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Seminar report on directed energy weapons

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Seminar report on directed energy weapons

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After decade of research and development, Directed energy weapon are become an operational reality. Such weapons generate streams of electromagnetic energy that can precisely aimed over long distance to disable or destroy target. It is game changing technology in future.

After decade of research and development, Directed energy weapon are become an operational reality. Such weapons generate streams of electromagnetic energy that can precisely aimed over long distance to disable or destroy target. It is game changing technology in future.

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Seminar report on directed energy weapons

  1. 1. A SEMINAR REPORT ON “DIRECTED ENERGY WEAPONS” SUBMITTED BY BAIT VISHAL R. (ROLL NO. 2141315) UNDER GUIDANCE OF PROF. A.M. KULKARNI PROF. L.D.NAROTE PROF. M.P.BHAGAT DR. BABASAHEB AMBEDKAR TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF PETROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING, LONERE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING 2016-2017
  2. 2. INSTITUTE OF PETROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING (Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University) Vidyavihar, Lonere, Tal-Mangaon, Dist-Raigad (Maharastra), Lonere-402103 CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the seminar entitled “DIRECTED ENERGY WEAPONS” is a record of bonafide work carried out by Mast. Bait Vishal Rambhau (Roll no. 2141315) under our guidance. This work is carried out in the requirement of partial fulfillment for the award of Third Year Diploma in Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering course of Institute Of Petrochemical Engineering, Lonere, Raigad in the academic year 2016-2017. PROF. A.M.KULKARNI PROF. L.D.NAROTE PROF. M.P.BHAGAT (Guide) (Guide) (Guide) Dr. D. G. JADHAV (Head of Department) Date: /10/201 PLACE - LONERE
  3. 3. INDEX Content no. CONTENT NAME PAGE NO. LIST OF FIGURES 1 ABSTRACT 2 I. INTRODUCTION 2 II. WHAT IS DIRECTED ENERGY WEAPON (DEW)? 2 III. A B TYPES OF DEW HIGH POWER MICROWAVE WEPONS LASER WAEPONS 2 6 IV. EXAMPLE OF DEW PRESENT & FUTURE 7 V. ADVANTAGE 7 VI. DISADVANTAGE 8 VII. APPLICATION 8 CONCLUSION 8 REFERENCE 9
  4. 4. 1 LIST OF FIGURE Figure no. Name of figure Page no. 1 Microwave Weapon System 3 2 Marx bank power supply arrangement 3 3 Marx generator APELC MG- 30-3C-100Nf 3 4 Virtual cathode oscillator 3 5 Conical horn antenna 4 6 Range vs. effect 5 7 Boeing YAL-1 airborne laser 6 8 Advance tactical laser (ATL) 6 9 Electromagnetic bomb (E-Bomb) 7 10 Active Denial System (ADS) 7 11 PHAsR 7 12 ZM-87 portable laser 7 13 Laser weapons in different Platform 8 14 HEL weapon destroying rocket 8
  5. 5. 2  Abstract—After decade of research and development, Directed energy weapon are become an operational reality. Such weapons generate streams of electromagnetic energy that can precisely aimed over long distance to disable or destroy target. Two types of devices is currently weaponized: high energy lasers and RF weapons most commonly referred as microwave weapons. Laser excites atoms to release the photons in powerful burst of coherent light and that can be focused and aimed with mirrors. With sufficient power, laser can quickly pierce or overheat a wide range of range of target including missile, aircraft and artillery round. RF weapons in lower frequency, longer wavelength portion of electromagnetic spectrum to generate burst or beams capable of disabling electronic system. Index Terms—Weapon, Microwaves, Energy, Laser I. INTRODUCTION HE Electromagnetic spectrum is critical enabler of for modern militaries, at once source of battle field advantage. In 1956, early in the cold war and in the context of maturing radar, navigation and communication technologies, Soviet Admiral Sergei Gorshkov boldly declared that “the next war will be won by whichever side best exploits the electromagnetic spectrum.” Directed-energy weapons have several advantages over conventional munitions. First, they transmit lethal force at the speed of light (about 300,000 kilometers per second). Second, their beams are not affected by the constraining effects of gravity or atmospheric drag. Third, they are extremely precise. Fourth, their effects can be tailored by varying the type and intensity of energy delivered against targets. Fifth, they have deep magazines and relatively low cost per shot. Finally, they are versatile in that they can be used both as sensing devices and kill mechanisms. However, directed-energy weapons also have drawbacks: laser