4. UNIT I : Indian Schools of
Philosophy and Education
(a) Education: Concept, Meaning, Definition, Purpose
and Nature – Levels of Education: Pre-primary,
Primary, Secondary and Higher Education.
(b) Philosophy: Concept, Meaning, and Definition.
Focal areas of philosophy: Metaphysics,
Epistemology and Auxiology.
(c) Relationship between Philosophy and Education.
(d) Indian Schools of Philosophy and Education:
Educational implications of Vedanta, Buddhism
5. MEANING OF PHILOSOPHY
‘ Philos’ (love of ) and ‘ Sophia’
(wisdom) and as such etymologically
it means “ love of knowledge or
‘philosophy’ means ‘fundamental
beliefs and convictions’
Philosophy is derived form the ‘Greek
6. TITUS (1964) - FIVE APPROACHES
Personal attitude towards life and
Method of reflective thinking and
Attempt to gain a view of the whole.
Logical analysis of language and the
A group of problems as well as
theories about the solution of these
7. DEFINITION OF ‘PHILOSOPHY’
In the words of Alfred Weber ,
“ Philosophy is a search for
comprehensive view of nature , an
attempt at a universal explanations
of nature of things”
• Philosophy is “love of wisdom” – Derivative meaning
• Science which investigates the nature of being – Aristotle
• Logical enquiry into the nature of reality – Radha Krishnan
• Science of knowledge – Fichte
• Science and criticism of cognition – Kant
• Knowledge of the eternal nature of things – Plato
• Vision of life – Indian approach
• Attempt to present a systematic view of life – Henderson
• Persistent effort to make life intelligible and meaning –
• Science of all sciences; art of all arts
9. Nature of Philosophy
• Man and the Nature of Philosophy
• Human Experience and the Nature of Philosophy
• Syntheses as the nature of Philosophy
• Analysis as the nature of Philosophy
• Philosophy is a way of life
10. THREE BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY
Metaphysics or the discussion about the
nature of ultimate reality and the cosmos.
Epistemology or the theory of knowledge.
Axiology or General theory of values . It
has the following two subdivisions:
a)Ethics or the theory of morality.
b)Aesthetics or inquiry into the nature of
11. TASKS OF PHILOSOPHY
i) Speculation (employed in
ii) Description and analysis (used in
iii)Prescription (made use of in
15. CONCEPT OF EDUCATION
The term ‘ Education ’ is traced to different sources
According to one view , ‘ Education ’ originated
from the Latin word ‘ educare ’ which means ‘to
bring up ’ or ‘ to nourish ’.
The term Latin ‘ Education ’ is derived from the
Latin word ‘ educatum ’ which means ‘the act of
teaching or training’.
According to Latin word ‘ educare ’ and educatum
‘ education is something external which is imposed
from outside ’ or ‘ education means growth from
The main aim of education is ‘ to draw out ’ rather
than ‘ put in ’.
16. INDESPENSIBILITY OF EDUCATION
Man is a social animal with his superior intelligence
from other living being . Other creature could only be
trained ; but man alone be educated.
Man alone is unique and intelligence and investigate
everything around him . Education capability to
control and modify his environment.
At he time of birth, the human child is highly helpless
and dependent on others.
By Education the child acquires Knowledge , Skills ,
Healthy habits and other virtues to become a
17. He is endowed with superior intelligence
and capacity for learning, he could learn
fast anything and everything.
He is curious to know new ideas and
facts, new ways of doing things so as to
make his life more comfortable and
As T . Raymond's puts it, ‘‘ Education is a
process to develop the potentials of man
so as to differentiate him from other
Through education ,he gets better
adjustment in behavior with his Physical
, Social and Spiritual Environment.
18. DEFINITIONS OF EDUCATION
Education being a most important social
activity, its meanings have been changing
through the agers due to changes in social
and physical conditions as well as
philosophical outlook of people towards life.
Different educationists, therefore,
interpreted if differently, at different times.
Some of the most popular definitions , given
by our ancient educational thinkers are
1)Vivekananda : “ Education is the
manifestation of divine perfection , already
existing in man ”.
19. 2)Aurobindo Ghosh : “ Education is
helping the growing soul to draw out
that is in itself ”.
3)Mahatma Gandhi : “ Education is the
all-round drawing out of the best in
child and man-body , mind and sprit ”.
