My presentation on Integrated Pest Management. I had made a try from my side to create it knowledgeful and tried to include qualitative content after studying many articals, research papers and other online websites.
Vikas KashyapAgricultural Student um Chaudhary Charan Singh University, Meerut
Pest insect have adverse impact on agricultural
production, natural environment and our lifestyle. Pest insect may
cause problems by damaging crops and food production, parasitising
livestock or a health hazard to humans.
The spread of plant pests and disease has increased in
recent years. Outbreak and upsurges can cause huge losses to crops
and pastures , threatening the livelihoods of farmers and the food
and nutrition security in future time.
The crop losses due to insect pests in India are around
15.7% which accounts for the annual losses of 36 billion USD$
(Dhaliwal et al. 2015). Insects are becoming hungrier day by day due
to climate change.
3. What is pest?
“Pests are organisms that can damage or
interfare with desirable plants in our fields, orchards and
“A pests is any organisms that spreads
disease, cause destruction or is otherwise a nuisance.” ex.
Birds, rodents, ants, bugs, flies, hoppers etc.
4. Integrated Pest Management
“Integrated Pest Management is an ecosystem approach
to crop production and protection that includes different
management strategies and practices to grow healthy crops and
minimize the use of pesticides.”
“It is ecosystem based strategy that focuses on long term
prevention of pests and their damage through a combinations of
techniques such as biological control, habitat manipulation,
modification of cultural practices and use of resistant varieties.”
5. Principles of IPM
Prevention and suppression:- Prevention is adoption of measures
to reduce the chance of occurrence of pest. Suppression is
reducing the impact of pests. Prevention and suppression includes
use of adequate cultivation techniques e.g.– crop rotation, stale
seedbed technique, sowing dates, conservation tillage, pruning
and direct sowing.
Monitoring:- Harmful organisms must be monitored by adequate
methods and tools through observations, use of scientifically
sound warning, forecasting, advices from qualified advisors.
France, Denmark have adopted this technique.
6. Decision Making:- Decision making is done based on the
results of the monitoring on threshold based intervention, pest
density or population level. We should also be aware that
specific crops, pest life cycle, climatic condition etc. However,
threshold is difficult to define in case of tolerant species.
Non-Chemical Methods:- Non-Chemical methods are always
preferred at first hand as they are more sustainable with less
biological and environmental hazards. E.g. soil-solarization or
biological control, ecological methods.
Pesticide Selection:- IPM doesn’t totally avoid the use of the
pesticides. When alternative methods are not properly used then
the pesticides are used for pest control.
7. Reduced Pesticides Use:- Reduced pesticides use prefers to the
reduction in the frequency and doses of the pesticides. It helps
reducing the side effects of the pesticides.
Anti-resistance strategies:- Unmanaged and haphazard use of
the pesticides have created the problem of resistance and pests
have developed the resistance and the use of pesticides have less
effect on them. It includes use of different pesticides that has
different mode of action, applied in different time.
Evaluation:- Evaluation is the important aspect of the IPM
program. It is done based on the record of the use of the
pesticides, its effects and many more.
8. Components of IPM
1. Cultural Practices:-
Cultural methods of pest control consist of
regular farm operations in such a way which either destroy the pests
or prevent them from causing economic loss -
Preparation of nurseries or main fields free form pest infestation by
removing plant parts, soil treatment.
Selection of clean and certified seeds and treating seeds with bio-
pesticides before sowing.
Selection of pest resistant/tolerant varieties.
9. Adjustment of time of sowing or harvesting to escape the
peak season of pest attack.
Rotation of crops with non-host crops.
Optimum use of fertilizers, FYM and bio-fertilizers should be
Proper plants pacing which makes less susceptible to pests.
Proper weed and water management. Because water and
weeds are attractive factors for pests.
Growing trap crop and intercropping or multiple cropping
should be implement where as possible.
11. 2. Mechanical Practices:- It include following processes:-
Removal and destruction of egg masses, larvae, pupae and
diseased plants parts if possible.
Installation of bamboo cage cum bird preachers in the field and
conservation of natural enemies.
Use of light traps and destruction of trapped insects.
Installation of bird preachers in field for allowing birds to sit and
feed insects their immature stages viz. eggs, larvae etc.
Use of pheromones for mating and kill zone creation.
Use of pheromones traps for monitoring and suppression of pest
population and mass trapping.
13. 3. Biological Practices:-
Biological control of insects pests and
disease, through biological measures, is the most important
component of IPM. In broad sense , biological control is the use of
living organisms to control unwanted living organisms (pests) in our
cropping area. In other words use of predators, parasitoides and
pathogens to maintain pest population at level below those
causing loss either by introducing a new bio-agent into the
environment of pest or by increasing effectiveness of those already
present in the fields.
14. Parasitoides:- These are organisms which ley eggs in or on the
bodies of their hosts and complete their life cycles on host bodies
resulting hosts dies.