beams are weakened by water vapor, dust and other obscurants, while radio-frequency emissions can be absorbed by any conductive material between the weapon and the target. II. WHAT IS DEW? Directed Energy (DE): An umbrella term covering technologies that relate to the production of a beam of concentrated electromagnetic energy or atomic or subatomic particles. Directed-Energy Device: A system using directed energy primarily for a purpose other than as a weapon. Directed- energy devices may produce effects that could allow the Device to be used as a weapon against certain threats; for example, laser range finders and designators used against sensors that are sensitive to light. Directed-Energy Warfare: Military action involving the use of directed-energy weapons, devices, and counter measures to either cause direct damage or destruction of enemy equipment, facilities, and personnel, or to determine, exploit, reduce, or prevent hostile use of the electromagnetic spectrum through damage, destruction, and disruption. It also includes actions taken to protect friendly equipment, facilities, and personnel, as well as retain friendly use of the electromagnetic spectrum. Directed-Energy Weapon: A system using directed energy primarily as a direct means to damage or destroy enemy equipment, facilities, and personnel. III. TYPES OF DEW Directed energy weapons have two types first is High power microwaves weapons and Laser weapons. a. High power microwave weapons In a future war where all sides depend heavily on electronic systems, weaponry and command and control, a weapon that disrupts and damages these systems will be extremely valuable. If it can perform this function at the speed of light, with minimal prior target information and with minimum collateral damage. 1. Structure and Basic consideration High-power microwaves (HPM) are another type of directed energy weapon, having a much longer wavelength and much lower frequency than the laser. Although the term microwave technically only applies to the highest-frequency radio waves, namely those operating in the gigahertz range, it has become common place to refer to all directed-energy weapons operating at radio frequencies as high-power microwaves. Rather than operating in the infrared, visual, or ultra-violet spectrum, high-power microwave weapons generate and deliver electromagnetic waves in the microwave frequency band from approximately 300 MHz to 300 GHz, corresponding to wavelengths. High-power means that the microwave source is able to generate a peak power of more than 100 MW. A typical high-power microwave weapons have following “DIRECTED ENERGY WEAPONS” V.R.Bait Prof. A.M.Kulkarni, Prof. L.D. Narote, Prof. M.P. Bhagat Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University’s Institute of Petrochemical Engineering, Lonere T
  6. 6. 3 component show in figure. Fig.1. Microwave Weapon System HPM weapons Components a) Pulse Power Source Pulse power generator that drive the HPM sources are generally required to deliver the short and intense electrical pulses of 1MV with pulse duration of 1 Micro second. Ways to Achieve i. Capacitor based Charging ii. Inductor Charging iii. Flux Compression Generator Fig. 2. Marx bank power supply arrangement Required pulses are by using capacitor banks that transform a slowly-rising low-voltage signal into a fast-rising high-voltage signal. A common capacitor bank configuration is Marx bank (Fig. 2) where the capacitors in the bank are connected in parallel during the charging process and switched to a series connection during discharge. The series connection multiplies the voltage by the number of capacitors in Marx bank. Resistive charging is slow and therefore limits repetition rate. Inductors could also be used in place of resistors. Inductor charging is preferred for higher repetition rates of a few hertz or more. If Marx bank has n capacitors with each charged to a voltage V from a DC power supply, voltage delivered to the load during discharge would theoretically be equal to n×V. Spark gaps are used as switches and breakdown voltage of spark gaps is kept higher than the voltage V across each capacitor. Initially, all capacitors are in parallel and are charged to a voltage V. Spark gaps are in open state. In order to initiate discharge, the first spark gap is externally triggered to the breakdown state connecting the first two capacitors in series and thereby raising the voltage across the second spark gap to 2V.The second gap also goes to breakdown state and the process continues till a voltage pulse with amplitude equal to n×V is applied across the load. One such Marx generator designed to drive HPM sources is APELCMG20-22C-2000PF from Applied Physical Electronics LC. This megavolt-class Marx generator with