21. AIM OF EDUCATION
The basis for all the element involved
in the educative process.
Aims indicate the goals and achieved
in a short period of time are termed as
Types of aims:
General aims of education are those
which apply in their generality to
thewhole of mankind.
22. Specific aims of education are relative to the
conditions available at a particular time .
They change with the changing needs.
General aims may be classified as ‘individual’
and ‘social’ aims of education.
Specific aims of education are:
i) The knowledge aim.
ii) Vocational aim.
iii) Moral aim .
iv) Complete living aim
v) Harmonious development of personality aim.
vi) Aim for spending the leisure time usefully
23. 1. INDIVIDUAL AIM
Education is the training given for
individuals so to develop the characteristic
potentials inherent in each one of them.
SIR PERCY NUNN advocate that the chief aim
of education is the unfoldment of individual
ADAMS also states tat education is the
endeavour to help one for self-realisation.
Development of individuality is dased on
freedom. Freedom is not the licence for
uncontrolled and unruly behaviour.Students
should know their responsibilities too, along
with their freedom.
24. 2. SOCIAL AIM
• Prof.Bagley and John Dewey advocate
that aim of education is to produce
socially efficient individuals.
• The goals of social aims of education are:
i)Good health and vitality.
iii)Simple skills required for a good life.
iv)Cooperation with other members of the
vii)Spending usefully one’s leisure-time.
26. • Education gives more emphasis for the
congnitive development of human
• It is believed that knowledge sharpens
our mind and empowers it to
investigate anything and everything
• Knowledge removes ignorance, dust
and darkness and leads an individual
27. 4. VOCATIONAL AIM
• Some educationists think that
education must enable the child to
take up some vocation in order to
earn his livelihood.
• Vocational aim flourishes in a
country which is industrialised.
28. 5. MORAL AIM
• According to HERBART, “ Formation
of character should be regarded as
the highest aim and the teachers
should develop strength of will and
purity of character”.
• Education consists in the conquest of
the lower impulses by high ideals.
• Morality consists of purity of
thought, word and deed.
29. 6.THE COMPLETE LIVING AIM
Herbart Spencer is the sponsor of this
aim . According to him, Education
should enable us to treat the body ,
mind and soul in the right manner.
John Dewey says that instead of
imparting knowledge to pupils we
should develop the ability to solve
problem encountered in life.
31. • The development of all power and
capacities of an individual-physical,
intellectual, emotional, moral , aesthetic
, social and spiritual.
• It is not desirable to develop one power
of an individual at the cost of his other
capacities and potentials.
• It is also not possible to develop all the
potentials of an individual equality.
• Harmonious development aim in
education requires the development of
all inherent potentials in individuals to
32. LEISURE AIM
Education should help a person to
spend his leisure time usefully.
Leisure is neither to be spent idlely
nor for recreation only.
As HORNE points out “ no single
educational aim could be identified as
the best . That educational aim system
which gives equal importance for and
integrates all aim of education is
undoubtedly the best. ”
33. NATIONAL OBJECTIVES OF EDUCATION IN INDIA
Indian Education Commission headed by
Dr.D.C.Kothari , in its report (1966) has
pointed out the following as our national
i. Relating education to productivity.
ii. Strengthening social and national
iii. Consolidating democracy as a form of
government and helping the country to
adopt it as a way of life.
iv. Accelarating the process of modernisation
v. Building character by cultivating social ,
moral and spiritual.
35. DIFFERENT LEVELS IN EDUCATION
PRE-PRIMARY SCHOOL LEVEL
(AGE 3 TO 5)
PRIMARY SCHOOL LEVEL
(AGE 5 TO 11)
MIDDLE SCHOOL LEVEL
(AGE 11 TO 14)
HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL
(AGE 14 TO 16)
(AGE 16 TO 18)
36. PRE-PRIMARY or NURSERY LEVEL
• Desirable learning experiences provided before the
child starts going to a regular school.