Predators:- These are free living organisms which prey upon
other organisms for their food viz. spiders, dragon flies, ladybird
beetles, birds etc.
Bio-pesticides:- These are micro-organisms which infests and
cause disease in their host as a result as hosts are killied. e.g. Fungi
(Beauveria, metarhizium); viruses (NPV, Granulosis viruses);
bacteria (B. thuringiensis, B. popillae) etc.
16. 4. Chemical Practices:-
When all other methods become fails then
refers to use of chemical pesticides is the last method to keep the
pest population below the economic loss. Relevance of IPM
practices are more important in vegetables and fruit crops because
of their unique of consumption by human being.
So, only approved pesticides should be used
against targeted recommended crops. While going for chemical
control method , we must keep in our minds that what to spray,
when to spray, where to spray, how much and how to do spray. We
have to be more careful and be cautions in applying pest control
practices in fields crops.
18. 5. Regulatory Practices:-
In this process regulatory rules framed by
Govt. are brought into force under which seeds are infested plant
materials are not allowed to enter the country. These are known
as quarantine methods and are of two types i.e. domestic and
In other words regulatory control refers
to the role played by government agencies in trying to stop the
entry or spread of pests into an area or into the country via
inspection, quarantine, destruction of infested material and other
20. Challenges in IPM
Financial constraints in the initial stage of IPM.
Lack of involvement of the expertise.
Inadequate research on insects pests.
Lack of supportive government and their policies.
In the developing countries e.g. India; where traditional
farming still practicing, farmers are unknown to the concept of
IPM because IPM seems difficult to practice.
21. Advantages of IPM
1. Lower cost intervention:- Traditionally, the use of the
pesticides to control the pest would become costly. Wherever,
the application of different IPM techniques would less financial
burden and more sustainable with long lasting effects.
2. Benefits to environment:- Use of pesticides are linked with
the degradation of the environment resulting problems. While
IPM is an eco-friendly approach and maintain ecological cycles.
3. Minimizes residues of pesticides:- It is obvious that in an
IPM schedule the use of pesticides will be reduced, hence the
pesticides residue will also get automatically minimized.
22. 4. Anti-resistance:- It is proven that due to use of
chemical pesticides, pests develops resistance to them,
while IPM is model itself that it is anti-resistance to
5. Useful and best intervention to the general
public:- The use of IPM techniques, It is safe for use
and affordable for the general public as well. It has no
bad effects on the crops.
23. Disadvantages of IPM
1. More involvement in the tactics of the method:- IPM needs
to be planned. IPM demands more attention, dedication and
requires expertise of various field. All those involved in the IPM
needs to be educated and trained which often requires much time.
2. Time and Energy consuming:- Application of IPM and expected
results of intervention may take long time to be achieved. As IPM
strategies differs from the region to region, a separate plan is
required for each region. So, it takes to much time and energy
24. Worldwide impacts of IPM
Crop yield increased from 6.72% to 40.14% in rice and 22.7% to
26.63% in cotton in IPM fields compared to non-IPM fields.
Chemical pesticides sprays were reduced to the extent of 50-
100% in rice and 29.96% to 50.6% in cotton.
Use of bio-pesticides/neem based pesticides increased from 123
MT during 1994-95 to 1262 MT during 2009-10.
Overall consumption of chemical pesticide in the country
reduced from 75033 MT during 1990-91 to 41822 MT during
25. Status of IPM in India
India has agrarian economy, where the 1012.4
million population dependent on agricultural commodities from
124.07 million ha. cropped area cultivated by 110.7 million
producers (Parasad 2001). During the eight-year period from 199-95
to 2001-02, the government of India spent nearly Rs. 14926 million
for bio-control of pests of different crops.
The largest states of India; Madhya Pradesh,
Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka rank
highest in implementing IPM.
26. A smaller states, Punjab has also done will
implement IPM. A total of 16260 thousands bio-control agents
have been mass produced in the laboratories and released (Up
to December, 2002) against insect pests in rice, cotton,
sugarcane, pulses, vegetables and oilseeds crops.
Pests situation reports received from field stations
and states were compiled and comprehensive weekly and
monthly reports circulated to the concerned officers and
Scientists of states department of Agriculture/State Agricultural
Universities and ICAR institutes to help them take appropriate
The increasing cost of plant protection make agriculture a risky and
less profitable enterprise. At the same time the toxic materials
generated from chemicals farming pollute the environment and harm
consumers’ and farmers’ health. A more environmentally friendly
and economical alternative for India would be adoption of Integrated
Additionally, from the viewpoint of sustainability,
attaining growth while maintaining the natural capital intact, IPM is
superior compared to conventional farming(Chopra 1993). It should,
therefore be appreciated and encouraged to a greater extent both by
government and NGOs’.
References:- Some topics are prepared after studying government and educational online websites,
articals and research papers.
Mistakes may be found in my presentation, so your kindly suggestions are invited.