its 18-ohm source impedance is specifically designed to drive low impedance loads. With a 50kV charge voltage it delivers a 500kV, 1.1 kJ pulse into a matched load with a peak power of more than 12GW.This generator uses low-impedance, parallel-switched topology, which makes it well-suited for a wide variety of HPM applications. Another Marx generator from the same company is MG30- 3C-100 nF (Fig. 3) that is capable of storing a maximum of 1.8 kJ and can deliver 300 kV to a matched load. This Marx generator has low impedance of 33 ohms and is axially compact in order to drive HPM antennae on remote platforms. Maximum peak power and repetition rates specifications are 5GW and 10Hz, respectively. Fig 3. Marx Generator APELC MG30-3C-100nF b) HPM Source Ways to Achieve Impulsive Sources In Impulsive sources, pulsed microwave energy generated by Charging antenna, a transmission line or a tuned circuit directly, and making these rings for several cycles by closing a switch. Example of impulsive sources is various ultra wide band sources. Linear Beam Sources In the case of linear beam sources, microwave energy is generated by converting kinetic energy of an electron beam into electromagnetic energy of the microwave beam. examples of linear beam sources include klystrons, travelling-wave tubes, magnetrons, virtual-cathode oscillators. Fig. 4. Virtual cathode oscillator as linear beam source c) Antennae An antenna acts as an interface between the transmitter output
  7. 7. 4 and the medium which the radiated electromagnetic waves have to propagate through. In the case of an HPM weapon system too, it is an interface between the HPM source output and the surrounding atmosphere. Antennae play a crucial role in the HPM system design. Some of the important factors that need to be addressed by HPM antennae include directivity, ultra-wide bandwidth, feed-to-antenna coupling efficiency and compactness. Another important requirements are that of proper matching between the feed and the radiating element, lest the resultant standing waves would cause voltage breakdown. HPM antennae tend to be massive in order to avoid voltage break down operating electric field levels. To meet the increasing requirements of having HPM weapon systems on smaller platforms, antenna size can play an important role. Antenna shape is also an issue as it influences to a great extent whether air breakdown phenomenon is an issue or not at high power levels. Horn antennae and antenna arrays are the promising can did at as for HPM sources with the former presently being the most commonly used type. Different types of horn antennae including conical, circular, rectangular, corrugated and half-oval, and TEM horn antennae are used with a particular design depending upon the intended application. Fig. 5. Conical Horn Antenna. 2. High power Microwave Source As the heart of the high-power microwave weapon, high- power microwave sources have been under investigation for several years, and many varieties of microwave sources exist. High-power microwave sources include the traditional magnetron and klystron as well as newer devices such as the virtual-cathode oscillator (vircator), gyrotron and free-electro laser. In contrast to a magnetron, the physical structure of the klystron permits higher power and frequencies. While they could deliver the requisite power levels, they are problematic with regard to size, mass, and power consumption. Another negative feature is that they have a limited tuning ability vircators generate microwave energy at centimeter wavelengths and are candidates for future high-power microwave weapons. The vircator is of particular interest because it is a one-shot device capable of producing a very powerful single pulse of radiation, yet it is mechanically simple, small and robust, and can operate over are relatively broad band of microwave frequencies. gyrotrons are another new type of microwave source that operate at millimeter wavelengths, and are capable of continuous wave operations at very high power levels. The disadvantages of gyrotron devices are their size, weight and very narrow bandwidth. 