• Between the ages of 2 ½ and 5 years
• Highly formative
• Promote physical health in children
• Provide sufficient opportunities to develop
desirable social traits and intellectual abilities
• Fulfill the various psychological, social and
• Variously known as Nursery schools, Kindergarten,
Montessori Schools, etc.,
• Not yet become compulsory in any of the countries
38. OBJECTIVES OF PRE-PRIMARY EDUCATION
• Development of good health habits and basic
• Development of desirable social attitude and
• Development of aesthetic sense
• Development of emotional maturity
• Development and stimulation of intellectual
• Provision of ample opportunity
• Provision of opportunity for self-expression
39. PRIMARY EDUCATION AND ITS OBJECTIVES
• Enrolling all 5 year old children in class I and
complete education successfully
• Providing essential infra-structural and
educational facilities through Sarva Siksha
Abiyan Scheme (SSA)
• Appointing trained woman teachers
• Free noon meal, uniform and text books
• Activity Based Learning (ABL)
• Mother tongue, Environmental Science,
Mathematics and Social Science
40. SECONDARY EDUCATION
• The constituents of Secondary education viz.
standards VI, VII, VII, IX and X - High schools
and Higher Secondary Schools
• Middle Schools – Stds. VI, VII and VIII in
addition to the five standards of primary
• VI, VII and VIII Stds. of Middle Schools - form
a part of Secondary Education – by the name
Lower Secondary Classes
41. IMPORTANCE OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
• Primary Education ends – Secondary Education
• 3 R’s - major objectives of primary Education
• Pupils potentialities are developed during and
after 13 to 14 years
• Character are shaped
• Appropriate education should be provided to
• After Secondary Education, adolescents enter
life knowledgeably and mentally alert
42. • Teachers for primary schools – completed
secondary education and also 2 year diploma
course in teacher education
• Secondary education establishes the link
between primary and higher education
• Effective terminal behaviour resulting from
secondary education help for higher
education or choose a job
• Future economy of the nation depends on the
43. OBJECTIVES OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
• Encourage pupils to continue their education
• Facilitate to learn more in depth and breadth the
• Train them in citizenship
• Prepare them for higher education
• Impart them vocational skills
• Arrange for learning a third language
• Focus on improving the standard of general
44. • To learn the mother tongue, English, third
language, Mathematics, General science, Social
Science, Physical Education, Creative Work
related to Fine Arts and Work experience.
• Provide transports and textbooks
• Establish separate schools for girls
• Establish a pace-setting school (Navodaya
School) in each district
46. HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION
10 + 2 + 3
+2 level – Higher Secondary stage of Education
Karnataka, Kerala, etc., - Junior Colleges
Two Streams –
(i) Academic Stream and (ii) Vocational Stream
47. AIMS OF
HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION
• Preparation for higher education and
• Strengthen the vocational stream of education
• Development of social and national integration
and consolidation of democratic way of life
• Striving to build character by cultivating social,
moral and spiritual values
• Training in citizenship and rational thinking
48. HIGHER EDUCATION
After completing 12 years of school education
– students join Degree Colleges or University
Postgraduate courses – 2 years
Research courses – M.Phil., Ph.D., D.Lit., etc.,
Higher Education or University Education
49. AIMS OF UNIVERSITY EDUCATION
• To seek and cultivate new knowledge
• To engage vigorously and fearlessly in the
pursuit of truth
• To interpret old knowledge and beliefs in the
light of new needs and discoveries
• To provide the right kind of leadership in all
walks of life
• To identify gifted youth and help them
develop their potentials
• To provide society with competent men and
50. • To promote equality and social justice
• To reduce social and cultural difference
through diffusion of education
• To develop research attitude and enquiry
spirit among the intellectuals
• To help to spread adult education
• To develop values needed for good life in
individuals and society
51. PROBLEMS IN HIGHER EDUCATION
• Physical facilities in universities were not really
increased, ill-equipped and under staffed
• Universities function in isolation, cutoff from
the socio-economic life of the people
• Educational and research standard very low
• Problem of unemployment
52. IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF
• Participate in projects of national importance
• UGC should develop MAJOR UNIVERSITIES
• AUTONOMOUS STATUS
• Centres of Advanced Study
• New Courses
• Infrastructural, laboratory and library facilities are
to be increased
• Teachers -0rientation Course, Refresher Courses
• Credit Based Learning
• Scheme of Scholarships and fellowships
• Regional Languages – media of education
53. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
PHILOSPHY AND EDUCATION
‘ Philosophy ’ is speculative while ‘
education ’ is practical .
Philosophy determines the
supreme aim of life and sets
standards and values that should
guide and direct man’s
educational efforts to achieve
54. i) PHILOSOPHY POINTS OUT THE WAY TO BE
FOLLOWED BY EDUCATION
Education means modification of the
child’s native behavior.
