measurement forms the basis for all forest inventories  Includes measurements of  Felled and standing trees,  Sawn wood and round logs and  MFPs such as bamboos, bark, fruits, etc.
  13. 13. Measurements are:  Age  Diameter- over and under bark  Length or height  Form or shape  Taper or the rate of change of diameter with length  Volume over or under bark  Crown width  Wood density  …
  14. 14. • Wood • Bark • Foliage • Resins and gums • Fibers • Medicinal plants • Wildlife Purpose
  15. 15. Purpose is to acquire information:  To buy or sell timber products  To determine condition of the forest:  age  species mix  ease of harvest  To evaluate damage to forest  To manage a forest (basis for economic analysis)  To determine the amount, value and/or condition of other forest resources (wildlife habitat, wetlands, water resources, etc.)
  16. 16. – To estimate quantity of timber/Firewood/NTFP (volume/weight) – To know the Growing Stock (nursery/thinning/final harvesting) – To correlate Height/Volume/Age/Increment with Diameter/Girth – To know the Site Quality/ index of soil fertility/ productive capacity of Soil
  17. 17. Scope  Wide scope as it is required every time wood is sold, converted or used  Linked with the measurement problems of wild life management, watershed management, insect and disease incidence, recreation, tourism etc.  Revolutionary changes due to application of statistics and modern computers/instruments
  18. 18. Methods of measurement Depend on several factors e.g. Purpose of measurement Form of the produce i.e. log, chips etc. Quantity & total value of produce Relative precision & cost of measurement for different method For more valuable produce; greater expenditure is justifiable e.g. sandal wood
  19. 19. How accurately the measurement should be done? – do we need absolute mathematical accuracy or reasonable accuracy? – reasons to follow relative accuracy characteristics of trees biological character of forest varying methods & conditions of felling/conversion instruments used use
  20. 20. Units of measurement FPS/CGS Length – ft or m Area – sq.ft. or sq.m. Volume – cft or cu.m. Weight – pound or kg
  21. 21. Area = ½ b×h b = base h = vertical height Area = a2 a = length of side Area = b × h b = breadth h = height Match the area with shape
  22. 22. Area = b × h b = breadth h = height Area = ½ (a+b) h h = vertical height Parallelogram Trapezium
  23. 23. Common formulae used in Mensuration Length and distance D = S x Cos(Q) V = D x Tan(Q) V = S x Sin(Q) Circumference of a circle C = π x d d
  24. 24. Area Common formulae used in Mensuration contd… A = √ (S x (S-D) x (S-E) x (S-F)) where S = (D + E + F) / 2
  25. 25. Area of a field of irregular shape Step 1. A rough sketch of the field
  26. 26. Area of a field of irregular shape Step 2. Division of the field into areas with regular shapes
  27. 27. S u r f a c e A r e a = 4 × π × r 2 V o l u m e = ( 4 / 3 ) × π × r 3 Surface Area = 4 × π × r2 Volume = (4/3) × π × r3 Surface Area = ?? Volume = height x width x depth
  28. 28. Surface Area of One End = π × r2 Surface Area of Side = 2 × π × r × h Volume = π × r2 × h Surface Area of Base = π × r2 Volume = π × r2 × (h/3)
  29. 29. • If you are 180 cm tall and your shadow is 40 cm long, and a nearby building has a shadow of 420 cm the height of the building can be found by … • 180/40 = x/420
  30. 30. Area = πr2 Circumference = 2πr r = radius Area = π ab Area = ½ r2 θ r = radius θ = angle in radians Angle Degrees Radians 90° /2 60° /3 45° /4 30° /6 1800 = π radian
  31. 31. Errors 1. Systematic/Biased error – instrument not adjusted or have some wear n tear (Should be removed in the beginning) 2. Accidental error Significant figures Rounding offs Figure whole no. 1 decimal 2 decimal 3 decimal 9.3459 9 9.3 9.34 9.346 7.6987 8 7.7 7.70 7.699
  32. 32. Accuracy and Precision Precision Accuracy Accuracy with Precision Measurement is inexact in nature due to likely error e.g. misreading a scale, wrong/faulty adjustment of an instrument etc.
  33. 33. Felled Logs Stacked Logs Standing Trees Diameter and girth – Where – What to measure – How to measure Tree Measurement –wood contd…
  34. 34. Felled Logs Stacked Logs Standing Trees At thick end & thin end or at middle of log At thick end & at thin end Anywhere or at some fixed height Universal convention at breast height
  35. 35. Difficult to take measurement due to grass/shrub/thorns etc.
  36. 36. Abnormal formation such as buttress or swelling or wound found at base
  37. 37. Stumps are never cut at uniform height
  38. 38. Why measurement at breast height? • Base generally covered with grasses/shrubs/ thorns etc. • Abnormal formation in majority of trees near the base (root swell) • Stumps are not cut at a uniform height • Convenient height • Uniform point of measurement which helps in standardizing diameter/girth measurement • Conventionally persists, extensive database exist
  39. 39. Diameter at breast height • DBH at 4’6” or 1.37 m (India, Mynmar, S Africa, Malaya etc.) • DBH 4’3” or 1.3 m (USA, Canada, Europe including UK), Standard for international adherence
  40. 40. • DBH at 4’6” or 1.37 m in India, Mynmar, South Africa, Malaya and some other former British Colonies • DBH at 4’3” or 1.3 m in USA, Canada, Europe including UK and most other countries of Commonwealth (recommended by FAO as a standard for international adherence) • International symbol for diameter at breast height is d

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