3. Operational Capability High-power microwave weapons provide new means and interesting operational characteristics for both defensive and offensive operations. First, a HPM weapon is a wide-area weapon that can affect multiple targets with minimal prior data on threat characteristics. It could be used while focused or in a scan mode to cover a region of vast extent. HPM weapons illuminate every target within their beams’ path, near or far. Their area effect depends on several factors, such as frequency generated, distance from target area, the characteristics of the antenna, and susceptibility of the targets. Second, they are tunable weapons that allow users to vary the effects imposed on the different targets, such as electronic equipment and people. They do not provide significant collateral damage like chemical and biological weapons do. They could possibly be employed against targets in urban environments or where collateral damage and casualty concerns constrain the use of explosive or kinetic weapons. They do not cause physical or structural damage, yet they still permit strikes against a range of high value targets such as military and civil communications systems, ammunition and field pots, transportation systems or even critical industrial facilities. Third, they have all-weather attack capability. Microwave beams, just like radio, television and radar signals, can propagate in clouds, dust, snow, rain and most other atmospheric conditions. Fourth, they are three-dimensional weapons. HPM weapons might be particularly useful against buried targets or those that are located in populated areas. They not only can cause injury, kill surgical targets and do great damage or performance degradation to electronic equipment on the ground, but also can penetrate buried and protected targets Fifth, HPM weapons can be effective against electronics even when those systems are turned off. However, this might be limited to just damage effect and can be achieved only if a weapon system produces sufficient influence on the target. The very single effective defense is to isolate the target from the means of conducting energy, which might produce a mission kill. Sixth, when compared to other kinetic or biological weapon systems. HPM weapons have reduced life cycle costs and provide a deep magazine. Unlike conventional systems, microwave weapons require little logistical support, backup missiles or ammunition. Their bullets are simply electrical energy derived from their power sources. Lastly, they are multi-platform weapons that can be carried by unmanned air vehicles (UAV), land vehicles, aircraft, tactical fighters, helicopters, bombs or missiles, ships, and even by manned or unmanned future combat system (FCS) platforms.
  8. 8. 5 a. How High-Power Microwave Affect the Target High-power microwave energy can affect anything that responds to electromagnetically induced voltages and currents, to include electronics, materials and personnel. Two mechanisms are at work within objects caught in a high-power microwave beam: molecular heating and electrical stimulation. Fig. 6. Range Vs Effect Once microwave energy reaches a target, a sequence of penetration and propagation processes will take place from the target’s outer surface into its interior. Molecular heating is the result of narrowband high-power microwave weapons on the target’s outer surface. The molecules of the target rub together due to the power of the microwave energy. The power required to gain this effect is quite large and a significant well time on intended target is necessary. The other efficient mechanism takes place when the microwave energy ultimately arrives at the target’s electronics. Microwave weapon systems have the ability to produce graduated effects in the target electronics, depending upon the amount of energy that is coupled to the target. Coupling begins with an exterior response on shielded systems like aircraft, tanks and other targets. Later, the energy that is received can be subsequently transmitted deeper into the electronics through the circuitry pathways that exist within the target itself. The power level and dwell time required for electrical stimulation are much smaller than for molecular heating, which allows longer engagement range (Figure6). Depending on the coupling, high-power microwave effects can change from degraded system interaction to more serious destructive accomplishments. For electrical stimulation or penetration into the target, high-power microwave weapons use two different coupling mechanisms. i. Front-Door Coupling Front-door coupling denotes in-band penetration through the target with its own antenna, which is designed to receive microwaves such as communication antennas, radar antennas or altimeters. If unprotected, these coupling paths provide an easy entrance at in-band frequencies. In-band damage or performance degrading requires that the attacking microwaves be of the same frequency as those the target is tuned to receive. Out-band signals may also couple with front-door openings and overwhelm the target, but are weaker as they do not couple as efficiently. The disadvantage of in-band damage or performance degrading is the need to know the target’s operating frequency in advance, or to obtain that information in real time and adjust the weapon’s output appropriately. A common countermeasure to in-band attack is frequency