Modification should be carried out &
what should be the standards & values ,
to strive for.
This problem is solved by philosophy
i.e. education is the dynamic side of
philosophy or philosophy is the theory
55. ii) EDUCATION IS THE BEST MEANS FOR
THE PROPAGATION OF PHILOSOPHY
The philosopher arrives at the truth
and lays down certain aims, ideals and
As ROSS points out that “Philosophy
sets the goal of life , and education
provides the means for its
achievement” 2 sides of the same coin ;
the former is the contemplative while
the latter is the active
56. iii) ALL GREAT PHILOSOPHERS OF THE
WORLDS HAVE ALSO BEEN GREAT
• The great philosophers of all times
from O upto the present day have been
TAGORE educators .
• In modern times GANDHIJI , the
great think and philosophers of India ,
• JOHN DEWEY of America , took keen
interest in the educational problems of
their respective countries and evolved
new system of education based on
their own ideals.
57. iv) PHILOSOPHY DETERMINE ALL
THE BORAD ASPECT EDUCATION
These aim in turn determine the
curriculum , the method teaching ,
school discipline and the role of the
teacher in the educational process.
As we need aims of education , based in
the ultimate goal of life , philosophy
will continue influencing and
determine the matter and the method of
59. MEANING OF EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
According to NEWSOME , educational
philosophy could be viewed in the
following three ways :
1. Educational Philosophy as a related
branch of Philosophy .
2. Educational Philosophy as a broad
outlook to understand educational
3. Educational Philosophy as a general
theory of education .
Among these three views , the first one
seems to be more fundamental.
60. • A.S. Broudy in his book “ Building a
Philosophy of Education ” defines
Educational Philosophy as “ that
discipline which analyses the
problems encountered in education in
term of Metaphysics , Epistemology
and Axiology, either separately or
jointly , to arrive at appropriate
decisions ” .
61. INFULENCE OF PHILOSOPHY ON
DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF EDUCATION
Philosophy determine the supreme
aim of life and sets standards and
values that should guide and direct
man’s educational efforts to achieve
62. Philosophy and Aims of Education
Every educational system must have some
goals , aims or objectives .
It is the philosophy of the time which
determines whether the aim of education
should be moral , vocational spiritual or
In the words of RUSK , “ every education
system of education must have an aim and
then aim of education is relative to the
aim of life ”.
Philosophy formulates what should be the
end of life while education offers
suggestions how this is to be achieved.
63. Philosophy and Curriculum
• Curriculum is the means through which we
realize the aims of education.
• But aims of education , in turn are determine
by philosophy .
• The philosophy and curriculum are inter –
• Curriculum differs with different scholars of
• According to the present needs , interests and
activities of the child(child – centred
• Thus philosophy not only influences the
curriculum , but also determines the subjects
of study that meet its requirements.
64. Philosophy and Methods of Teaching
• Methods of teaching are the procedures that are used
to put the curriculum into action so as to realize the
aims of education.
• Different schools of philosophy have laid down their
methods of teaching .
• The naturalists advocate activity-centred methods like
play , field trip , etc….,
• Pragmatists advocate that teaching is possible only in
a social medium.
• So they recommend project and problem solving
methods in teaching.
• The methods of teaching have been the result of one
philosophy or the other .
65. Philosophy and Discipline
In ancient India , the chief aim of
education , the stress was on strict
discipline , In Medieval Ages when
despotic system of government was
“ Spare the rod and spoil the child ” .
In the present age of democracy , we
insist on self government of students and
free discipline .
Different schools of philosophy also differ
in their concept of discipline
66. Philosophy and the Teacher
Teacher is the back –bone of the entire
in their process of education .
According to Pragmatists , the teacher
is not to impose anything on the pupils.
He is simply to provide opportunity to
his pupils for activity and learning.
Pupils should be inspired by his
To be a successful teacher , he must
know his subject , his pupil , the society
and the philosophy of education.
68. Indian Philosophies and Ancient
Methods of Education
• This lesson attempts to throw light on the
important features of “ Traditional Indian
School of Philosophical Thought ” and
their educational implications.
• According to Indian Schools of Philosophy
are Dharma , Artha , Kama and Moksha .
• The aim of Indian Philosophy is not
seeking the ultimate limit of knowledge
but to attain salvation from the cycle of
birth and death .
