Different Classes of Seeds
• The process of development of certified seeds begins from its
distant parent called Nucleus Seed.
• A group of progenies of individual plants taken at random from
a variety for the purpose of purifying that variety of mixtures
• The nucleus seed is a genetically pure seed without any
• They are obtained from a handful of healthy plants growing in
a plot and then grown strictly in isolation.
• All physical observations such as plant size, growth features,
colour and shape of various parts, days taken in maturity etc.
• This stage is the most important phase in the seed development
because any erroneous selection of the nuclear seed plants
would adversely affect the further generations.
• Once these plants are obtained and threshed separately. If it is
an oilseed are selected; their seeds crop; the quality of seeds,
yield etc. is observed and recorded and those with undesired
yield are removed.
• These seeds are properly packed and regrown to get the
• The initial handful of seed obtained from selected individual
plants of a particular variety for the purposes of purifying of
maintaining that variety, by the originating plant breeder and its
further multiplication under his own supervision, or the
superviston of a qualified plant breeder to provide Breeder's
seed constitutes the basis for all further seed production.
• It is the seed or vegetative propagating material produced from
nucleus seed, should be used for increasing breeder seed,
which is directly controlled by the originating breeder or in
satisfactory genetic purity, identity and the other good
• It is the source for the production of seed of the certified
• It provides for the initial and recurring increase of foundation
• A breeder's seed is an offspring of nucleus seed.
• A breeder is person (qualified plant breeder) or а organization
who raises plant primary for breeding purpose.
• While nucleus seed is genetically pure; the Breeder seeds are
produced by mutual multiplication of three different lines
which are denoted by A line, B line and R line. A line is
female, while B and R line are male sterile.
• The seeds from off springs with best and desired quality are
selected and certified as Breeder seeds. Such seeds are
protected by legal rights called as Breeder's rights.
• The Breeder seed is further multiplied into the foundation
and certified seeds. In our country, Breeder seeds are
produced Indian Council of Agricultural Research,
National Seeds Corporation, States Farms Corporation and
agricultural universities in India
• Offspring's of the Breeder seed which can be clearly traced to
Breeder seed are called Foundation Seeds They are further
breaded to give rise to certified seeds.
• The production of the foundation seeds must be acceptable to a
• A person or company who grows and distributes the certified
seeds in accordance with the procedure and specifications of the
certification agency is called Certified Seed Producer.
• The national Seeds Corporation, State farms Corporation of
India (SFCI) have the responsibility to produce foundation
seeds which suit to demand of national varieties. The State Seed
Corporations produce the foundation seeds to suit to local
• Foundation seed so handled to maintain specific genetic purity
• The production must be acceptable to a certifying agency.
• This seed is multiplied as foundation seed usually at
Government Seed Farms, Farms of the Agricultural
Universities, at the farms of the National Seed Corporation or a
cultivators field under strict supervision of research scientist of
the different universities and seed certification agency.
• Foundation seed is the source of all certified seed classes.
• lt is the progeny of foundation or registered see produced at the
farms of progressive farmers as per technically an supervision
provided by National Seed Corporation/ State See Corporation
(Maharashtra State Seed Corporation, Akola); handled under
producer acceptable to the certifying agency to maintain
satisfactory genetic purity and identity, and other good qualities.
• This is the last stage, which actually reaches to a farmer.
• Certified seed is the progeny of foundation seed and must
meet the standards of seed certification prescribed in the
Indian Minimum Seed Certification Standards, 1988