hopping, which means changing the frequency with each pulse. The counter to this countermeasure is to attack over a broad band of frequencies, but this carries with it the disadvantage of spreading the weapon’s available energy over a broadband. ii. Back-Door Coupling Back-door coupling is a more complex mechanism and refers to any radiation coupling that follows a path other than an antenna, such as windows, slots, seams, improperly shielded wires, cracks or gaps. Any conductive material can provide a path for energy to reach key electronic components. Back- door paths require higher energy levels before damage or performance degrading is likely to occur, but they are typically much more difficult to diagnose or eliminate . b. Lethality of High-Power Microwave Weapons High-power microwave weapons cause four levels (upset, lock-up, latch-up, and burnout) of destructive effect in electronic devices depending on: • Distance to the target • Vulnerability of the target • Weapon frequency • Generated power level and power density on the target • Bandwidth • Burst rate and pulse duration • Well time on the target • Coupling mode or entry points Four potential effects of high-power microwave weapons on targets can be categorized into a hierarchy of lethality, which require increasing microwave emission on the target. i. Upset Upset means particular interaction as observed between a weapon and the operating state of the target system at the time, as the system state changes, upsets could subside. Once the signal is removed, the affected system can be easily restored to its previous condition. Interference caused by jamming equipment or lightning are examples of this type of deny effect. ii. Lock-up Lock-up produces a temporary alteration similar to upset, but electrical reset or shut off and restart is necessary to regain functionality after the radiation is removed. Degrading is an example which requires the intervention by an external operator or special safeguard procedures to reload the target system. iii. Latch-up Latch-up defines an extreme form of lock-up in which circuits of the target are permanently destroyed or electrical power is
  9. 9. 6 cut off, which spoils the target’s mission. No responding semiconductor devices to an input or transistors failing on a circuit board due to overloads from radiation are two latch-up examples. iv. Burnout Burnout occurs when the high-power microwave energy causes melting in capacitors, resistors or conductors. Burnout mostly occurs in the junction region where multiple wires or the base collector or emitter of a transistor come together, and often involves electrical arcing. Consequently, the heating is localized to the junction region. A lightning strike’s effect on electronic devices is a burnout example. b. Laser Weapons Although most lasers may seem to be similar in appearance, they are very different with regard to performance parameters and properties. Among these types of variation, it is the intended target and operating environment that largely determines the required performance properties such as energy or wavelength. Lasers are often differentiated by the kind of lasing medium, which can be gas, liquid, semiconductor, or solid state. Three major kinds of laser appear to have applications for directed energy weapons: chemical, electric (solid-state), and free electron lasers. 1. Laser Types & Technology a. Chemical Laser They offer high energy levels in the megawatt range, but their military applications require large platforms to haul the large quantity of chemicals, in terms of volume, weight and fuel logistical problems. Chemical laser types are hydrogen fluoride (HF), deuterium fluoride (DF), and chemical oxygen iodine lasers (COIL). b. Solid-State Laser Solid-state lasers use a non-conductive glass or crystalline material that is doped with a species, such as neodymium or erbium, as the active medium. The prime example of such a solid-state laser would be the original ruby laser. c. Free-electron Laser Free-electron lasers (FEL) generate streams of electrons from superconducting radio frequency accelerators to create a tunable beam. This represents a unique way of creating laser radiation without the use of chemicals, crystals, or any of the tradition always of generating laser beams. 