69. Traditional Indian Schools of Philosophy
The Indian Schools of Philosophy may be
classified into two – ORTHODOX and
While Orthodox Schools accept the
authority of Vedas, Heterodox Schools
reject the Vedas.
The authority of Vedas , there are two
sub-divisions namely ,
1. Directly ( accept the Vedic texts and
2. Independent Grounds( which accept
the Vedic texts but base themselves)
70. Schools of
(Accept the vedas)
ritualistic aspect of
of the Vedas
Schools based on
(Reject the vedas)
73. The term “ Veda ” means knowledge or
Veda are know as “ SRUTHI ”
Sruthi means those which are directly
heared and they are divine revelations.
Other texts and classic including
Ramayana and Mahabharata are
“ Smruthis ”.
Smruthis means those which were
remembered and passed on to
74. Basic Vedas are four in number and together
they contain 20,389 hymns
1. Rig Veda : Oldest and largest of all the four
Vedas ; Contains 10,552 hymns.
2. Yahur Veda : Collection of verses dealing with
Yagas, rituals and sacrifices.
3. Sama Veda : Divine verses blended with musical
4. Atharvana Veda : Deals with weaponery ,
medicines, allegaries etc.
75. Constituents of Vedas
• Veda consists of four parts
1. Collection of ‘Mantras’ or hymns(called
2. Brahmanas(prose texts)
3. Aranyakas and
Mantras: are verses of prayer (hymns) , directed to
different Gods. It was thought prayers towards
different Gods help to get their blessings and bliss.
76. Brahmanas: Are prose texts dealing with rituals
and yagas . Conducting yagas and yagnas are
considered as the best means of satisfying Gods .
Aranyakas : where philosophy speculation has its
beginning . And Brahmanas also called as
Aranyakas . The concluding portions of the
Aranyakas are called “Upanishads”. And the cream
of Vedic philosophy know as Upanishads.
The Three Vedic “ Cantos ” are :
i. Karma Kanda : Pertaining of codes of conduct .
ii. Upasana kanda : Pertaining to contemplation .
iii. Gnana Kanda : Pertaining to knowledge and
77. Mantras and Brahamanas form the Karma Kanda
Aranyakas belong to Upsana kanda and
Upanishads constitute the Gnana Kanda.
Upanishads : the word “ Upanishad ” means
sitting down of the disciple near the teacher in a
devote manner to receive instruction about
Higher reality which dispels all doubts and
destroys all ignorance.
The Upanishads are the sources of Indian
Philosophy. And Bhagawad Gita could be
compared to the milk extracted from Upanishad
the sacred cow.
78. Essence of Upanishads
I. Brahman : It is the ultimate source from which
everything is born and end up at finally . It is all
pervading and omnipresent.
II. Atman : It is innerself of man , called soul .
III. Brahman and Atman are complementary . The
subjective side is Atman and the objective side is
‘Brahman’ . The Brahman is the Absolute. It is
called Satchitananda – Pre existence , pure
knowledge and pure blies .
IV. Moksha takes place when the ‘Atman’ self –
discovers that it is nothing but Brahaman .
V. Those who attain salvation(Moksha) are unaffected
by joy and sorrow; freed from the cycle of births
and deaths; enjoy the eternal bliss.
79. Vedanthic Education
1. AIMS OF EDUCATION
>> The spiritual personality is the central core of the
>> In education we have to ‘Respect the individual
personality’ as the object of transformation.
>> Education should help pupils for their self-realisation .
80. 2. Curriculum
• It consisted of the learning of Vedas , Upanishads,
Siksha , Kalpa , Vyakarna , Nikratha , Chanda and
• In the later periods, study of classics like
Ramayana and Mahabaratha .
• As well as other text like Panchakavya , Artha ,
Sastra , Dharma Sastra, Smauthis , Dhanur Sastra
etc. were also include in the curriculum .
• Nature of education to be offered was left to the
discretion of the teacher.
81. 3. Gurukula System of Education
Children had to spend their student days , called
‘Brahmacharya’ at the residence of the “GURU” ,
called ‘Ashram’ or ‘Barnasalai’ which were generally
located on the outskirts of towns.
At the age 7 , after the initiation ceremony called
‘Upanayana’ was conducted.