2. Types of Laser Weapons a. Ground Based Laser i. Tactical high energy Laser The tactical high-energy laser (THEL) is a ground-based laser which uses a deuterium fluoride (DF) chemical laser and is designed for air-defense and the destruction of short-range rockets and artillery rounds at ranges of about ten kilometers. System development was initiated in 1996 and the first in- flight destruction of a live artillery rocket was achieved in June 2000. ii. Mobile Tactical High Energy Laser The mobile tactical high-energy laser (MTHEL) is another ground-based laser weapon system which uses a deuterium fluoride (DF) chemical laser, similar to the THEL, but with capabilities that go well beyond those of the THEL. b. Airborne Laser Currently, there are two airborne laser weapons under development: the airborne laser (ABL) for boost phase missile defense and a new program, namely the advanced tactical laser (ATL), for air-to-ground operations. i. Airborne Laser (ABL) The airborne laser (ABL) is a multi-megawatt (MW) chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL) weapon on a Boeing 747 platform. The ABL, cruising at 40,000 feet, engages and destroys ballistic missiles during the first phase of their flight at a 500-700 kilometers standoff range. The boost phase is the first stage in a ballistic trajectory, when missiles present large and vulnerable targets that can be easily tracked. During the boost phase, infrared (IR) emission from the missile is so intense and almost impossible to hide. An attack during the boost phase can destroy a missile, carrying chemical or biological agents, over enemy territory before any smaller warheads are released. Fig. 7. Boeing YAL 1 Airborne Laser ii. Advance Tactical Laser The advanced tactical laser (ATL) is another concept for an airborne laser that uses a less powerful version of the chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL), instead of missiles, to disable ground targets. This type of airborne laser has the advantage of being able to produce a surgical strike and lethal or non- lethal effects, particularly in an urban environment, at significant standoff distances. The ATL (Figure 8) will use laser power from the tens to a few hundred kilowatts to disable target sets including vehicles, aircraft, munitions, rockets/mortars, optical and radar surveillance systems, communication infrastructure, and other military targets. Fig.8. Advance Tactical Laser
  10. 10. 7 IV. EXAMPLE OF DEW IN PRESENT AND FUTURE Fig.9. E- Bomb 1. E-Bomb Electromagnetic bombs or E-bombs, described as the “nuclear weapons of the information age”, are devices specifically designed to destroy a wide range of electronic equipment over their footprints. E-bombs produce high voltage standing waves on wiring and cables or cause secondary radiation of an intense electromagnetic blast at the gigahertz level which is strong enough to melt electrical circuitry. The basic principle of an E-bomb entails the use of an explosive magnetic flux compression generator. Essentially, a magnetic armature is driven by explosives through a coil, energized by a bank of capacitors, and the resulting energy is directed through an antenna. Figure 9 shows the hypothetical design for an E-bomb warhead in which a two-stage flux compression generator provides gig watts of power to the virtual cathode oscillator (vircator), which produces the high- power microwaves. Fig. 10. Active Denial System 2. Active Denial System ADS The Active Denial System (ADS), which is known as the pain ray, is a non-lethal directed-energy weapon used against human targets. It uses the millimeter-wave region of the electromagnetic spectrum, which penetrates shallowly into a conducting surface like human skin. The ADS uses a 95 GHz radar beam that penetrates 0.4 to 0.5 mm into human skin.ADS produces a heat sensation that within seconds becomes intolerable and forces the targeted individual to instinctively flee. The sensation immediately ceases when the individual moves out of the beam or when the operator turns off the system. Since the produced pulses are very short and targeted humans react instinctively, ADS does not cause permanent injury. ADS (Figure 10) could be used for protection of defense resources, peacekeeping, humanitarian missions and other situations in which the use of lethal force is undesirable. Fig.11. Personal Halting and stimulation Response (PHAsR) 3. PHAsR The Personnel Halting and Stimulation Response (PHaSR) is a first of its kind rifle-sized laser weapon system that can be operated by a single shooter. The PhaSR system uses laser light to illuminates or dazzle aggressors that temporarily impairs the vision of hostile individuals. Fig.12. ZM-87 Portable Laser 4. ZM-87 Portable Laser ZM-87 is a portable laser weapon designed to damage electro- optical sensors such as laser rangefinders, video cameras and missile seeker heads at ranges up to 10 km. The weapon affects its targets by transmitting 15 MW laser pulses at two different wavelengths simultaneously with a 5 Hz repetition rate. It weighs less than 35 kilograms (Figure 12) V. ADVANTAGE 1. Pin point Accuracy 2. Low Cost per use and maintenance 3. Unlimited Magazine Capacity 4. Less Lethal if tuned properly.
  11. 11. 8 5. Operate in all-weather condition. 6. Engage multiple target 7. Speed of light operation 8. Difficult to track. 9. Laser can mounted on any ground or Ariel vehicle. Fig.13. Laser weapon in Different Platform VI. DISADVANTAGE 1. HPM weapons have shorter Range than Laser weapons 2. Laser can reflect, refract, absorbed by physical and chemical property of materials. 3. Large Construction required in Laser Weapon 4. Expensive Concept. VII. APPLICATION The significance of directed-energy weapons is that they provide a range of strategic and operational capabilities in both offensive and defensive military operations. Basic strategic and operational offensive applications are: 1. Suppression of enemy air defense (SEAD) 2. Attack against ground, air and maritime targets 3. Electronic suppression and disablement of command, 4. control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) systems 5. Close air support (CAS) 6. Battlefield air interdiction 7. Space control and anti-satellite operations 8. Suppressing or damaging visible, infrared, and microwave sensors 9. Asymmetric strikes 10. Dispersion of crowds, rioters (non-lethal anti- personnel attacks) 11. Speedboat pursuit Basic strategic and operational defensive applications are: 1. Ballistic missile (BM) and surface-to-air missile defense 2. Counter-artillery and rockets 3. Air defense 4. Counter-electronics against targeting and sensor systems 5. Fleet defense 6. Aircraft self-protection 7. Protection of armored vehicles 8. Neutralization of explosive traps and minefield cleaning 9. Critical infrastructure protection 10. Stopping of motor vehicles 11. Surveillance of coastal waters 12. The host platforms can be ships, large or tactical aircraft that include Helicopters, ground vehicles, ground bases and spacecraft. Directed-energy weapons have passed the stages of laboratory prototypes and even trial production for some Applications. There is no doubt that they will become a major force multiplier due to their significant advantages over traditional kinetic weapons Fig.14. HEL weapon destroying Rocket. CONCLUSION After remarkable advancements in the past few decades, the revolutionary concept of directed-energy weapons has matured in many areas to the point that they are ready to be implemented by a country’s military services as the twenty- first century’s most challenging weapon systems, either in offensive or defensive applications. These revolutionary weapon systems offer asymmetric military advantages over adversaries that fail to take into consideration the application of future directed-energy weapons. As explained in this thesis, directed-energy weapons, both high power-microwave weapons and laser weapons, are complementary to each other and have distinct advantages over traditional kinetic and chemical energy weapons. These inherent advantages include the ability to travel at the speed of light, delivery precision and Discrimination of power, deep magazine capacity, low cost per shot, rapid and multiple target engagement, and non-lethal operations capability. Engineering research continues to overcome various challenges to bring these weapons to the battlefield. These challenges include the need to reduce the cost, decrease the size and increase the power of directed- energy weapons, such as the high-energy laser. However, it is likely that directed-energy systems will continue to be developed for military applications, and in the near future nations will implement these weapon systems in compact sizes
  12. 12. 9 and will integrate them into small combat platforms or even man portable systems. REFERENCES [1] Electronics for You Magazines [2] http:/wikipedia.org [3] www.rfwirelessworld.com

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