82. • 3 kinds of people studied Gurukula Education
• They are Kshatriyas, Vaisyas and Bhramins
• Age limit for Kshatriyas – 8 yrs, Vaisyas – 11 yrs
and Bhramins - 12 yrs
• Starts with ‘Gayathri Mantram’
• No social status variation
• Duration of Gurukula Education is 12 – 16 yrs
• No specific time
• Learn Vedas (Among 4, any one), Science of
numbers, Ayur veda
• Under the tree (Education Tree)
• Vegetarian food and 2 times a day
83. • Dress code different for different people
• Self controlled, follow simple life, respect and
help guru, no punishment, no fees
• Only Guru Dhatchna
• Kshatriyas – Military Education, Vaisyas –
Commerce & trade and Bhramins – Prohit
• Teaches not only the physical development &
also spiritual development
85. METHODS OF TEACHING
Oral explanations , recitation , memorization and
demonstration were the predominant teaching –
Sanskrit was the medium of instruction.
Students used ‘Sravana’(hearing) , ‘Manana’
(Reflection) and ‘Nididyasara’ (Medidation) as
the methods to master knowledge.
Students’ knowledge and skills were testified in
‘Sadas’ where discussions and debates were held.
86. 5. TEACHER
According to Upanishad , introspection , teacher’s
‘Diksha’(Guidance), devotion to God and the teacher
are the requisites for one’s self-realization.
Guru must know Philosophy, grammar, astrology,
general knowledge, posses all subject of knowledge.
88. FAMOUS QUOTES FROM BHAGWAT GITA:
"yada yada hi dharmasya
glanir bhavati bharata
tadatmanam srjamy aham"
(Bhagwat Gita: Chapter Four verse 7)
"Sri Krishna said: Whenever and wherever
there is a decline in virtue/religious practice, O
Arjuna, and a predominant rise of irreligion—at
that time I descend Myself, i.e. I manifest
Myself as an embodied being"
89. Bhagavad Gita
This literally means the ‘The lord’s Songs’.
It is called the ‘Gospel of Humanity’.
In size , the Gita is a little book of 700 verses ,
divided into 18 chapters.
The setting of the dialogue is highly dramatic.
Shri Krishna , who is acting as his charioteer urges
him to fight for his right cause.
Krishna succeeds in persuading Arjuna who
ultimately wins the struggle.
90. Essence of GITA
The Gita is a philosophy of ‘Karma Yoga’ is the
gift Gita .
‘Nishkamaya Karma’ is the path of blending
action, devotion and knowledge .
The ultimate aim of education is the exaltation of
human personality by achieving self-realisation .
91. Merits & Demerits of Vedic Education
1. Free for all eligible leaners. Education was provides only
Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaisyas and
denied to Sudhras
2. Teaching – learning process
took place in natural
Not importance for WOMEN
3. Teachers commanded high
respect & dignity from all the
sections of the society.
Medium of instruction was
SANSKRIT and not the language of
4. Intimate relationship
between the teacher and student
Vedas were given undue importance
in the curriculum
93. • The word Jainism finds its root ‘Jina’ which means
‘Conquerer’ (Conquered the senses)
• Word ‘Jain’ has come into being from ‘Jin’
• 14 Kulkars or Manus were born
• Because of their contribution to the social factors –
• Jain literature mentions 14 Kulkars or Manus
• Nadhiray – last Kulkar
• His son Rishabh Dev – 1st Pravartak or founder
• Revealed by Jin or Tirthankar – Path Finders
• Jainism – collection of 24 such Tirthankaras
• Lord Rishabh Dev – 1st Tirthankar & Lord Mahavira – last
• Rishbhadeva – 1st, Mahavira – last Prophet (24th
94. Lord Mahavira (599-527 B.C)
• Jainism is popularly ascribed to Mahavira (599-
• Born – village Kundagram 600 BC
• Father – Siddhartha; Mother – Trishala
• Disinterested in the worldly life & Renounced
the palace, property and the family
• Undertook hard penance (Tapasya) for 12 years
• Preached religion for 30 years
• Achieved final emancipation at the age of 72
95. • Like Buddhism, Jainism also repudiates Vedic
authority, refuses to believe in God and
advocates that human life is full of miseries
• Differs from Buddhism – believes in the
existence of some immortal souls
• Supports the concept of “Brahman”
• Considered as a midway between Vedic
religion and Buddhism
97. Important Philosophical Thoughts of Jainism
• Universe – Jiva and Ajiva.
Jiva can be compared to Athman.
Ajiva could be categorized into Kala (time),
Akasa (sky), Dharma, Ahara (space) and other
• Reality is of many (Anekanthavada) and not
confined to a single entity
• Reality is unity in difference and difference in
unity Jainism emphasizes the partial views called
98. • Ignorance is the cause of bondage.
Right knowledge leads to Liberation or
‘Right Faith’ and
constitute the 3 jewels –
Tri-rathna or Three Gems of Jainism
99. • ‘Right Conduct’ implies 5 abstinences .
Non – stealing (Astaya)
Non – utterance of lies (Satya)
Not to hurt any living being (Ahimsa)
Renunciation (Bhramcharya) Saints
100. • The final aim is the full development of
personality. Individual and social aspects of
personality are equality emphasized .
• Jainism is a religion of self-help . It denies the
existence of a separate God. But considers every
liberated soul as God.
• Jainism gives total freedom of expression to
man. It states that nothing meditates between
one’s action and its results .
101. Educational Implications of Jainism
• Development of the personality (Self)
• Knowledge is relative. By knowing the different parts
one many hope to get about one, relatively
• Many sidedness of personality
• Moral aspect – Right Conduct
• The Spiritual aspect , was stressed
• Curriculum was based on the three Rathna- Right
faith , Right knowledge and Right conduct
• Mother tongue was the Medium of instruction
• Text book – ‘Prakrit’ language. 14 purvas, 12 parts -
• Debate & discussion – Methods of instruction
• Residential living of the pupils - stressed
Like Islam and Christianity which are world
religions , Buddhism , the religion founded by
Lord Buddha, who was born in India in the 6th
Century B.C is also a world religion having
followers all over the globe .
104. Lord Buddha – Founder of Buddhism
Born on Full Moon Day of May, 623 BC
Born in Lumbini at Kapilavasthu
Father – King Suddhodana
Mother – Queen Maha Maya
Named – Siddhartha and his family name Gautam
Predicted – give up wordly pleasures and follow a simple life
Saw first time – suffering, pain and death
Wife – Yashodhara; Son – Rahul
30 years – left palace
Blessed with divine light – Bodhi treee in Bodhgaya (Bihar)
Known as ‘Buddha’ or the ‘Enlightened one’
Preached 8-fold path, The four noble truth, etc.,
Died in 483 BC – 80 years - at Pabapuri
108. The Teaching of Buddha
The Four Noble Truths
i ) Suffering.
ii ) Cause of suffering.
iii ) Cessation of suffering
iv ) Leading to cessation of suffering
109. The Eightfold Path to Nirvana
1) Right Faith.
2) Right Resolve.
3) Right Speech.
4) Right Action.
5) Right Living.
6) Right Effort .
7) Right Thought.
8) Right Concentration.
110. Dependent Origination
All phenomenal things hang between ‘Reality’ and
Ignorance is bondage ; Knowledge is liberation
According to the “Theory of Momentariness” ,
everything is conditional, dependent and relative.
111. Two schools of thought of Buddhism
(Welfare of all)
112. Buddhist System Of Education
• Buddhist system of education emerged as a
protest against Vedic education.
• In Buddhist system of education no importance
was given for Vedas and rituals ; but good
conduct and simple life , sacrificing all worldly
comfort were given primary importance .
• Study of subjects – medicine, astronomy,
mathematics and languages
• Hermits (called Buddha Bikshus) living in
monasteries were the teachers .
113. PABABJA RITUAL
• Head - Shaved of all hair
• Dressed himself in yellow clothes
• Placed at the feet of the monks living in the
• Sat cross-legged on the floor to repeat the
following words three –
I take Refuge to Buddha
I take Refuge to Dharma
I take Refuge to Sangha
• Obey ten rules
• After performing this ritual, called Shramana
114. UPSAMPADA RITUAL
• At the age of 20 years – Upsampada
• Occasion – presence of ten monks
• After this, Male monks – Bhikshu;
Female monks - Bhikshuni
• Rules – living under a tree,
eating food obtained in their begging bowls,
wearing clothes begged from others and
drinking the urine of a cow as a medicine, etc.,
115. • Duration of education
Total period – 22 years; 12 yrs-pababja, 10 yrs-
• Student-teacher relationship
Father – son or paternal relationship
Mutual respect, faith and love
• Women education
Position inferior to men
Sanghamitra went to Ceylon for propogation